[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Localization of presynaptic components to synaptic sites is critical for hippocampal synapse formation. Cell adhesion-regulated signaling is important for synaptic development and function, but little is known about differentiation of the presynaptic compartment. In this study, we describe a pathway that promotes presynaptic development involving p120catenin (p120ctn), the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Fer, the protein phosphatase SHP-2, and beta-catenin. Presynaptic Fer depletion prevents localization of active zone constituents and synaptic vesicles and inhibits excitatory synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Depletion of p120ctn or SHP-2 similarly disrupts synaptic vesicle localization with active SHP-2, restoring synapse formation in the absence of Fer. Fer or SHP-2 depletion results in elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin. beta-Catenin overexpression restores normal synaptic vesicle localization in the absence of Fer or SHP-2. Our results indicate that a presynaptic signaling pathway through p120ctn, Fer, SHP-2, and beta-catenin promotes excitatory synapse development and function.
The Journal of Cell Biology 01/2009; 183(5):893-908. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200807188 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-adhesion molecules play critical roles in brain development, as well as maintaining synaptic structure, function, and plasticity. Here we have found the disruption of two genes encoding putative cell-adhesion molecules, CDH15 (cadherin superfamily) and KIRREL3 (immunoglobulin superfamily), by a chromosomal translocation t(11;16) in a female patient with intellectual disability (ID). We screened coding regions of these two genes in a cohort of patients with ID and controls and identified four nonsynonymous CDH15 variants and three nonsynonymous KIRREL3 variants that appear rare and unique to ID. These variations altered highly conserved residues and were absent in more than 600 unrelated patients with ID and 800 control individuals. Furthermore, in vivo expression studies showed that three of the CDH15 variations adversely altered its ability to mediate cell-cell adhesion. We also show that in neuronal cells, human KIRREL3 colocalizes and interacts with the synaptic scaffolding protein, CASK, recently implicated in X-linked brain malformation and ID. Taken together, our data suggest that alterations in CDH15 and KIRREL3, either alone or in combination with other factors, could play a role in phenotypic expression of ID in some patients.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 12/2008; 83(6):703-13. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.020 · 10.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binding of the secreted axon guidance cue Slit to its Robo receptor results in inactivation of the neural, calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, providing a rapid epigenetic mechanism for integrating guidance and adhesion information. This requires the formation of a multimolecular complex containing Robo, Abl tyrosine kinase and N-cadherin. Here we show that on binding of Slit to Robo, the adaptor protein Cables is recruited to Robo-associated Abl and forms a multimeric complex by binding directly to N-cadherin-associated beta-catenin. Complex formation results in Abl-mediated phosphorylation of beta-catenin on tyrosine 489, leading to a decrease in its affinity for N-cadherin, loss of N-cadherin function, and targeting of phospho-Y489-beta-catenin to the nucleus. Nuclear beta-catenin combines with the transcription factor Tcf/Lef and activates transcription. Thus, Slit-induced formation of the Robo-N-cadherin complex results in a rapid loss of cadherin-mediated adhesion and has more lasting effects on gene transcription.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Point mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of myelin protein zero (P0; the major myelin protein in the peripheral nervous system) that alter a protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) substrate motif (198HRSTK201) or alter serines 199 and/or 204 eliminate P0-mediated adhesion. Mutation in the PKCalpha substrate motif (R198S) also causes a form of inherited peripheral neuropathy (Charcot Marie Tooth disease [CMT] 1B), indicating that PKCalpha-mediated phosphorylation of P0 is important for myelination. We have now identified a 65-kD adaptor protein that links P0 with the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1). The interaction of p65 with P0 maps to residues 179-197 within the cytoplasmic tail of P0. Mutations or deletions that abolish p65 binding reduce P0 phosphorylation and adhesion, which can be rescued by the substitution of serines 199 and 204 with glutamic acid. A mutation in the p65-binding sequence G184R occurs in two families with CMT, and mutation of this residue results in the loss of both p65 binding and adhesion function.
The Journal of Cell Biology 06/2007; 177(4):707-16. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200608060 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The architecture of dendritic arbors is a defining characteristic of neurons and is established through a sequential but overlapping series of events involving process outgrowth and branching, stabilization of the global pattern, and synapse formation. To investigate the roles of cadherins and beta1-integrins in maintaining the global architecture of the arbor, we used membrane permeable peptides and transfection with dominant-negative constructs to disrupt adhesion molecule function in intact chick neural retina at a stage when the architecture of the ganglion cell (RGC) arbor is established but synapse formation is just beginning. Inactivation of beta1-integrins induces rapid dendrite retraction, with loss of dynamic terminal filopodia followed by resorption of major branches. Disruption of N-cadherin-beta-catenin interactions has no effect; however, dendrites do retract following perturbation of the juxtamembrane region of N-cadherin, which disrupts N-cadherin-mediated adhesion and initiates a beta1-integrin inactivating signal. Thus, developing RGC dendritic arbors are stabilized by beta1-integrin-dependent processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we define the mechanism through which protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is targeted to cell-matrix adhesion sites. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled PTP1B bearing the substrate-trapping mutation D181A was found in punctate structures in lamellae. The puncta co-localized with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src, and defined the distal tips of cell-matrix adhesion sites identified with paxillin and vinculin. PTP1B is largely associated with the external face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the puncta develop from ER projections over cell-matrix adhesion sites, a process dependent on microtubules. Deletion of the ER-targeting sequence resulted in cytosolic localization and altered the distribution of PTP1B at cell-matrix foci, whereas mutations disrupting interactions with Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, and the insulin and cadherin receptors had no effect. PTP1B recognizes substrates within forming adhesion foci as revealed by its preferential association with paxillin as opposed to zyxin-containing foci. Our results suggest that PTP1B targets to immature cell-matrix foci in newly forming lamellae by dynamic extensions of the ER and contributes to the maturation of these sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of stable cell-cell adhesions by type I cadherins depends on the association of their cytoplasmic domain with beta-catenin, and of beta-catenin with alpha-catenin. The binding of beta-catenin to these partners is regulated by phosphorylation of at least three critical tyrosine residues. Each of these residues is targeted by one or more specific kinases: Y142 by Fyn, Fer and cMet; Y489 by Abl; and Y654 by Src and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Developmental and physiological signals have been identified that initiate the specific phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of these residues, regulating cadherin function during neurite outgrowth, permeability of airway epithelium and synapse remodeling, and possibly initiating epithelial cell migration during development and metastasis.
Current Opinion in Cell Biology 11/2005; 17(5):459-65. DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2005.08.009 · 8.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The function of Type 1, classic cadherins depends on their association with the actin cytoskeleton, a connection mediated by alpha- and beta-catenin. The phosphorylation state of beta-catenin is crucial for its association with cadherin and thus the association of cadherin with the cytoskeleton. We now show that the phosphorylation of beta-catenin is regulated by the combined activities of the tyrosine kinase Fer and the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B. Fer phosphorylates PTP1B at tyrosine 152, regulating its binding to cadherin and the continuous dephosphorylation of beta-catenin at tyrosine 654. Fer interacts with cadherin indirectly, through p120ctn. We have mapped the interaction domains of Fer and p120ctn and peptides corresponding to these sequences release Fer from p120ctn in vitro and in live cells, resulting in loss of cadherin-associated PTP1B, an increase in the pool of tyrosine phosphorylated beta-catenin and loss of cadherin adhesion function. The effect of the peptides is lost when a beta-catenin mutant with a substitution at tyrosine 654 is introduced into cells. Thus, Fer phosphorylates PTP1B at tyrosine 152 enabling it to bind to the cytoplasmic domain of cadherin, where it maintains beta-catenin in a dephosphorylated state. Cultured fibroblasts from mouse embryos targeted with a kinase-inactivating ferD743R mutation have lost cadherin-associated PTP1B and beta-catenin, as well as localization of cadherin and beta-catenin in areas of cell-cell contacts. Expression of wild-type Fer or culture in epidermal growth factor restores the cadherin complex and localization at cell-cell contacts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Missense mutations in myelin protein zero (MPZ), an important molecule for myelin compaction, cause inherited neuropathies collectively referred to as CMT1B. Depending on the mutation, phenotypes can be severe, or mild. To determine genotype‐phenotype correlations in CMT1B we evaluated patients from 11 different families seen in our clinic and 80 reported cases from the literature with respect to (1) how the mutation affected amino acids known to be critical for homotypic MPZ interactions; (2) whether the mutation affected the charge or hydrophobicity of an amino acid; (3) whether the mutation was likely to affect the secondary or tertiary structure of the MPZ, or (4) whether it affected evolutionarily conserved amino acids. We found that mutations that added a charged residue to the extracellular domain, introduced a cysteine or altered a conserved amino acid, caused a severe neuropathy. Mutation of an amino acid critical for cis or trans homotypic adhesion, however, had no obvious consequences on disease severity. We conclude that mutations which significantly disrupt the secondary or tertiary structure of MPZ are likely to cause severe, early onset neuropathies, whereas mutations which do not cause milder disease. Studies on how mutations disrupt protein trafficking and adhesion are underway.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 06/2004; 9(2):111-112. DOI:10.1111/j.1085-9489.2004.009209y.x · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily with single extracellular, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Homotypic interactions between extracellular domains of MPZ adhere adjacent myelin wraps to each other. MPZ is also necessary for myelin compaction since mice which lack MPZ develop severe dysmyelinating neuropathies in which compaction is dramatically disrupted. MPZ mutations in humans cause the inherited demyelinating neuropathy CMT1B. Some mutations cause the severe neuropathies of infancy designated as Dejerine-Sottas disease, while others cause a 'classical' Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease Type 1B (CMT1B) phenotype with normal early milestones but development of disability during the first two decades of life. Still other mutations cause a neuropathy that presents in adults, with normal nerve conduction velocities, designated as a 'CMT2' form of CMT1B. To correlate the phenotype of patients with MPZ mutations with their genotype, we identified and evaluated 13 patients from 12 different families with eight different MPZ mutations. In addition, we re-analysed the clinical data from 64 cases of CMT1B from the literature. Contrary to our expectations, we found that most patients presented with either an early onset neuropathy with signs and symptoms prior to the onset of walking or a late onset neuropathy with signs and symptoms at around age 40 years. Only occasional patients presented with a 'classical' CMT phenotype. Correlation of specific MPZ mutations with their phenotypes demonstrated that addition of either a charged amino acid or altering a cysteine residue in the extracellular domain caused a severe early onset neuropathy. Severe neuropathy was also caused by truncation of the cytoplasmic domain or alteration of an evolutionarily conserved amino acid. Taken together, these data suggest that early onset neuropathy is caused by MPZ mutations that significantly disrupt the tertiary structure of MPZ and thus interfere with MPZ-mediated adhesion and myelin compaction. In contrast, late onset neuropathy is caused by mutations that more subtly alter myelin structure and which probably disrupt Schwann cell-axonal interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B associates with the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin and may regulate cadherin function through dephosphorylation of beta-catenin. We have now identified the domain on N-cadherin to which PTP1B binds and characterized the effect of perturbing this domain on cadherin function. Deletion constructs lacking amino acids 872-891 fail to bind PTP1B. This domain partially overlaps with the beta-catenin binding domain. To further define the relationship of these two sites, we used peptides to compete in vitro binding. A peptide representing the most NH(2)-terminal 8 amino acids of the PTP1B binding site, the region of overlap with the beta-catenin target, effectively competes for binding of beta-catenin but is much less effective in competing PTP1B, whereas two peptides representing the remaining 12 amino acids have no effect on beta-catenin binding but effectively compete for PTP1B binding. Introduction into embryonic chick retina cells of a cell-permeable peptide mimicking the 8 most COOH-terminal amino acids in the PTP1B target domain, the region most distant from the beta-catenin target site, prevents binding of PTP1B, increases the pool of free, tyrosine-phosphorylated beta-catenin, and results in loss of N-cadherin function. N-cadherin lacking this same region of the PTP1B target site does not associate with PTP1B or beta-catenin and is not efficiently expressed at the cell surface of transfected L cells. Thus, interaction of PTP1B with N-cadherin is essential for its association with beta-catenin, stable expression at the cell surface, and consequently, cadherin function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of axon trajectories requires integration of local adhesive interactions with directional information from attractive and repulsive cues. Here, we show that these two types of information are functionally integrated; activation of the transmembrane receptor Roundabout (Robo) by its ligand, the secreted repulsive guidance cue Slit, inactivates N-cadherin-mediated adhesion. Loss of N-cadherin-mediated adhesion is accompanied by tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin and its loss from the N-cadherin complex, concomitant with the formation of a supramolecular complex containing Robo, Abelson (Abl) kinase and N-cadherin. Local formation of such a receptor complex is an ideal mechanism to steer the growth cone while still allowing adhesion and growth in other directions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we demonstrated that chick embryos treated with antisense oligonucleotides against a striated muscle-specific Xin exhibit abnormal cardiac morphogenesis (Wang et al.  Development 126:1281-1294); therefore, we surmised a role for Xin in cardiac development. Herein, we examine the developmental expression of Xin through immunofluorescent staining of whole-mount mouse embryos and frozen heart sections. Xin expression is first observed within the heart tube of embryonic day 8.0 (E8.0) mice, exhibiting a peripheral localization within the cardiomyocytes. Colocalization of Xin with both beta-catenin and N-cadherin is observed throughout embryogenesis and into adulthood. Additionally, Xin is found associated with beta-catenin within the N-cadherin complex in embryonic chick hearts by coimmunoprecipitation. Xin is detected earlier than vinculin in the developing heart and colocalizes with vinculin at the intercalated disc but not at the sarcolemma within embryonic and postnatal hearts. At E10.0, Xin is also detected in the developing somites and later in the myotendon junction of skeletal muscle but not within the costameric regions of muscle. In cultured C2C12 myotubes, the Xin protein is found in many speckled and filamentous structures, coincident with tropomyosin in the stress fibers. Additionally, Xin is enriched in the regions of cell-cell contacts. These data demonstrate that Xin is one of the components at the adherens junction of cardiac muscle, and its counterpart in skeletal muscle, the myotendon junction. Furthermore, temporal and spatial expressions of Xin in relation to intercalated disc proteins and thin filament proteins suggest roles for Xin in the formation of cell-cell contacts and possibly in myofibrillogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The classic cadherins are a group of calcium dependent, homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecules that drive morphogenetic rearrangements and maintain the integrity of cell groups through the formation of adherens junctions. The formation and maintenance of cadherin-mediated adhesions is a multistep process and mechanisms have evolved to regulate each step. This suggests that functional state switching plays an important role in development. Among the many challenges ahead is to determine the developmental role that functional state switching plays in tissue morphogenesis and to define the roles of each of the several regulatory interactions that participate in switching. One correlate of the loss of cadherin-mediated adhesion, the "turn-off" of cadherin function, is the exit, or "drop-out" of cells from neural and epithelial layers and their conversion to a motile phenotype. We suggest that epithelial mesenchymal conversions may be initiated by signaling pathways that result in the loss of cadherin function. Tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin is one such mechanism. Enhanced phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on beta-catenin is almost invariably associated with loss of the cadherin-actin connection concomitant with loss of adhesive function. There are several tyrosine kinases and phosphatases that have been shown to have the potential to alter the phosphorylation state of beta-catenin and thus the function of cadherins. Our laboratory has focused on the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B in regulating the phosphorylation of beta-catenin on tyrosine residues. Our data suggest that PTP1B is crucial for maintenance of N-cadherin-mediated adhesions in embryonic neural retina cells. By using an L-cell model system constitutively expressing N-cadherin, we have worked out many of the molecular interactions essential for this regulatory interaction. Extracellular cues that bias this critical regulatory interaction toward increased phosphorylation of beta-catenin may be a critical component of many developmental events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein Zero (P0), the major structural protein in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin, acts as a homotypic adhesion molecule and is thought to mediate compaction of adjacent wraps of myelin membrane. E-Cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule, is also expressed in myelinating Schwann cells in the PNS and is involved in forming adherens junctions between adjacent loops of membrane at the paranode. To determine the relationship, if any, between P0-mediated and cadherin-mediated adhesion during myelination, we investigated the expression of E-cadherin and its binding partner, beta-catenin, in sciatic nerve of mice lacking P0 (P0(-/-)). We find that in P0(-/-) peripheral myelin neither E-cadherin nor beta-catenin are localized to paranodes, but are instead found in small puncta throughout the Schwann cell. In addition, only occasional, often rudimentary, adherens junctions are formed. Analysis of E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression during nerve development demonstrates that E-cadherin and beta-catenin are localized to the paranodal region after the onset of myelin compaction. Interestingly, axoglial junction formation is normal in P0(-/-) nerve. Taken together, these data demonstrate that P0 is necessary for the formation of adherens junctions but not axoglial junctions in myelinating Schwann cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in P0 (MPZ), the major myelin protein of the peripheral nervous system, cause the inherited demyelinating neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B. P0 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and functions as a homophilic adhesion molecule. We now show that point mutations in the cytoplasmic domain that modify a PKC target motif (RSTK) or an adjacent serine residue abolish P0 adhesion function and can cause peripheral neuropathy in humans. Consistent with these data, PKCalpha along with the PKC binding protein RACK1 are immunoprecipitated with wild-type P0, and inhibition of PKC activity abolishes P0-mediated adhesion. Point mutations in the RSTK target site that abolish adhesion do not alter the association of PKC with P0; however, deletion of a 14 amino acid region, which includes the RSTK motif, does abolish the association. Thus, the interaction of PKCalpha with the cytoplasmic domain of P0 is independent of specific target residues but is dependent on a nearby sequence. We conclude that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of specific residues within the cytoplasmic domain of P0 is necessary for P0-mediated adhesion, and alteration of this process can cause demyelinating neuropathy in humans.
The Journal of Cell Biology 11/2001; 155(3):439-46. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200107114 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of a dominant-negative, catalytically inactive form of the nonreceptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B in L-cells constitutively expressing N-cadherin results in loss of N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PTP1B interacts directly with the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin, and this association is regulated by phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in PTP1B. The following three tyrosine residues in PTP1B are potential substrates for tyrosine kinases: Tyr-66, Tyr-152, and Tyr-153. To determine the tyrosine residue(s) that are crucial for the cadherin-PTP1B interaction we used site-directed mutagenesis to create catalytically inactive PTP1B constructs bearing additional single, double, or triple mutations in which tyrosine was substituted by phenylalanine. Mutation Y152F eliminates binding to N-cadherin in vitro, whereas mutations Y66F and Y153F do not. Overexpression of the catalytically inactive PTP1B with the Y152F mutation in L-cells constitutively expressing N-cadherin has no effect on N-cadherin-mediated adhesion, and immunoprecipitation reveals that the mutant Y152F PTP1B does not associate with N-cadherin in situ. Furthermore, among cells overexpressing the Y152F mutant endogenous PTP1B associates with N-cadherin and is tyrosine-phosphorylated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), or inherited peripheral neuropathies, is one of the most frequent genetically inherited neurologic disorders, with a prevalence of approximately one in 2500 people. CMT is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, although X-linked and recessive forms of CMT also exist. Over the past several years, considerable progress has been made toward understanding the genetic causes of many of the most frequent forms of CMT, particularly those caused by mutations in Schwann cell genes inducing the demyelinating forms of CMT, also known as CMT1. Because the genetic cause of these disorders is known, it is now possible to study how mutations in genes encoding myelin proteins cause neuropathy. Identifying these mechanisms will be important both for understanding demyelination and for developing future treatments for CMT.
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 02/2001; 1(1):77-88. DOI:10.1007/s11910-001-0079-6 · 3.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-cadherin and beta1-integrin adhesion and signaling play important roles in growth cone adhesion and guidance. Each of these adhesion receptor systems is composed of multiprotein complexes, and both adhesion and downstream signaling events are regulated through the interaction of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases with many of the proteins that make up these complex systems. Work from our laboratory reported that the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is localized to adherens junctions and focal adhesion complexes and regulates both N-cadherin- and beta1-integrin-mediated adhesion. PTP1B appears to modulate integrin-mediated adhesion through regulation of src activation and cadherin-mediated adhesion through dephosphorylation of beta-catenin. We have continued these studies and report that PTP1B is localized to the tips of growing neurites and that introduction of a noncatalytic mutant of PTP1B into PC12 cells results in inhibition of N-cadherin- and beta1-integrin-mediated neurite outgrowth but is without effect on neurite outgrowth on poly-L-lysine. Moreover, suppressing the level of PTP1B in primary embryonic chick neural retina cells using antisense oligonucleotides also inhibits N-cadherin- and beta1-integrin-mediated neurite outgrowth. Neither of these techniques reduces the levels of expression of either adhesion receptor. We conclude that PTP1B is a regulatory component of the molecular complex required for both N-cadherin and beta1-integrin-mediated axon growth.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 02/2001; 63(2):143-50. DOI:10.1002/1097-4547(20010115)63:23.0.CO;2-1 · 2.59 Impact Factor