[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a class of extracellular-matrix-degrading enzymes overexpressed in many cancers and contribute to the metastatic ability of the cancer cells. We have recently demonstrated that liposomal contents can be released when triggered by the enzyme MMP-9. Herein, we report the results of our mechanistic studies of the MMP-9-triggered release of liposomal contents. We synthesized peptides containing the cleavage site for MMP-9 and conjugated them with fatty acids to prepare the corresponding lipopeptides. By employing circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, we demonstrated that the lipopeptides, when incorporated into liposomes, are demixed in the lipid bilayers and generate triple-helical structures. MMP-9 cleaves the triple-helical peptides, leading to the release of the liposomal contents. Other MMPs, which cannot hydrolyze triple-helical peptides, fail to release the contents from the liposomes. We also observed that the rate and extent of release of the liposomal contents depend on the mismatch between the acyl chains of the synthesized lipopeptide and phospholipid components of the liposomes. CD spectroscopic studies imply that the observed differences in the release reflect the ability of the liposomal membrane to anneal the defects following the enzymatic cleavage of the liposome-incorporated lipopeptides.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2008; 130(32):10633-42. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We offer a novel methodology for formulating liposomes by incorporating sequence-specific collagen-mimetic peptides such that they are specifically "uncorked" by a matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-9. By encapsulating carboxyfluorescein (as a self-quenching fluorescent dye), we demonstrate that the time-dependent release of the dye from liposomes is due to the specific enzymatic cleavage of the surface-exposed collagen-mimetic peptides. The specificity of such cleavage is attested by the fact that the liposomal "uncorking" and their content release occur only by MMP-9 and not by a general proteolytic enzyme, trypsin, despite the fact that the collagen mimetic peptides contain the trypsin cleavage site. The mechanistic details underlying the formulations of liposomes and their enzyme-selective "uncorking" and content release are discussed. Arguments are presented that such liposomes can be fine-tuned to serve as the drug delivery vehicles for the detection and treatment of various human diseases, which occur due to the overexpression of a variety of pathogenic matrix metalloproteinases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich metalloproteins which strongly bind to heavy metals, such as Cd(II), Zn(II), and Cu(I). Previous works by other group using gel electrophoresis and fluorescence showed MTs were resistant to proteolytic digestion by a variety of enzymes, raising the difficulties in proteomic identification of MTs. The present work was attempted to analyze the resistance of MTs to trypsin using LC with MS/MS (LC-MS/MS), which was able to determine the sequences of the produced peptides and thus precisely characterize the cleavages. The results showed that metal-saturated MTs were completely resistant to trypsin. This resistance problem could be overcome by the addition of EDTA to MT samples, which rendered MTs readily digested into peptides and identified by MS/MS. Interestingly, the partially metal binding MTs were digested into peptides predominantly with miss cleavages which were well dependent on the amount of heavy metals bound to MTs. An explanation for these observations was proposed. The potential applications of the MT's resistance to trypsin in isolation and identification of MTs in complex mixtures such as cultured cells was demonstrated. The preliminary data also showed the same proteomic approach of proteolytic digestion followed by MS/MS analysis may provide information on metal binding status of MTs, along with the identification of MTs in a mixture.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: trans-4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a cytotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde implicated in the pathology of multiple diseases involving oxidative damage. Oxidation of HNE by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) to trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNEA) is a major route of metabolism in many organisms. HNE exists as two enantiomers, (R)-HNE and (S)-HNE, and in intact rat brain mitochondria, (R)-HNE is enantioselectively oxidized to HNEA. In this work, we further elucidated the basis of the enantioselective oxidation of HNE by brain mitochondria. Our results showed that (R)-HNE is oxidized enantioselectively by brain mitochondrial lysates with retention of stereoconfiguration of the C4 hydroxyl group. Purified rat ALDH5A enantioselectively oxidized (R)-HNE, whereas rat ALDH2 was not enantioselective. Kinetic data using (R)-HNE, (S)-HNE, and trans-2-nonenal in combination with computer-based modeling of ALDH5A suggest that the selectivity of (R)-HNE oxidation by ALDH5A is the result of the carbonyl carbon of (R)-HNE forming a more favorable Bürgi-Duntiz angle with the active site cysteine 293. The presence of Mg2+ ions altered the enantioselectivity of ALDH5A and ALDH2. Mg2+ ions suppressed (R)-HNE oxidation by ALDH5A to a greater extent than that of (S)-HNE. However, Mg2+ ions stimulated the enantioselective oxidation of (R)-HNE by ALDH2 while suppressing (S)-HNE oxidation. These results demonstrate that enantioselective utilization of substrates, including HNE, by ALDHs is dependent upon the ALDH isozyme and the presence of Mg 2+ ions.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 07/2007; 20(6):887-95. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present paper describes a rapid method for identification and characterization of human metallothionein (MT) isoforms in complex cell cultures using high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). In the proposed method, the sample preparation of MTs from cultured cells is both simple and fast. It is accomplished by trypsin cleavage of cell proteins into small peptide species, the majority of which are subsequently removed by gel filtration using beads with an exclusion limit of 4000 Da. In contrast to most cell proteins, MTs remain intact (undigested) upon being treated with trypsin, being excluded by the gel beads and thus recovered by low-speed centrifugation. To identify the protein constitutes of the MT preparation, the MT sample is divided into two parts, one for intact protein accurate mass measurement, the other for tryptic digestion followed by MS and MS/MS analyses. In the latter case, the MT proteins are denatured by the addition of EDTA which strips heavy metals from MTs and renders them susceptible to tryptic digestion. The obtained accurate mass with the unique peptide sequences of each MT isoform allows for unambiguous identification of MT isoforms in the prepared mixture. The method has been applied to RWPE-1 cells derived from normal human prostate epithelium. Four MT isoforms, 1E, 1G, 1X, and 2A, have been confidently identified, being primarily acetylated at N-termini. These results are in agreement with the expression of MT mRNAs in RWPE-1 cells determined by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A non-competitive immunoassay based on micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection has been developed for the determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The anti-AFP antibody was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and the product was used as a fluorescent tracer, then AFP was mixed with the labeled antibody. After incubation, the immune AFP-antibody complex was separated from labeled free antibody by MECC. The parameters affecting separation such as the concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the buffer pH and separation voltage were investigated and the following conditions were selected: 20 mM tetraborate containing 100 mM SDS at pH 9.50, and 20 kV separation voltage. The detection limit of this assay was 0.1 ng/ml with a linear range spanning two orders of magnitude. This method was applied to determine AFP in human serum.
Journal of Chromatography B 12/2002; 779(2):157-62. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple, accurate, and rapid capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was developed for the determination of gastrodin in rat blood. All experiments were performed in a 47 cm (40 cm effective length) × 75 μm i.d. uncoated fused-silica capillary with UV detection at 200 nm. A running buffer composed of 50 mM sodium tetraborate, 15 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (pH=9.50) was found to be suitable. The method was linear in the range of 2.50∼200.0 μg/mL (R=0.999), and the detection limit was 0.50 μg/mL. Only a small amount of blood (about 50 μL) was required for each analysis.The recovery of gastrodin in rat blood was 91.51∼96.39%. This method was suitable for the determination of gastrodin after femoral vein injection and could be used for pharmaco-kinetic studies of this drug in rat blood.
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies - J LIQ CHROMATOGR RELAT TECHNO. 01/2002; 25(6):857-864.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four phenothiazines, promethazine, dioxypromethazine, chlorpromazine, and trifluoperazine have been separated by capillary
electrophoresis using N,N,-dimethylformamide (DMF) as separation medium with UV absorbance detection. High voltage and concentrated
buffer were used with small current and low electroosmosis. Good resolution and high column efficiency were obtained. Separation
selectivity in DMF was different from that in water because of the different solvation interactions. The influence of buffer
composition on separation selectivities and electroosmosis were also studied.