Michael D. Resnick

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (166)589.02 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ContextEvidence about long-term effects of preventive health services for youth with complex needs is lacking. Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce pregnancy risk among vulnerable adolescent females seeking clinic services.Methods In a randomized trial, 253 sexually active females aged 13–17 who were at high risk for pregnancy were assigned to the Prime Time intervention or usual clinic services. The 18-month intervention, initiated in 2007–2008, comprised regular meetings with case managers and participation in youth leadership groups. Trial participants completed surveys at baseline and 30 months. Regression analyses were used to evaluate differences between groups in sexual and psychosocial outcomes at follow-up.ResultsAt 30 months, the intervention group reported more months of consistent condom use (adjusted means, 1.8 vs. 1.1) and dual contraceptive use (0.9 vs. 0.3) in the past seven months than did controls. The intervention was most effective in promoting consistent use among participants with relatively high levels of connectedness to family or school. Fifteen percent of intervention participants, but only 6% of controls, reported having abstained from sex in the past six months (adjusted odds ratio, 2.9). Moreover, among high school graduates, those in the intervention group were more likely than those in the control group to have enrolled in college or technical school (72% vs. 37%; odds ratio, 4.5).Conclusion Health services grounded in a youth development framework can lead to reductions in sexual risk among vulnerable youth that are evident one year following conclusion of services.
    Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 03/2014; · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • Bridget K. Larson, Marla E. Eisenberg, Michael D. Resnick
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study examines whether there is variation in selected risk behavior engagement (multiple sexual partners, binge drinking, vandalism, self-harm and suicide ideation) among groups of high school students who report misusing prescription drugs. Methods: Data were taken from the Minnesota Student Survey. Participants (n = 64 997) were categorized into four groups: non-drug users; prescription-only users; prescription and marijuana (cannabis) users; and prescription and other illicit drug users. Risk behavior engagement was compared across groups using general linear modeling. Results: Significant variation in externalizing risk behaviors (number of sexual partners, binge drinking, vandalism) was found, with greater variation among females. Variation was also found for internalizing risk behaviors (self-harm and suicide ideation), though the differences between drug use groups were less drastic. Conclusions: Distinct subgroups exist among adolescents who misuse prescription drugs. Researchers should consider these differences when assessing analytic strategies; those who work directly with adolescents who misuse prescriptions should consider these differences when designing interventions.
    Journal of Substance Use 07/2013; 19(4). · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Preventing early pregnancy among vulnerable adolescents requires innovative and sustained approaches. Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce pregnancy risk among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. OBJECTIVE To evaluate sexual risk behaviors and related outcomes with a 24-month postbaseline survey, 6 months after the conclusion of the Prime Time intervention. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. SETTING Community and school-based primary care clinics. PARTICIPANTS Of 253 sexually active 13- to 17-year-old girls meeting specified risk criteria, 236 (93.3%) completed the 24-month follow-up survey. INTERVENTION Offered during an 18-month period, Prime Time includes case management and youth leadership programs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported consistency of condom, hormonal, and dual-method contraceptive use with most recent male sex partner and number of male sex partners in the past 6 months. RESULTS At 24-month follow-up, the intervention group reported significantly more consistent use of condoms, hormonal contraception, and dual-method contraception than the control group. Intervention participants also reported improvements in family connectedness and self-efficacy to refuse unwanted sex, and reductions in the perceived importance of having sex. No between-group differences were found in the number of recent male sex partners. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study contributes to what has been a dearth of evidence regarding youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful but few efforts have emphasized a dual approach of strengthening sexual and nonsexual protective factors while addressing risk. Findings suggest that health services grounded in a youth development framework can lead to long-term reductions in sexual risk among vulnerable youth.
    JAMA pediatrics. 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Life Course Perspective (LCP), or Model, is now a guiding framework in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) activities, including training, supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau. As generally applied, the LCP tends to focus on pre- through post-natal stages, infancy and early childhood, with less attention paid to adolescents as either the "maternal" or "child" elements of MCH discourse. Adolescence is a distinct developmental period with unique opportunities for the development of health, competence and capacity and not merely a transitional phase between childhood and adulthood. Adequately addressing adolescents' emergent and ongoing health needs requires well-trained and specialized professionals who recognize the unique role of this developmental period in the LCP.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 02/2013; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of studies on youth violence have focused on factors that increase the risk for youth violence. To assess whether determinants of violence operate as risk factors, direct protective factors, or both during adolescence and young adulthood. Data from participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, aged 13 years at Wave 1, were analyzed. Individual, family, school, peer, and community factors during adolescence (Wave 1 [1995]; age 13 years) were examined as predictors of violence involvement during adolescence (Wave 2 [1996]; age 14 years) and in young adulthood (Wave 3 [2001-2002]; ages 18-20 years). Twelve percent of participants aged 14 years and 8% of participants aged 18-20 years reported serious violence involvement during the past 12 months. Bivariate analyses revealed risk and direct protective factors for violence at both time points. Risk for violence at age 14 years was increased by earlier attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, low school connectedness, low grade-point average, and high peer delinquency. Direct protective factors for youth violence at age 14 years included low ADHD symptoms, low emotional distress, high educational aspirations, and high grade-point averages. Bivariate analyses showed a lower risk of violence among youth aged 18-20 years who reported low peer delinquency at age 13 years. Multiple logistic regression analyses predicting violence involvement showed direct protective effects for low ADHD symptoms and low emotional distress at age 14 years, and a direct protective effect for low peer delinquency at ages 18-20 years, after controlling for demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that violence involvement remains difficult to predict but indicate the importance of assessing both risk and direct protective factors for understanding violent behavior.
    American journal of preventive medicine 08/2012; 43(2 Suppl 1):S57-66. · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet 04/2012; 379(9826):1564-7. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A teacher's capacity to provide sexuality education may be hampered or enhanced by a number of factors. A social–ecological framework can be used to understand these influences, and the present study assesses interpersonal, organisational/institutional and community/policy level influences on teaching sexuality education. Seven focus groups were conducted in 2009 with 41 sexuality education teachers in Minnesota; discussion focused on challenges and the supports teachers experienced. At the interpersonal level, teachers reported both positive and negative interactions with parents, regarding parents as highly influential on school administrators and policy. Teachers reported many organisational level challenges, including their administrators, district policy, and structural factors such as time, financial resources, and diversity in the student body. At the community level, participants overwhelmingly felt that policy changes could be very beneficial to sexuality education in Minnesota, and believed that this support could come from all levels. Findings suggest numerous intervention points to reduce challenges and strengthen supports for teachers, and indicate that a multi-level approach is needed to increase teachers' ability to deliver sexuality education that meets their students' needs and is less onerous for the educator.
    Sex Education 01/2012; 12(3):317-329.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce pregnancy risk among adolescent girls seeking clinic service who are at high risk for pregnancy. This article examines sexual risk behaviors and hypothesized psychosocial mediators after 12 months of the Prime Time intervention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with 253 girls aged 13-17 years meeting specified risk criteria. Intervention participants were involved in Prime Time programming plus usual clinic services for 18 months, control participants received usual clinic services. The intervention used a combination of case management and peer leadership programs. Participants in this interim outcomes study completed self-report surveys at baseline and 12 months after enrollment. Surveys assessed sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial factors targeted for change by Prime Time. At the 12-month interim, the intervention group reported more consistent use of condoms, hormonal contraception, and dual contraceptive methods with their most recent partner as compared with the control group. The intervention group also reported greater stress management skills with trends toward higher levels of prosocial connectedness at school and with family. No between-group differences were noted in psychosocial measures specific to sex and contraceptive use. Preventing early pregnancy among high-risk adolescents requires multifaceted, sustained approaches. An important research focus involves testing youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful and few efforts have emphasized a dual approach of building protective factors while addressing risk. Findings suggest that youth development interventions through clinic settings hold promise in reducing pregnancy risk among high-risk youth.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 08/2011; 49(2):172-9. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to sexuality education, including a) interacting with parents, b) interacting with administration, c) addressing students’ personal concerns, d) managing sensitive information in the classroom, and e) developing and updating lesson plans. Findings suggest that Minnesota teachers often go above and beyond their usual responsibilities to provide quality sexuality education for their students, both in and out of the classroom.
    American Journal of Sexuality Education 07/2011; 6(3):247-259.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine parental perspectives toward sources of sex information. Interviews were conducted with 1605 parents. Most parents indicated that youth should receive information from their parents; however, in reality, believe they obtain most of their information from friends and the media. Nearly all parents want young people to receive information about sex from their parents.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 07/2011; 49(1):87-9. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multifaceted, sustained efforts are needed to reduce early pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among high-risk adolescents. An important area for research is testing youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful and few efforts have rigorously evaluated a dual approach of building protective factors while addressing risk. This article presents findings from a pilot study of Prime Time, a clinic-based youth development intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors among girls at risk for early pregnancy. Girls aged 13 to 17 years meeting specified risk criteria were assigned to Prime Time treatment groups. The Prime Time intervention included a combination of case management services and peer leadership groups. Participants completed self-report surveys at baseline, 12 and 18 months following enrollment. At 12 months, the intervention group reported significantly fewer sexual partners than the control group. At 18 months, the intervention group reported significantly more consistent condom use with trends toward more consistent hormonal and dual method use. Dose-response analyses suggested that relatively high levels of exposure to a youth development intervention were needed to change contraceptive use behaviors among adolescents at risk for early pregnancy. Given promising findings, further testing of the Prime Time intervention is warranted.
    Health Promotion Practice 05/2011; 13(4):462-71. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To provide a description of Prime Time, an intervention to reduce pregnancy risk behaviors among high-risk adolescent girls. Prime Time, a clinic-based, multicomponent youth development intervention aims to reduce sexual risk behaviors, violence involvement, and school disconnection. We highlight key considerations in conceptualization, design, and methods for a Prime Time randomized trial. Prime Time comes at a time of great interest in restructuring adolescent health services. This study represents an important effort to expand preventive and youth development services among young people most vulnerable to early pregnancy, for whom services must go beyond traditional problem-oriented approaches.
    American journal of health behavior 05/2011; 35(3):346-58. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Michael D Resnick
    The Lancet 03/2011; 377(9772):1128-30. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: National Health Education Standards in the U.S. focus on key concepts and skills around health issues, including sexuality. However, little is known about the extent to which classroom teachers are trained to deliver sexuality education. Purpose: The purpose is to explore pre-service training experiences and needs of sexuality educators in Minnesota. Methods: Seven focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 41 sexuality educators, and qualitative analysis was used to detect themes across groups. Results: Results indicate a wide variety of pre-service teaching experience, ranging from no instruction to extensive training. Teachers had numerous suggestions for ways their training could have better prepared them to teach sexuality education, such as ways of working with culturally diverse students. Teachers described many ways in which they were unprepared in their first year of teaching sexuality education. Discussion: Training programs to prepare sexuality educators are not adequately preparing teachers for their multifaceted role. Findings point to the need to train sexuality educators differently than teachers for other subjects. Translation to Health Education Practice: Findings indicate that pre-service training programs should greatly expand their offerings, tighten requirements and hone methodologies in sexuality education to meet the needs of today's teachers and students.
    American Journal of Health Education. 10/2010; 41(6):337-344.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the likelihood of weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people, given the presence of salient risk and protective factors. The study used data from a confidential, self-report Urban Indian Youth Health Survey with 200 forced-choice items examining risk and protective factors and social, contextual, and demographic information. Between 1995 and 1998, 569 American Indian youths, aged 9-15 years, completed surveys administered in public schools and an after-school program. Using logistic regression, probability profiles compared the likelihood of weapon-carrying, given the combinations of salient risk and protective factors. In the final models, weapon-carrying was associated significantly with one risk factor (substance use) and two protective factors (school connectedness, perceiving peers as having prosocial behavior attitudes/norms). With one risk factor and two protective factors, in various combinations in the models, the likelihood of weapon carrying ranged from 4% (with two protective factors and no risk factor in the model) to 80% of youth (with the risk factor and no protective factors in the model). Even in the presence of the risk factor, the two protective factors decreased the likelihood of weapon-carrying to 25%. This analysis highlights the importance of protective factors in comprehensive assessments and interventions for vulnerable youth. In that the risk factor and two protective factors significantly related to weapon-carrying are amenable to intervention at both individual and population-focused levels, study findings offer a guide for prioritizing strategies for decreasing weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 07/2010; 47(1):43-50. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Andrew J Barnes, Marla E Eisenberg, Michael D Resnick
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic conditions may be associated with suicide risk. This study aimed to specify the extent to which youth chronic conditions are at risk for suicidality and self-harm. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in 10- to 19-year-olds with and without chronic physical and/or mental health conditions. Independent of race, socioeconomic status, absent parent, special education status, substance use, and emotional distress, youth with co-occurring chronic physical and mental conditions (n = 4099) had significantly higher odds of self-harm (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5 [99% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-2.8), suicidal ideation (OR: 2.5 [99% CI: 2.3-2.8), and suicide attempts (OR: 3.5 [99% CI: 3.1-3.9]) than healthy peers (n = 106,967), as did those with chronic mental conditions alone (n = 8752). Youth with chronic physical conditions alone (n = 12,554) were at slightly elevated risk for all 3 outcomes. Findings were similar among male and female youth, with a risk gradient by grade. Chronic physical conditions are associated with a slightly elevated risk for self-harm, suicidal thinking, and attempted suicide; chronic mental conditions are associated with an increased risk for all 3 outcomes. Co-occurring chronic physical and mental conditions are associated with an increased risk for self-harm and suicidal ideation that is similar to the risk in chronic mental conditions and with an attempted suicide risk in excess of that predicted by the chronic mental health conditions alone. Preventive interventions for these youth should be developed and evaluated.
    PEDIATRICS 04/2010; 125(5):889-95. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    Michael D Resnick
    North Carolina medical journal 01/2010; 71(4):352-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Speculation in public discourse suggests that sexual encounters outside a committed romantic relationship may be emotionally damaging for young people, and federal abstinence education policy has required teaching that sexual activity outside of a marital relationship is likely to have harmful psychological consequences. In 2003-2004, a diverse sample of 1,311 sexually active young adults (mean age, 20.5) participating in a longitudinal study in Minnesota completed a survey including measures of sexual behavior and psychological wellbeing. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of recent casual partnerships by selected demographic and personal categories. General linear modeling was then used to compare mean levels of each psychological wellbeing measure between those reporting recent casual partners and those reporting committed partners; partner type was measured both dichotomously and categorically. One-fifth of participants reported that their most recent sex partner was a casual partner (i.e., casual acquaintance or close but nonexclusive partner). Casual partnerships were more common among men than among women (29% vs. 14%), and the proportions of male and female respondents reporting a recent casual partner differed by race or ethnicity. Scores of psychological well-being were generally consistent across sex partner categories, and no significant associations between partner type and well-being were found in adjusted analyses. Young adults who engage in casual sexual encounters do not appear to be at greater risk for harmful psychological outcomes than sexually active young adults in more committed relationships.
    Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 12/2009; 41(4):231-7. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined support for the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among a representative sample of Minnesota parents after approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Support for the vaccine was high; 87% supported its use. Although individual characteristics predicted support, support was high across subgroups with two-thirds or more of parents supporting the vaccine.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 11/2009; 45(5):525-7. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing correct and consistent condom use among sexually active adolescents continues to be a critical public health goal, with schools serving as key agents for achieving this goal through sexuality education and condom use provision. This research aims to describe the views of parents regarding school-based condom distribution and education programs, and examines how these views differ across demographic groups. Parents of school-age children in Minnesota were surveyed in telephone interviews (N = 1605; 63% participation) regarding their beliefs about condom availability and education. Chi-square tests of significance were used to detect differences in agreement with each statement for 10 demographic and personal characteristics. A majority of respondents held supportive views about condom availability and education programs. Strongest support centered on statements in the survey about teenagers needing information about condoms (86%) and showing actual condoms during classroom lessons (77%). Approximately two thirds of the parents agreed that school-based instruction about condoms should be "allowed" at the high school level (65%), and one fifth (21%) believed that this type of education should be "required." Support for condom availability and education programs differed significantly according to certain personal characteristics, with less supportive views from self-identified Born Again Christians and politically conservative parents. Public discourse regarding school-based sexuality education should include the viewpoints of parents of school-aged children as key stakeholders. Parents' perspectives provide unique and critical insights that school administrators and educators should consider as they develop educational and programmatic offerings regarding condoms.
    Journal of School Health 10/2009; 79(9):416-24; quiz 438-9. · 1.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
589.02 Total Impact Points


  • 1981–2014
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • • Department of Family Medicine and Community Health
      • • Medical School
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 1991–2012
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Adolescent Health and Medicine
      • • School of Nursing
      • • School of Public Health
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
  • 2003
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2000
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Division of Reproductive Health
      Druid Hills, GA, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1997
    • Twin Cities Spine Center
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
    • Neuropsychiatric Research Institute
      Fargo, North Dakota, United States
    • University of Missouri
      • School of Social Work
      Columbia, MO, United States
  • 1996
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1993–1995
    • University of North Dakota
      • Department of Social Work
      Grand Forks, ND, United States
    • ETR Associates
      Scotts Valley, California, United States