[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analysed the DJ1 gene in a large consecutive series (N=163) of Italian unrelated Early Onset Parkinson Disease (EOPD: onset ≤40 years of age) patients and 100 healthy controls (mean age 64±7ys). No homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations with an obvious pathogenic effect were found. Several variants were identified, some of which were novels. All variants had similar frequency in patients and in controls. Our data suggest that DJ1 mutations are very rare in Italian EOPD. Other genes and risk factors for PD are still to be identified.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors and the duration of disease.
One hundred and fifty patients with PD (56.7% men) were studied, measuring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF%) by impedance, fasting glucose, serum lipids, and transaminases.
In sex- and age-adjusted correlation models, duration of PD was inversely related to BMI (r = -0.20; P < 0.05) and BF% (r = -0.29; P < 0.005). Using multivariable regression models (adjustments: age, gender, smoking status, levodopa dose and, alternatively, BMI, WC, or BF%), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were positively correlated with disease duration (P < 0.01 for all). In models adjusted for WC and BF%, total HDL-cholesterol ratio was also inversely associated with duration of PD (P < 0.05 for both). No other association between biochemical variables and the duration of PD was found. Moreover, no dose-response effect of levodopa on metabolic risk factors was observed.
HDL levels and total HDL-cholesterol ratio were favorably associated with duration of PD. This factor may contribute to cardiometabolic protection in PD. The mechanisms underlying this association deserve further investigation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) refers to a compulsive pattern of dopaminergic drug misuse complicating Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, few data are available on DDS risk factors, cognitive profile and long-term outcome. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, consecutive PD outpatients fulfilling criteria for DDS were assessed over a 6-year period (2005-2011). They were compared with 70 PD cases matched for age at onset, gender and disease duration, and with 1281 subjects with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. DDS patients and matched controls underwent extensive neuropsychological assessment. Strategies for DDS patients management and the outcome at the last follow-up visit were recorded. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients with DDS were identified, reporting history of depression, family history of PD and drug abuse, greater difference between 'Off' versus 'On' motor symptoms compared to age-matched controls. They had younger age at onset (but not any gender difference) compared to general PD population. Cognitive profile of DDS did not show major abnormalities, including executive functions. DDS patients have been followed up for 3.2±2.1 years and remission was recorded in 40% of cases. Negative DDS outcome was significantly associated with poor caregiver supervision. Sustained remission occurred more commonly on clozapine and on duodenal levodopa infusion and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) than on apomorphine pump treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of risk factors predisposing to DDS. Duodenal levodopa infusion and, less consistently, STN-DBS were more commonly associated with DDS remission. Effective caregiving plays a key role in long-term behavioural outcome.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 04/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Grb10-Interacting GYF Protein-2 (GIGYF2) gene has been proposed as the Parkinson-disease (PD) gene underlying the PARK11 locus. However, association of GIGYF2 with PD has been challenged and a functional validation of GIGYF2 mutations is lacking. In this frame, we performed a mutational screening of GIGYF2 in an Italian PD cohort. Exons containing known mutations were analyzed in 552 cases and 552 controls. Thereafter, a subset of 184 familial PD cases and controls were subjected to a full coding-exon screening. These analyses identified 8 missense variations in 9 individuals (4 cases, 5 controls). Furthermore, we developed a zebrafish model of gigyf2 deficiency. Abrogation of gigyf2 function in zebrafish embryos did not lead to a drastic cell loss in diencephalic dopaminergic (DA) neuron clusters, suggesting that gigyf2 is not required for DA neuron differentiation. Notably, gigyf2 functional abrogation did not increase diencephalic DA neurons susceptibility to the PD-inducing drug MPP+. These data, together with those recently reported by other groups, suggest that GIGYF2 is unlikely to be the PARK11 gene.
Neurobiology of aging 11/2011; 32(11):1994-2005. · 5.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Levodopa is the mainstay of symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Although other treatments have been developed in the last 30 years, most patients use levodopa in view of its superior efficacy in controlling PD symptoms. Unfortunately, levodopa is associated with long-term motor complications (motor fluctuations and dyskinesias). The main causes of these undesirable effects are the narrowing of the therapeutic window with the natural progression of the disease, pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation due to the short half-life of the drug and erratic absorption. Several studies suggest that PD control could be enhanced by changing the mode of levodopa delivery so as to ensure continuous and stable supply of the drug to the brain. The objective of this text is to review the ascertained strengths and limitations of levodopa in PD, starting from its history, and propose novel modes of usage designed to cover currently unmet medical needs.
Medline literature search (from 1973 to date).
A perspective on the evolution of PD pharmacological treatment.
Levodopa still is the best treatment for PD. Truly stable and controlled formulations that ensure clinical response should be developed to reduce the undesirable effects that restrict its efficacy.
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 03/2010; 11(4):627-35. · 2.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) multiplication causes autosomal dominant Parkinson Disease (PD): triplication is associated with early-onset rapidly progressing parkinsonism with a strong likelihood of developing dementia, while duplication is associated with a less severe phenotype similar to idiopathic PD. We tested for SNCA multiplication 144 unrelated PD patients with a dominant family history. We identified one patient with SNCA duplication (0.7%). The SNCA-duplicated patient was a woman of 45 years of age with PD onset at 41 years of age. She experienced a rapidly progressive disease with early motor complications (on/off fluctuations and dyskinesias). Medical records confirmed that the proband's mother developed PD at 47 years of age and died at 63 with dementia. She experienced rapid progression in both motor and cognitive symptoms: development of dementia at 54 years of age, 7 years after onset. Although SNCA duplication is an unusual cause of familial PD testing for it is worthwhile. The clinical presentation of duplicated cases may be more aggressive than usual.
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 10/2009; 16(3):228-31. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report age-dependent penetrance estimates for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-related Parkinson's disease (PD) in a large sample of familial PD. The most frequently seen LRRK2 mutation, Gly2019Ser (G2019S), is associated with approximately 5 to 6% of familial PD cases and 1 to 2% of idiopathic cases, making it the most common known genetic cause of PD. Studies of the penetrance of LRRK2 mutations have produced a wide range of estimates, possibly due to differences in study design and recruitment, including in particular differences between samples of familial PD versus sporadic PD.
A sample, including 903 affected and 58 unaffected members from 509 families ascertained for having two or more PD-affected members, 126 randomly ascertained PD patients and 197 controls, was screened for five different LRRK2 mutations. Penetrance was estimated in families of LRRK2 carriers with consideration of the inherent bias towards increased penetrance in a familial sample.
Thirty-one out of 509 families with multiple cases of PD (6.1%) were found to have 58 LRRK2 mutation carriers (6.4%). Twenty-nine of the 31 families had G2019S mutations while two had R1441C mutations. No mutations were identified among controls or unaffected relatives of PD cases. Nine PD-affected relatives of G2019S carriers did not carry the LRRK2 mutation themselves. At the maximum observed age range of 90 to 94 years, the unbiased estimated penetrance was 67% for G2019S families, compared with a baseline PD risk of 17% seen in the non-LRRK2-related PD families.
Lifetime penetrance of LRRK2 estimated in the unascertained relatives of multiplex PD families is greater than that reported in studies of sporadically ascertained LRRK2 cases, suggesting that inherited susceptibility factors may modify the penetrance of LRRK2 mutations. In addition, the presence of nine PD phenocopies in the LRRK2 families suggests that these susceptibility factors may also increase the risk of non-LRRK2-related PD. No differences in penetrance were found between men and women, suggesting that the factors that influence penetrance for LRRK2 carriers are independent of the factors which increase PD prevalence in men.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the real number of hyperhomocysteinemic Alzheimer's patients who may benefit from homocysteine-lowering therapy.
Basal and post-methionine load homocysteine levels were assessed by rp-HPLC system.
PML test revealed twice as many hyperhomocysteinemic AD subjects with respect to the fasting analysis.
PML test resulted useful in detecting higher number of hyperhomocysteinemic AD patients who may have the chance of an early folate treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analysed the parkin gene in a large consecutive series (146) of unrelated early onset Parkinson's disease (onset ?40 years of age) patients. Twelve cases (8.2%) had homozygous or compound heterozygous point mutations and/or exon rearrangements, while a single mutation was found in four subjects (2.7%). We identified eight exon rearrangements and nine point mutations, two of which were novel: c.735delT (p.C212/X224) and c.815C>G (p.C238W). Genotype-phenotype correlation revealed that parkin carriers had features similar to those of non-carrier early onset Parkinson disease patients.
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 01/2008; 14(4):326-33. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the results of a family-based study of LRRK2 G2019S penetrance in Parkinson disease. We studied 19 families identified through the analysis of unrelated consecutive patients. The cumulative incidence of the disease was 15% at 60 years, 21% at 70 years, and 32% at 80 years. This study provides accurate estimates of G2019S penetrance by minimizing the selection bias.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analysed the Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene for the G2019S mutation in 1245 consecutive, unrelated patients with primary degenerative parkinsonism, and collected information on medical history, motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric functions to characterize the clinical phenotype associated to the G2019S mutation. The mutation was detected in heterozygous state in 19 probands (1.7%), and in five additional affected relatives. Clinical features in carriers were those of typical, idiopathic Parkinson's disease. However, behavioural abnormalities were frequent (87%), suggesting a more widespread limbic involvement in G2019S carriers.
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 11/2006; 12(7):410-9. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured striatal dopamine transporter binding using [(123)I]ioflupane and SPECT in patients with Parkinson's disease associated with the LRRK2 (PARK8) Gly2019Ser gene mutation (LRRK2-PD) and in gene-negative patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) of comparable disease duration and severity. The LRRK2-PD group consisted of a total of 10 patients (3 sporadic) with mean age 62 +/- 14 years, disease duration 9 +/- 3 years, and UPDRS III motor score 21.60 +/- 6.65. The control IPD group consisted of 15 patients with mean age 59 +/- 9 years, disease duration 9 +/- 5 years, and UPDRS III motor score 23.80 +/- 8.69. [(123)I]ioflupane-specific uptake ratios were calculated for caudate nucleus and putamen using the occipital cortex as reference region. We found no differences between the LRRK2-PD group and IPD in all items studied. In particular, putamen and caudate uptake values as well as side asymmetry indexes and putamen/caudate ratios all revealed comparable between-group values. We conclude that in these patients carrying the LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation, the neurodegenerative process results in a pattern of nigrostriatal dopaminergic dysfunction similar to that observed in IPD.
Movement Disorders 09/2006; 21(8):1144-7. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a patient with late-onset, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) who revealed two new heterozygous mutations at gene testing and showed asymmetric moderately reduced striatal dopamine transporter binding with single photon emission computed tomography, possibly due to prolonged neuroleptic treatment. These findings expand the genetic and imaging spectrum of this rare disorder.
Movement Disorders 04/2006; 21(3):417-8. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) were recently identified as the cause of PARK8 linked autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease.
To study recurrent LRRK2 mutations in a large sample of patients from Italy, including early (<50 years) and late onset familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease.
Among 629 probands, 13 (2.1%) were heterozygous carriers of the G2019S mutation. The mutation frequency was higher among familial (5.1%, 9/177) than among sporadic probands (0.9%, 4/452) (p<0.002), and highest among probands with one affected parent (8.7%, 6/69) (p<0.001). There was no difference in the frequency of the G2019S mutation in probands with early v late onset disease. Among 600 probands, one heterozygous R1441C but no R1441G or Y1699C mutations were detected. None of the four mutations was found in Italian controls. Haplotype analysis in families from five countries suggested that the G2019S mutation originated from a single ancient founder. The G2019S mutation was associated with the classical Parkinson's disease phenotype and a broad range of onset age (34 to 73 years).
G2019S is the most common genetic determinant of Parkinson's disease identified so far. It is especially frequent among cases with familial Parkinson's disease of both early and late onset, but less common among sporadic cases. These findings have important implications for diagnosis and genetic counselling in Parkinson's disease.
Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2005; 42(11):e65. · 5.70 Impact Factor