Debasish Saha

Jadavpur University, Kolkata, Bengal, India

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Publications (12)42.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Studies on cation-induced switching of luminescence and modulation of photoinduced intramolecular energy transfer have been carried out on an imidazole 4,5-dicarboxylate-bridged RuIIOsII bipyridine complex by a combined experimental and DFT/TD-DFT investigation.
    Polyhedron 01/2014; 76:55–70. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A mixed-ligand bimetallic ruthenium(II) complex of composition [(bpy)2Ru(H2PyImPhen)Ru(bpy)2](ClO4)4 (1), where H2PyImPhen = 2,6-di(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)pyridine and bpy = 2,29-bipyridine has been synthesized and characterized using standard analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of its N–H deprotonated form (2) has been determined which showed that the compound crystallized in monoclinic form with the space group P21/c. The optimized geometrical parameters for the complexes computed both in the gas phase and in solution are reported and compared with the available X-ray data. The absorption spectra, redox behavior and luminescence properties of the complexes were thoroughly investigated. Complex 1 displays strong luminescence at room temperature with lifetimes in the range of 160–500 ns (aerated condition), depending upon the nature of the solvent. The complex is found to undergo one reversible oxidation in the positive potential window and three successive quasi-reversible reductions in the negative potential window. Both the anion and cation binding properties of 1 were thoroughly investigated in acetonitrile solution using absorption, steady state and time-resolved emission spectral studies. The anion sensing studies revealed that the receptor acts as a sensor for F2, AcO2 and H2PO4 2. It is evident that in the presence of excess F2 and AcO2 ion, deprotonation of the imidazole N–H fragments of 1 occurs. Anion-induced lifetime quenching by F2 and AcO2 and enhancement by H2PO4 2, makes the receptor 1 a suitable lifetime-based sensor for selective anions. Coordination of metal ions such as Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+ to the secondary coordination sphere of 1 trigger emission quenching, while metal ions having a completely filled d orbital (such as Zn2+, Cd2+ or Hg2+) do not quench; rather some finite enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of the receptor occurs. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) study provides insight into the nature of the ground and the excited states involved in absorption and emission transitions. In particular, the changes in the absorption and emission spectral characteristics of 1 on interaction with anions and cations are also reproduced by our calculations.
    RSC Advances 07/2013; 3:17314-17334. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental results coupled with computational studies were utilized to investigate the structural and electronic properties of mixed-ligand bimetallic ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes of composition [(bpy)2M(Imdc)M(bpy)2](+) [M = Ru(II) (1) and M = Os(II) (2)], where H3Imdc = imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid and bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine. The X-ray crystal structures of both the bimetallic complexes were determined which showed that compound 1 crystallizes in monoclinic form with space group P2(1)/c, while 2 is obtained in orthorhombic form with the space group Pca2(1). The optimized geometrical parameters for the complexes computed both in the gas phase and in solution are reported and compared with the single-crystal X-ray data. The absorption spectra, redox behaviors, and luminescence properties of the complexes were thoroughly investigated. The complexes display very intense, ligand-centered absorption bands in the UV and moderately intense MLCT bands in the visible regions. While the Ru(II) complex displays moderately strong luminescence, the corresponding Os(II) complex does not luminesce at room temperature. Both the bimetallic complexes show two successive one-electron reversible metal-centered oxidations. The effect of alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal cations on the absorption and emission spectral behavior of the complexes has also been studied in detail. As compared to the luminescence intensities and the quantum yields of the free complexes, those of the complexes were enhanced substantially in the presence of selective cations showing cation-induced molecular switching behaviors. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) studies provide insight into the nature of the ground and excited states with resulting detailed assignments of the orbitals involved in absorption and emission transitions. In particular, the blue-shifts of the absorption and emission bands in the presence of cations are also reproduced by our calculations.
    Inorganic Chemistry 06/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental results coupled with computational studies were utilized to investigate the structural and electronic properties of mixed-ligand monometallic osmium(ii) complexes of composition [(bipy)(2)Os(H(2)Imdc)](+) (), the N-H deprotonated form [(bipy)(2)Os(HImdc)] (), and the COOH deprotonated form [(bipy)(2)Os(Imdc)](-) (), where H(3)Imdc = imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid and bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine. The X-ray crystal structures of [(bipy)(2)Os(H(2)Imdc)](+) () and [(bipy)(2)Os(HImdc)] () have been determined, which showed that compound crystallizes in a monoclinic form with the space group P2(1)/c, while is obtained in a triclinic form with the space group P1[combining macron]. The optimized geometrical parameters for the complexes computed both in the gas phase and in solution are reported and compared with the available X-ray data. The influence of pH on the photophysical and redox properties of the complexes has been thoroughly investigated. As compared to protonated complex (), which undergoes reversible oxidation at 0.50 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in acetonitrile, the redox potential of the fully deprotonated complex () is shifted to a much lower value, 0.16 V. The proton-coupled redox activity of (+) has been studied over the pH range 2-12 in an acetonitrile-water (3 : 2) medium. From the pH versus E(1/2) profile, the equilibrium constants of the complex species in the protonated/deprotonated forms and the metal ion in +2/+3 oxidation states have been determined. Using these values the bond dissociation free energies for the imidazole N-H and COOH bonds have also been estimated. The pK(a) values for in the +2 state have also been determined spectrophotometrically. Substantial red shifts in the MLCT bands and the large shift in the E(1/2) value to a less positive potential that occur on deprotonation are energetically correlated. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) studies provide insight into the nature of the ground and excited states, with resulting detailed assignments of the orbitals involved in the absorption and emission transitions.
    Dalton Transactions 08/2012; 41(39):12296-310. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The X-ray crystal structure of a mixed-ligand bimetallic ruthenium(II) complex of composition [(bipy)(2)Ru(H(2)Impib)Ru(bipy)(2)](ClO(4))(4) (1), where H(2)Impib = 1,3-di(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline-2-yl)benzene and bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, has been determined and showed that the compound crystallized in monoclinic form with the space group P2(1)/c. The absorption, steady state and time-resolved luminescence spectral properties of the complex were thoroughly investigated in different solvents. The compound displays strong luminescence at room temperature with lifetimes in the range of 140-470 ns, depending upon the nature of the solvent. Solvent-induced lifetime tuning makes the complex a suitable solvatochromic probe. The complex is found to undergo one simultaneous two-electron reversible oxidation in the positive potential window (0 to +1.6 V) and four quasi-reversible reductions in the negative potential window (0 to -2.2 V). Spectroelectrochemical studies have also been carried out for the bimetallic compound in the range of 300-1600 nm. With stepwise oxidation of the Ru(ii) centers replacement of MLCT bands by LMCT bands occur with the development of a broad band at λ(max) = 1260 nm, which is ascribed to inter-valence charge-transfer (IVCT) transition for the mixed-valence Ru(II)Ru(III) species. The anion sensing properties of the receptor were thoroughly investigated in acetonitrile solution using absorption, steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopic studies. The anion sensing studies revealed that the receptor acts as sensor for F(-), AcO(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-). It is evident that in the presence of excess F(-) and AcO(-) ions, deprotonation of the imidazole N-H fragments of the receptor occurs, an event which is signaled by the change of color from yellow to orange visible to the naked eye. From the absorption and emission titration studies the binding/equilibrium constants of the receptor with the anions have also been determined. Anion-induced lifetime quenching by F(-) and AcO(-) and enhancement by H(2)PO(4)(-) makes the receptor a suitable lifetime-based sensor for selective anions. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements of the compound carried out in acetonitrile have provided evidence in favor of anion-dependent electrochemical responses with F(-) and AcO(-) ions.
    Dalton Transactions 06/2012; 41(29):8886-98. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Combined experimental and DFT-TD-DFT computational studies were utilized to investigate the structural and electronic properties of mixed-ligand monometallic ruthenium(II) complexes of compositions [(bpy)(2)Ru(H(2)Imdc)](+) (1(+)), its N-H deprotonated form [(bpy)(2)Ru(HImdc)] (1), and COOH deprotonated form [(bpy)(2)Ru(Imdc)](-) (1(-)), where H(3)Imdc = imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid and bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine. The optimized geometrical parameters for the complexes computed both in the gas phase and in solution are reported and compared with the previously reported X-ray data. The influence of pH on the absorption, emission, and redox properties of [(bpy)(2)Ru(H(2)Imdc)](+) (1(+)) has been thoroughly investigated. The absorption titration data were used to determine the ground state pK values, whereas the luminescence data were utilized for the determination of excited state acid dissociation constants. The proton-coupled redox activity of 1(+) has been studied over the pH range 2-12 in acetonitrile-water (3:2). From the E(1/2) versus pH profile, the equilibrium constants of the variously deprotonated complex species in Ru(II) and Ru(III) oxidation states have been determined. As compared to the protonated complex (1(+)), which undergoes reversible oxidation at 0.96 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in acetonitrile, the redox potential of the fully deprotonated complex (1(-)) is shifted to a much lower value, viz., 0.52 V. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) study provides insight into the nature of the ground and excited states with resulting detailed assignments of the orbitals involved in absorption and emission transitions. In particular, the red-shifts of the absorption and emission bands and the cathodic shift in the oxidation potential of 1(+) compared to 1 and 1(-) are also reproduced by our calculations.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 05/2012; 116(21):5216-26. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of hetero- and homoleptic tridentate ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes of compositions [(tpy-PhCH(3))Ru(tpy-HImzphen)](ClO(4))(2) (1), [(H(2)pbbzim)Ru(tpy-HImzphen)](ClO(4))(2) (2), and [M(tpy-HImzphen)(2)](ClO(4))(2) [M = Ru(II) (3) and Os(II) (4)], where tpy-PhCH(3) = 4'-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine, H(2)pbbzim = 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)pyridine and tpy-HImzphen = 2-(4-[2,2':6',2"]terpyridine-4'-yl-phenyl)-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole, have been synthesized and characterized by using standard analytical and spectroscopic techniques. X-ray crystal structures of three complexes 2, 3, and 4 have been determined. The absorption spectra, redox behavior, and luminescence properties of the complexes have been thoroughly investigated. All of the complexes display moderately strong luminescence at room temperature with lifetimes in the range of 10-55 ns. The effect of solvents on the absorption and emission spectral behavior of the complexes has also been studied in detail. The anion sensing properties of all the complexes have been studied in solution using absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectral studies and by cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements. It has been observed that the complexes 1, 3, and 4 act as sensors for F(-)only, whereas 2 acts as sensor for F(-), AcO(-), and to some extent for H(2)PO(4)(-). It is evident that in the presence of excess of anions deprotonation of the imidazole N-H fragment(s) occurs in all cases, an event which is signaled by the development of vivid colors visible with the naked eye. The receptor-anion binding/equilibrium constants have been evaluated.
    Inorganic Chemistry 11/2011; 50(24):12586-600. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homo- and heterobimetallic complexes of composition [(bpy)(2)M(II)(H(2)Imbzim)M'(II)(bpy)(2)](ClO(4))(3)·nH(2)O, where M(II) = M'(II) = Os (1), M(II) = Ru and M'(II) = Os (2), H(3)Imbzim = 4,5-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)imidazole, and bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, have been synthesized and characterized using standard analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Both of the complexes crystallized in monoclinic form with the space group P2(1)/m for 1 and P2(1)/n for 2. The absorption spectra, redox behavior, and luminescence properties of the complexes have been thoroughly investigated. The complexes display very intense, ligand-centered absorption bands in the UV region and moderately intense metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands in the visible region. The bimetallic complexes show two successive one-electron reversible metal-centered oxidations. The strong fluorescence of free H(3)Imbzim is completely quenched in the metal complexes by energy transfer to the metal-based units, which exhibit their characteristic MLCT phosphorescence. The luminescence data of the heterometallic complex 2 show that electronic energy transfer takes place from the ruthenium center to the osmium-based component. The anion binding properties of the complexes have been studied in solutions using absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectral measurements. The metalloreceptors act as sensors for F(-) and AcO(-) ions. Sensing studies indicate the presence of two successive anion-induced deprotonation steps, leading to the formation of [(bpy)(2)M(HImbzim)M'(bpy)(2)](2+) and [(bpy)(2)M(Imbzim)M'(bpy)(2)](+) species. Double deprotonation is also observed in the presence of hydroxide. The binding affinities of different anions toward the receptors have been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry measurements carried out in acetonitrile have provided evidence in favor of anion-dependent electrochemical responses of the bimetallic metalloreceptors with F(-) and AcO(-) ions.
    Inorganic Chemistry 01/2011; 50(1):46-61. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Indian journal of chemistry 01/2011; 50A:2011.
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    ABSTRACT: A series of heteroleptic tridentate ruthenium(II) complexes of composition [(H(2)pbbzim)Ru(tpy-X)](PF(6))(2) (1-7), where H(2)pbbzim = 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)pyridine and tpy-X = 4'-substituted terpyridine ligands with X = H, p-methyl phenyl (PhCH(3)), p-bromomethylphenyl (PhCH(2)Br), p-dibromomethylphenyl (PhCHBr(2)), p-cyanomethylphenyl (PhCH(2)CN), p-triphenylphosphonium methylphenyl bromide (PhCH(2)PPh(3)Br), and 4'-phenylformyl (PhCHO) groups, has been synthesized and characterized by using standard analytical and spectroscopic techniques. These compounds were designed to increase the excited-state lifetime of ruthenium(II) bisterpyridine-type complexes. The X-ray crystal structure of a representative compound 2, which crystallized with monoclinic space group P2(1)/c, has been determined. The absorption spectra, redox behavior, and luminescence properties of the ruthenium(II) complexes have been thoroughly investigated. All of the complexes display moderately strong luminescence at room temperature with lifetimes in the range of 10-58 ns. Correlations have been obtained for the Hammett sigma(p) parameter with their MLCT emission energies, lifetimes, redox potentials, proton NMR chemical shifts, etc. The anion binding properties of all the complexes as well as the parent ligand H(2)pbbzim have been studied in acetonitrile using absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectral studies, and it has been observed that the metalloreceptors act as sensors for F(-), AcO(-), and to some extent H(2)PO(4)(-). At a relatively lower concentration of anions, a 1:1 H-bonded adduct is formed; however, in the presence of an excess of anions, stepwise deprotonation of the two benzimidazole N-H fragments occurs, an event which is signaled by the development of vivid colors visible with the naked eye. The receptor-anion binding constants have been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements carried out in acetonitrile-dimethylformamide (9:1) provided evidence in favor of anion (F(-), AcO(-)) concentration dependent electrochemical responses, enabling 1 - 7 to act as suitable electrochemical sensors for F(-) and AcO(-) ions.
    Inorganic Chemistry 06/2010; 49(11):5049-62. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mixed-ligand monometallic ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes of composition [(bipy)(2)M(H(2)Imdc)](ClO(4)), where H(3)Imdc = imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid and bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, have been synthesized and characterized using standard analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The X-ray crystal structures of the ruthenium(II) complexes, [(bipy)(2)Ru(H(2)Imdc)](ClO(4)) (1) and its corresponding N-H deprotonated form [(bipy)(2)Ru(HImdc)] (3) have been determined. Compound 1 crystallizes in monoclinic form with space group P2(1)/c while 3 is obtained in triclinic form with the space group P1. The anion binding properties of the complexes 1 and 2 have been thoroughly investigated in acetonitrile solution using absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectral measurements. Both of the metalloreceptors act as sensors for F(-), AcO(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) anions. Although at relatively lower concentration of anions, the 1 : 1 H-bonded adduct is formed, in the presence of excess of anions, deprotonation of the imidazole N-H fragment occurs and is accompanied by distinct change of colour. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements carried out in acetonitrile have provided evidence in favour of anion-dependent electrochemical responses of 1 and 2 with F(-) and AcO(-) ions.
    Dalton Transactions 05/2010; 39(17):4162-9. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mixed-ligand monometallic and bimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes of compositions [(bpy)(2)Ru(H(3)Imbzim)](ClO(4))(2) x 2 H(2)O (1) and [(bpy)(2)Ru(H(2)Imbzim)Ru(bpy)(2)](ClO(4))(3) x CH(2)Cl(2) (2), where H(3)Imbzim = 4,5-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)imidazole and bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, have been synthesized and characterized using standard analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The X-ray crystal structures of both compounds have been determined and showed that 1 crystallized in the triclinic form with space group P1 and 2 is in the monoclinic form with space group P2(1)/m. The anion binding properties of complexes 1 and 2, as well as those of the parent H(3)Imbzim, were thoroughly investigated in an acetonitrile solution using absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectral studies, which revealed that both of the metalloreceptors act as sensors for F(-), for AcO(-), and, to some extent, for H(2)PO(4)(-). At a relatively lower concentration of anions, a 1:1 hydrogen-bonded adduct was formed; however, in the presence of an excess of anions, stepwise deprotonation of the two benzimidazole NH fragments occurred, an event that was signaled by the development of vivid colors visible with the naked eye. Double deprotonation was also observed in the presence of hydroxide. Less basic anions (AcO(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-)) induce deprotonation of only one NH. The effect of solvents on the absorption and emission spectral behavior has also been studied in detail. The binding affinities of different anions toward the receptors were evaluated and showed that the binding constants of 1 and 2 are substantially enhanced relative to free H(3)Imbzim because upon coordination to the Ru(II) center(s), H(3)Imbzim/H(2)Imbzim(-) becomes electron-deficient, thereby rendering the imidazole NH protons more available for hydrogen bonding to the anions. Cyclic voltammetry studies carried out in acetonitrile provided evidence of an anion-dependent electrochemical response with F(-) and AcO(-). Anion-induced lifetime shortening makes complex 2 a suitable lifetime-based sensor for anions.
    Inorganic Chemistry 03/2010; 49(5):2334-48. · 4.59 Impact Factor