Kelly Ishida

University of São Paulo, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (16)31.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro activity of the antifungal agents amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (PSC), voriconazole (VRC), and terbinafine (TRB) against 32 Brazilian isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis, including 16 isolates from a recent (2011-2012) epidemic in Rio de Janeiro state, was examined. We describe and genotype new isolates and clustered them with 16 older (from 2004 or earlier) S. brasiliensis isolates by phylogenetic analysis. We tested both the yeast and the mycelium form of all isolates using broth microdilution methods based on the reference protocols M38-A2 and M27-A3 (recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). Considering minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), TRB was found to be the most active drug in vitro for both fungal forms, followed by PSC. Several isolates showed high MICs for AMB and/or ITC, which are currently used as first-line therapy for sporotrichosis. VRC displayed very low activity against S. brasiliensis isolates. The primary morphological modification observed on treated yeasts by transmission electron microscopy analysis was changes in cell wall. Our results indicate that TRB is the antifungal with the best in vitro activity against S. brasiliensis and support the use of TRB as a promising option for the treatment of cutaneous and/or lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis.
    Medical mycology. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sporothrix brasiliensis is a highly virulent member of the S. schenckii complex, which is responsible for the emergence of the epidemic sporotrichosis in southeastern Brazil over the last two decades. There are no in vivo studies on the sensitivity of S. brasiliensis to the therapeutic regimens used to treat sporotrichosis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of antifungal treatments against S. brasiliensis using a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis. In vitro, S. brasiliensis yeasts were sensitive to low concentrations of amphotericin B-deoxycholate (AMB-d) and itraconazole (ITZ), the latter having greater selectivity toward the fungus. The following treatment regimens were tested in vivo: intravenous AMB-d for 7 days post-infection (p.i.), oral ITZ for up to 30 days p.i., and AMB-d followed by ITZ (AMB-d/ITZ). AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ led to 100% survival of infected mice at the end of the 45-day experimental period. Although all treatments extended mice survival, only AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ significantly reduced fungal load in all organs, but AMB-d/ITZ led to a more consistent decrease in overall fungal burden. No treatment increased the levels of serum toxicity biomarkers. Taken together, our results indicate that AMB-d/ITZ is the best therapeutic option for controlling disseminated sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis.
    Medical mycology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that combines nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to obtain silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using aqueous extract from the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum as an alternative to chemical procedures and to evaluate its antifungal activity. SNPs production increased in a concentration-dependent way up to 1 mM silver nitrate until 30 days of reaction. Monodispersed and spherical SNPs were predominantly produced. After 60 days, it was possible to observe degenerated SNPs with in additional needle morphology. The SNPs showed a high antifungal activity against Candida and Cryptococcus , with minimum inhibitory concentration values ≤ 1.68 µg/mL for both genera. Morphological alterations of Cryptococcus neoformans treated with SNPs were observed such as disruption of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and lost of the cytoplasm content. This work revealed that SNPs can be easily produced by F. oxysporum aqueous extracts and may be a feasible, low-cost, environmentally friendly method for generating stable and uniformly sized SNPs. Finally, we have demonstrated that these SNPs are active against pathogenic fungi, such as Candida and Cryptococcus .
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 12/2012; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate miltefosine and four synthetic compounds (TCAN26, TC19, TC106 and TC117) for their in vitro inhibitory activity against Candida albicans planktonic and biofilm cells and investigate whether these compounds are able to inhibit the biofilm formation and to reduce the viability of mature C. albicans biofilm cells. METHODS: The XTT reduction assay and transmission and scanning electron microscopy were employed to determine the inhibitory effects of the test compounds in comparison with amphotericin B and fluconazole against both planktonic cells and sessile cells in biofilms. RESULTS: C. albicans planktonic cells were susceptible to miltefosine, TCAN26 and TC19, all alkylphospholipid compounds. Miltefosine and TCAN26 present a fungicidal activity with similar values of MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), ranging from 2 to 8 mg/L. Cell treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of alkylphospholipids induced several ultrastructural alterations. In relation to biofilms, miltefosine reduced formation (38%-71%) and mature biofilms viability (32%-44%), at concentrations of 64 mg/L. TCAN26 also reduced biofilm formation (24%-30%) and mature biofilm viability (15%-20%), at concentrations of 64 mg/L. Although amphotericin B reduced biofilm formation similarly to miltefosine (51%-74%), its activity was lower on mature biofilms (24%-30%). Miltefosine antibiofilm activity was significantly higher than amphotericin B, on both formation and mature biofilms (P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively). Fluconazole was the least effective compound tested. CONCLUSION: Promising antibiofilm activity was displayed by miltefosine and other alkylphosphocholine compounds, which could be considered a putative option for future treatment of candidaemia associated with biofilm formation, although further evaluation in in vivo systems is required.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 09/2012; · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungus that causes cryptococcosis. Central nervous system infection is the most common clinical presentation followed by pulmonary, skin and eye manifestations. Cryptococcosis is primarily treated with amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLC) and itraconazole (ITC). In the present work, we evaluated the in vitro effect of terbinafine (TRB), an antifungal not commonly used to treat cryptococcosis. We specifically examined the effects of TRB, either alone or in conjunction with AMB, FLC and ITC, on clinical C. neoformans isolates, including some isolates resistant to AMB and ITC. Broth microdilution assays showed that TRB was the most effective drug in vitro. Antifungal combinations demonstrated synergism of TRB with AMB, FLC and ITC. The drug concentrations used for the combination formulations were as much as 32 and 16-fold lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of FLC and AMB alone, respectively. In addition, calcofluor white staining revealed the presence of true septa in hyphae structures that were generated after drug treatment. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated several alterations in response to drug treatment, such as cell wall alterations, plasma membrane detachment, presence of several cytoplasmic vacuoles and mitochondrial swelling. Therefore, we believe that the use of TRB alone or in combination with AMB and azoles should be explored as an alternative treatment for cryptococcosis patients who do not respond to standard therapies.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 08/2012; 107(5):582-90. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fusarium species have emerged as one of the more outstanding groups of clinically important filamentous fungi, causing localized and life-threatening invasive infections with high morbidity and mortality. The ability to produce different types of hydrolytic enzymes is thought to be an important virulence mechanism of fungal pathogens and could be associated with the environment of the microorganism. Here, we have measured the production of two distinct lipolytic enzymes, phospholipase and esterase, by sixteen Fusarium isolates recovered from the hospital environment, immunocompromised patients' blood cultures, foot interdigital space scrapings from immunocompromised patients, and foot interdigital space scrapings from immunocompetent patients (4 isolates each). Fourteen of these 16 isolates were identified as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and two were identified as F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC). Some relevant genus characteristics were visualized by light and electron microscopy such as curved and multicelled macroconidia with 3 or 4 septa, microconidia, phialides, and abundant chlamydospores. All Fusarium isolates were able to produce esterase and phospholipase under the experimental conditions. However, a negative correlation was observed between these two enzymes, indicating that a Fusarium isolate with high phospholipase activity has low esterase activity and vice versa. In addition, Fusarium isolated from clinical material produced more phospholipases, while environmental strains produced more esterases. These observations may be correlated with the different types of substrates that these fungi need to degrade during their nutrition processes.
    Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 03/2012; 45(5):411-6. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a search for an antifungal substance with activity against the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum, strain POC 115 was chosen among different Paenibacillus strains for its phenotypic and genetic characterization and for preliminary characterization of its antimicrobial substance. Strain POC 115 was identified as belonging to Paenibacillus kribbensis. Physico-chemical characterization of the antimicrobial substance showed that it was not stable during heat and organic solvents treatments, but its activity was preserved at a wide range of pH and after treatment with pronase E, trypsin and DNase I. The crude concentrated supernatant of POC 115 culture was partially purified and the fraction presenting antimicrobial activity was further analyzed by UPLC/Mass Spectrometry. Two peaks were observed at 2.02 (mass 1,207 D) and 2.71 (mass 1,014 D) min in the mass chromatogram. The antimicrobial substance produced by POC 115 was correlated to iturin family compounds based on a set of primers designed for the amplification of PKS operon in the POC 115 genome. As happens with the mode of action of the antibiotics of the iturin group, the AMS produced by POC 115 caused the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane of T. rubrum and the subsequent withdraw of the intracellular material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances in P. kribbensis, and it may be of great relevance as an alternative or supplementary substance to antifungal drugs currently used against dermatophytes.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Formerly MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology) 03/2012; 28(3):953-62. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51), but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS) which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy)-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene) (WSP1267) had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a) loss of cell wall integrity, (b) detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c) accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d) presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e) significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new antifungal drugs.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 01/2011; 10:3. · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three quinuclidine-based squalene synthase (SQS) inhibitors (BPQ-OH, E5700, and ER-119884) were evaluated against five Candida tropicalis strains with different susceptibility profiles to fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), terbinafine (TRB), and amphotericin B (AMB). Although the quinuclidine derivatives were inactive against most C. tropicalis strains tested at concentrations up to 16 μg/ml, E5700 and ER-119884 showed antifungal activity against C. tropicalis ATCC 28707, a strain resistant to FLC, ITC, and AMB, with IC(50) and IC(90) values (i.e., the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the drugs determined as the lowest drug concentrations leading to a 50 and 90% of reduction in turbidity at 492 nm, respectively, after 48 h of incubation) of 1 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Analysis of free sterols showed that non-treated C. tropicalis ATCC 28707 cells contained only 14-methylated sterols and that treatment with E5700 or ER-119884 led to a marked reduction of squalene content and the complete disappearance of the endogenous sterols. The fatty acid and phospholipid profiles in C. tropicalis ATCC 28707 cells grown in the presence of E5700 and ER-119884 were also markedly altered, with a large increase in the content of linolenic acid (C18:3), associated with a reduction in the content of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Treatment of C. tropicalis ATCC 28707 with E5700 or ER-119884 IC(50) values induced several ultrastructural alterations, including a marked increase in the thickness of the cell wall and the appearance of a large number of electron-dense vacuoles. In conclusion, our results indicated that E5700 and ER-119884 inhibited the growth and altered the lipid prolife and the ultrastructure of a multiple drug-resistant C. tropicalis strain. Therefore, such compounds could act as leads for the development of new treatment options against multidrug resistant Candida species.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 01/2011; 17(4):563-70. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The widespread use of medicinal plants among the Brazilian population warrants an assessment of the potential risks associated with their intake. Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimão) is one of the most frequently used medicinal plants in Brazil, and the risks associated with its use have yet to be investigated. This study evaluated the genotoxic safety of the use of the proanthocyanidin polymer-rich fraction (F2) of stem bark of S. adstringens. The micronucleus test with 750, 1500, and 2250 mg kg(-1) of F2 administered in Mus musculus (Swiss) outbred mice, showed respectively, 5.0±0.8 (Mean±S.D.), 9.1±1.7, and 10.6±1.9 micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE). A positive control with cyclophosphamide resulted in 21.0±3.8 MNPCE. Antimutagenicity was also evaluated, by adding 750 mg kg(-1) to cyclophosphamide; the result of 8.7±1.4 showed a protective cytotoxic effect. For the Artemia salina test, 10, 100, and 1000 mg L(-1) of F2 showed, respectively, 8.7±0.6, 7.7±0.6, and 5.7±1.2 survival, i.e., F2 did not inhibit 50% of the population when compared to the control (9.7±0.6). These results indicated that F2 obtained from stem bark of S. adstringens has no genotoxic activity.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 11/2010; 58(2):330-5. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, Leguminosae, also known in Brazil as barbatimão, is rich in tannins and many flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins such as prodelphinidins and prorobinetinidins. Previous studies have demonstrated several pharmacological properties of tannins from barbatimão, including anti-candidal activity. The antifungal activity of proanthocyanidin polymeric tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens (subfraction F2.4) was evaluated against three strains of Cryptococcus neoformans with different capsule expressions, using the broth microdilution technique, light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of subfraction F2.4 on C. neoformans and melanoma mammalian cells pigmentation was also evaluated. Although susceptibility assays revealed MIC values quite similar (between 2.5 and 5.0 microg/ml), analyses of MFC values revealing that the acapsular mutant Cap 67 was more susceptible to be killed by the subfraction F2.4 (MFC = 20 microg/ml) than the two tested capsular strains (T1-444 and ATCC 28957) (MFC > 160 microg/ml). Optical and electron microscopy experiments revealed relevant alterations in cell shape and size in all strains treated with 1 and 2.5 microg/ml of subfraction F2.4. Capsule size of the capsular strains decreased drastically after subfraction F2.4 treatment. In addition, ultrastructural alterations such as cell wall disruption, cytoplasm extraction, mitochondria swelling, increase in the number of cytoplasmic vacuoles and formation of membranous structures in the cytoplasm were also observed in treated yeasts. Incubation with subfraction F2.4 also decreased C. neoformans pigmentation, however, did not interfere in melanization of B16F10 mammalian cells. Our data indicate that tannins extracted from S. adstringens interfered with growth, capsule size and pigmentation, all important virulence factors of C. neoformans, and may be considered as a putative candidate for the development of new antifungal agents.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 11/2009; 8:29. · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of inhibitors of Delta24(25)-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMTI), 20-piperidin-2-yl-5alpha-pregnan-3beta-20(R)-diol (AZA), and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol (EIL), against clinical isolates of Candida spp., analysing the ultrastructural changes. AZA and EIL were found to be potent growth inhibitors of Candida spp. isolates. The median MIC50 was 0.5 microg.ml-1 for AZA and 2 microg.ml-1 for EIL, and the MIC90 was 2 microg.ml-1 for both compounds. All strains used in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B; however, some isolates were fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant. Most of the azole-resistant isolates were Candida non-albicans (CNA) species, but several of them, such as C. guilliermondii, C. zeylanoides, and C. lipolytica, were susceptible to 24-SMTI, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Reference strain C. krusei (ATCC 6258, FLC-resistant) was consistently susceptible to AZA, although not to EIL. The fungicidal activity of 24-SMTI was particularly high against CNA isolates. Treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of AZA and EIL induced several ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the cell-wall shape and thickness, a pronounced disconnection between the cell wall and cytoplasm with an electron-lucent zone between them, mitochondrial swelling, and the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Fluorescence microscopy analyses indicated an accumulation of lipid bodies and alterations in the cell cycle of the yeasts. The selectivity of 24-SMTI for fungal cells versus mammalian cells was assessed by the sulforhodamine B viability assay. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of 24-SMT may be a novel approach to control Candida spp. infections, including those caused by azole-resistant strains.
    BMC Microbiology 05/2009; 9:74. · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Clusiaceae), known as "Pau Santo" or "Saco de Boi" in the central Brazilian plateau region, is used to treat several tropical diseases. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of dichloromethane (DcM) extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems, administered to rodents. In the acute toxicity tests, mice receiving doses of this extract by the oral and intraperitoneal routes, showed reversible effects, with LD50 values of 1503.0 and 538.8 mg/kg, respectively. In the repeated-dose oral (90 days) toxicity tests, male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with different doses of DcM extract (5, 25 or 125 mg/kg). In biochemical and haematological evaluations, the results varied widely in respect to dose and sex, with no linear profile, and did not show clinical correlations. In the histopathological examinations, the groups exhibited some changes, but there were no significant differences between the groups compared to the controls. In conclusion, these investigations appeared to indicate the safety of acute and repeated oral administration of the DcM extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems, which can therefore be continuously used with safety.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 02/2008; 115(1):131-9. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this work was to investigate the antifungal activity of a crude extract, fractions and subfractions from Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, known as 'barbatimão'. The growth inhibition by 'barbatimão' of 103 isolates of yeasts from vaginal fluid was determined using the broth microdilution method. In addition, the effect of the most active subfraction on cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), germ-tube formation, budding, ultrastructure and phagocytosis of Candida albicans was analysed. Fluconazole and nystatin were used as reference drugs. The cytotoxicity of 'barbatimão' to Vero cells, macrophages and red blood cells was assessed. The most active subfraction was characterized by mass and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Subfraction F2.4 had the best antifungal action at concentrations above 7.80 mg/L. Its action was similar to nystatin, and only slightly less effective than fluconazole. CSH and the capacity for adhering to Vero cells and a glass surface were lower in treated yeasts. In addition, the inhibition of formation of the germ tube, the increase in the number of buds and changes in the cell wall ultrastructure of C. albicans were also demonstrated. 'Barbatimão' extracts showed low cytotoxicity to Vero cells, macrophages and red blood cells. Subfraction F2.4 is composed of proanthocyanidin polymers of prodelphinidin and prorobinetinidin units and gallic acid of molecular weight 2114 Da. The antifungal action of subfraction F2.4 on C. albicans can be attributed to condensed tannins. It is considered moderate antifungal activity. These properties of 'barbatimão' on the growth of C. albicans, putative virulence factors and its low cytotoxicity justify further studies to investigate the mechanisms of action and the possible development of a new antifungal agent.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2006; 58(5):942-9. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of effective strategies for treatment of candidiasis and other fungal diseases has posed a challenge, considering the increase in opportunistic fungal infections in HIV-positive and immunocompromised patients. The in vitro antifungal activity of essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy and negative staining in light microscopy were performed to reveal the effects of the essential oil on the morphology of these yeasts. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations and time-kill curves demonstrated that the essential oil showed fungicidal activity against all of the Candida species studied. Analysis of the ultrastructure of the yeast cells revealed changes in the cell wall and in the morphology of some subcellular organelles. Bud formation in the yeasts was impaired in treated cells. The essential oil of O. gratissimum is a potential candidate as a phytotherapeutic agent in some fungal diseases and for the control of fungi in the environment.
    Research in Microbiology 10/2004; 155(7):579-86. · 2.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

93 Citations
31.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • University of São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2009–2013
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      • Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho (IBCCF)
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2006–2010
    • Universidade Estadual de Maringá
      Maringá, Paraná, Brazil