[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Canadian Hemophilia Assessment and Resource Management System (CHARMS) tracks factor concentrates (FC) from the sole suppliers, Canadian Blood Services (CBS) and Hema-Quebec (HQ), to hospitals and to patients' homes. Patients FC infusion data are entered into CHARMS at Canadian Hemophilia Treatment Centres (HTCs) then exported to the national database (CentrePoint). From 2000 to 2009, 2260 registered haemophilia A or B patients received FVIII (1 009 097 765 IU) and FIX (272 406 859 IU). Over 91% of FVIII and over 84% of FIX was infused at home. Utilization of FVIII progressively increased; this was accounted for by an increase in the number of patients treated (r = 0.97; P < 0.001), there being a linear relationship between the increase in utilization and the increase in number of patients treated (P < 0.001). There was also a correlation with the annual amount used per patient (r = 0.95; P < 0.001). Utilization of FIX did not increase over time. The highest proportional utilization of both FVIII and FIX was for prophylaxis, and this proportion progressively increased being, in year 10 (2009), 77% and 66% for FVIII and FIX respectively. The proportion used for bleeding remained steady; in year 10 that proportion was 14% for FVIII and 26% for FIX, the use per patient for bleeding decreasing. The HTC-based CHARMS tracking system is essential, in Canada, for analysing indications for infusion, for predicting utilization and planning for future needs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitor development (ID) in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe haemophilia A (FVIII ≤ 0.01 IU mL−1). All Canadian Haemophilia Treatment Centres completed a questionnaire on patients born between September 2005 and August 2010 and followed for up to 7 years. Eligible patients had at least 20 exposure days (ED) or had developed an inhibitor. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for risk factors to develop an inhibitor were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. A total of 99 haemophilia A PUPs were studied. Thirty-four (34%) developed an inhibitor (24/34 of high titre). Inhibitors developed in 25/63 (40%) patients with a high-risk mutation. ID was most frequent in Aboriginals (86%). Dose intensity (IU kg−1 day−1 X number of ED) at first exposure to factor VIII (FVIII) was associated with a crude OR increase of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.99–1.23) with each increase of 100 dose-intensity units. Haemarthrosis and intracranial bleeding as the indication for first exposure to FVIII concentrate were associated with a crude OR for ID of 7.63 (95% CI: 2.14–27.17) and 5.08 (95% CI: 1.11–23.31) respectively. ID according to FVIII concentrate used was: Advate ® 18/50 (36%), Kogenate FS® or Helixate FS® 15/36 (42%), Wilate® 0/11 and Xyntha® 1/2. In multivariate analysis, Aboriginal ethnicity (OR = 11.69; 95% CI: 1.11–122.86) and haemarthrosis (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.08–18.61) were statistically significant. The cumulative incidence of ID in severe haemophilia A PUPs was 34% and varied according to ethnicity, type of bleeding at first ED, type of FVIII product and dose intensity at first exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that a large number of both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of inhibitor development, but underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still under investigation. The clinical research on inhibitors towards factor VIII (FVIII) is challenged by the fact that this is an infrequent event occurring in a rare disease. Therefore, it is widely accepted that complementary studies involving animal models can provide important insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of this complication. In this respect, mouse models have been studied for clues to FVIII immunogenicity, natural history of immunity and for different approaches to primary and secondary tolerance induction. In the clinical setting, the type of FVIII product used and the occurrence of product switching are considered important factors which may have an influence on inhibitor development. The evaluation of data currently available in the literature does not prove unequivocally that a difference in the immunogenicity exists between particular FVIII products (e.g. recombinant vs. plasma-derived, full length vs. B-domainless). In addition, national products switches have occurred and, in this context, switching was not associated with an enhanced inhibitor risk. In contrast with severe haemophilia A, patients with moderate and mild haemophilia A receive FVIII treatment infrequently for bleeds or surgery. In this condition the inhibitor risk is low but remains present lifelong, requiring continuous vigilance, particularly after intensive FVIII exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After many reports of successful gene therapy studies in small and large animal models of haemophilia, we have, at last, seen the first signs of success in human patients. These very encouraging results have been achieved with the use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors in patients with severe haemophilia B. Following on from these initial promising studies, there are now three ongoing trials of AAV-mediated gene transfer in haemophilia B all aiming to express the factor IX gene from the liver. Nevertheless, as discussed in the first section of this article, there are still a number of significant hurdles to overcome if haemophilia B gene therapy is to become more widely available. The second section of this article deals with the challenges relating to factor VIII gene transfer. While the recent results in haemophilia B are extremely encouraging, there is, as yet, no similar data for factor VIII gene therapy. It is widely accepted that this therapeutic target will be significantly more problematic for a variety of reasons including accommodating the larger factor VIII cDNA, achieving adequate levels of transgene expression and preventing the far more frequent complication of antifactor VIII immunity. In the final section of the article, the alternative approach of lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer is discussed. While AAV-mediated approaches to transgene delivery have led the way in clinical haemophilia gene therapy, there are still a number of potential advantages of using an alternative delivery vehicle including the fact that ex vivo host cell transduction will avoid the likelihood of immune responses to the vector. Overall, these are exciting times for haemophilia gene therapy with the likelihood of further clinical successes in the near future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) is the most serious complication of therapy for haemophilia A. There is now excellent documentation that a large number of both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of FVIII inhibitor incidence. One of the environmental factors that has been proposed as an influence on this complication is the occurrence of FVIII product switching. There are only a small number of clinical studies that have addressed this question, and thus, the amount of objective information available to assess this association is limited. In this review, in addition to summarizing past evidence pertinent to this subject, we present the results of a complementary strategy, a Delphi analysis, to add to the considerations of product switching and FVIII immunogenicity. With the imminent arrival in the clinic of several new FVIII products, the haemophilia community must be prepared to collect prospectively controlled data to better address this important management issue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The investigation of inherited bleeding disorders with routine tests of hemostasis will yield clear diagnostic information in the majority of subjects with an unequivocal history of bleeding and especially in those where the phenotypic severity is severe and where an obvious family history of bleeding is present. Nevertheless, a significant minority of subjects with obvious bleeding symptoms will remain without a definite diagnosis after extensive hemostatic testing. With these facts in mind, the role of molecular testing for inherited disorders of hemostasis now includes the following: confirmation of a phenotypic diagnosis through targeted genetic analysis, the distinction of bleeding phenocopies by molecular analysis, and provision of genetic testing as the investigation of choice in situations such as prenatal diagnosis and detection of the carrier state for inherited bleeding traits. In addition, molecular testing can sometimes be used to provide supplementary knowledge that can be used to enhance clinical care. Finally, the utility of genome-wide approaches to identify novel genetic associations may provide new information to explain the cause of bleeding in the population of bleeders without established diagnoses.
International journal of laboratory hematology 06/2013; 35(3):290-296. · 1.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following the recognition of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in 1926 and the cloning of the gene for von Willebrand factor (VWF) in 1985, significant advances have been made in our fundamental knowledge of both the disease and the protein. Some of this new knowledge has also begun to impact the clinical management of VWD. First, the progressive increase in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of VWD has resulted in rational applications of molecular testing to complement the current range of phenotypic tests for VWD. These molecular genetic strategies are most effectively directed at the prenatal diagnosis of type 3 VWD and confirmatory testing for types 2B and 2N disease. In contrast, the use of molecular testing to clarify the diagnosis of type 1 VWD is of marginal benefit, at best. In terms of VWD therapies, a new recombinant VWF concentrate has recently completed successful clinical trials and is now awaiting more widespread application. There have even been some preclinical successes with VWF gene transfer although the clinical rationale for this therapeutic strategy needs careful consideration. Much more remains to be learnt about the biology of VWF and further translational advances for the enhancement of VWD care will inevitably be realized.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2013; 11(s1). · 6.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Von Willebrand's disease (VWD) patients undergoing major surgery are prophylactically treated to promote haemostasis. There is variability in perioperative clinical practice; however, most guidelines suggest replacing the deficient factor to a level of 1.0 IU mL(-1) (or 100%). A review of the literature reveals a paucity of well constructed descriptive data quantifying the changes in coagulation that occur in response to surgical stress. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes in haemostatic variables occurring in response to elective orthopaedic surgery in normal individuals. Eligible subjects >18 years of age undergoing total hip or knee replacement were recruited. Blood samples were drawn at five time points: baseline, preoperatively, 30 min after surgical incision, 30 min postoperatively, postoperative day (POD) 1. Analyses included t-tests and repeated measures anova. Overall 30 patients, 21 women and 9 men, with a mean age of 65 were included in the final analysis. All von Willebrand factor (VWF) variables were seen to significantly decrease intraoperatively and increase postoperatively. VWF multimers showed a statistically significant decrease in high molecular weight multimers intraoperatively and an increase postoperatively. On subgroup analysis, age, gender and anaesthesia type were significantly correlated with changes in VWF parameters. Data presented in the current study establish a physiological baseline for VWF parameters in the normal population and demonstrate mean VWF/factor VIII levels greater than 1.0 IU mL(-1) intraoperatively. As such, current management in VWD patients does not appear to mimic the normal physiological response to surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first meeting of international specialists in the field of von Willebrand disease (VWD) was held in the Åland islands in 1998 where Erik von Willebrand had first observed a bleeding disorder in some members of a family from Föglö and a summary of the meeting was published in 1999. The second meeting was held in 2010 and a report of the meeting was published in 2012. Topics covered included progress in understanding of VWD over the last 50 years; multimers; classification of VWD; pharmacokinetics and laboratory assays; genetics; treating the paediatric patient; prophylaxis; geriatrics; gene therapy and treatment guidelines. This third meeting held over 3 days covered the structure and function of von Willebrand factor (VWF); type 1 VWD, the most common form of the disease; a lifespan of pharmacokinetics in VWD; detecting inhibitors in VWD patients; and special challenges in understanding and treating the female VWD patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the cloning of the gene that encodes von Willebrand factor (VWF), 27 years ago, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular basis of the most common inherited bleeding disorder, von Willebrand disease (VWD). The molecular pathology of this condition represents a range of genetic mechanisms, some of which are now very well characterized, and others that are still under investigation. In general, our knowledge of the molecular basis of type 2 and 3 VWD is now well advanced, and in some instances this information is being used to enhance clinical management. In contrast, our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the most common form of VWD, type 1 disease, is still at an early stage, with preliminary evidence that this phenotype involves a complex interplay between environmental factors and the influence of genetic variability both within and outside of the VWF locus.
British Journal of Haematology 02/2013; · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Factor VIII (FVIII), a procoagulant cofactor, plays a crucial role in the intrinsic coagulation cascade. A causal association between elevated FVIII levels and venous thrombosis incidence has been established; no such association has been confirmed with arterial thrombosis. The independent role of elevated FVIII levels in arteriolar thrombosis was evaluated in a mouse model to determine the thrombogenic potential of elevated levels of FVIII. The in vitro thrombogenic effect of elevated FVIII levels was examined using thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex generation and thromboelastography (TEG) assays. The thrombogenic potential of acute and extended elevation of circulating FVIII levels was assessed using ferric chloride induced injury of the cremaster arterioles. The rate of TAT complex formation, and the final concentration of TAT complexes, significantly increased as FVIII levels were elevated from 100% to 400% FVIII activity. TEG analysis of fibrin and clot formation showed that as FVIII levels were elevated, the time to initial fibrin formation decreased and the rate of fibrin formation increased. The acute elevation of circulating FVIII to 400% FVIII activity resulted in significantly decreased times to vessel occlusion. Prolonged elevation of FVIII activity did not significantly affect time to vessel occlusion. In conclusion, acute elevations in FVIII levels result in a non-linear thrombogenic effect, with non-significant increases in thrombogenic risk within the physiological range (FVIII levels up to 200%). Prolonged elevation of plasma FVIII did not further increase the thrombogenic potential of elevated FVIII levels.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 11/2012; 109(1). · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a bleeding disorder that occurs in up to 1% of the general population. The great majority of females with VWD experience menorrhagia. The morbidity burden in females with VWD may relate to iron deficiency resulting from menorrhagia. To explore relationships between bleeding disorders, menorrhagia, iron deficiency and the outcomes of health-related quality of life (HRQL) and educational attainment. All subjects with VWD, and females with other bleeding disorders, in the Canadian national registry who were more than 12 years of age were eligible for survey. Survey measures included the HEALTH UTILITIES INDEX(®) ; abridged Clinical History Assessment Tool; socio-demographic questions and serum ferritin. Statistical analyses included testing differences among groups of means using analysis of variance and of proportions using chi-squared test. Significant size differences in mean HRQL scores were detected between VWD females and both females with other bleeding disorders [diff = (-0.08); P = 0.017] and VWD males [diff = (-0.07); P = 0.039]. Mean HRQL scores differed between females with and without menorrhagia (P < 0.001). Mean HRQL scores were not significantly different between females with and without iron deficiency. Educational attainment was not associated with disease group, menorrhagia status or iron status. Females with VWD have a greater morbidity burden than females in the general population, females with other bleeding disorders and males with VWD. Menorrhagia is associated with low HRQL scores in females with bleeding disorders, including VWD. Further investigation should assess how menorrhagia impacts HRQL in females with bleeding disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: von Willebrand's disease (VWD) is probably the most common bleeding disorder, with some studies indicating that up to 1% of the population may have the condition. Over recent years interest in VWD has fallen compared to that of haemophilia, partly the result of focus on blood-borne diseases such as HIV and hepatitis. Now the time has come to revisit VWD, and in view of this some 60 international physicians with clinical and scientific interest in VWD met over 4 days in 2010 in the Åland islands to discuss state-of-the-art issues in the disease. The Åland islands are where Erik von Willebrand had first observed a bleeding disorder in a number of members of a family from Föglö, and 2010 was also the 140th anniversary of his birth. This report summarizes the main papers presented at the symposium; topics ranged from genetics and biochemistry through to classification of VWD, pharmacokinetics and laboratory assays used in the diagnosis of the disease, inhibitors, treatment guidelines in different age groups including the elderly who often have comorbid conditions that present challenges, and prophylaxis. Other topics included managing surgeries in patients with VWD and the role of FVIII in VWF replacement, a controversial subject.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is tightly regulated by the metalloproteinase ADAMTS13, which cleaves VWF to reduce VWF multimer size and binding affinity for collagen and platelets.
This study examines two VWF mutations, R1597W (enhanced cleavage) and Y1605A-M1606A (decreased cleavage), to determine their impact on VWF, in addition to ADAMTS13-mediated cleavage. Methods: In vitro mouse ADAMTS13 digestions were performed on recombinant proteins. VWF knockout mice received hydrodynamic injections of mouse Vwf cDNA, following which VWF antigen, multimer profile and VWF propeptide levels were determined. A ferric chloride injury model of thrombosis was also evaluated.
In vitro ADAMTS13 digestion of full-length mouse VWF required > 97-fold higher ADAMTS13 levels for Y1605A/M1606A, and 68% lower ADAMTS13 levels for R1597W compared with wild type. In vivo, R1597W had reduced VWF:Ag and both mutations exhibited increased VWF propeptide/VWF:Ag ratios. R1597W multimers show a lower molecular weight profile compared with wild type and Y1605A/M1606A mice. When co-injected with Adamts13 cDNA, Y1605A/M1606A multimers were larger compared with wild type, and R1597W showed only a single multimer band and decreased clearance via VWFpp/VWF:Ag ratio. R1597W was associated with reduced thrombus formation but normal platelet accumulation in a ferric chloride injury model while Y1605A/M1606A had a loss of occlusive thrombi but increased platelet accumulation compared with wild type.
This study demonstrates that mutations that alter ADAMTS13 cleavage also can affect VWF clearance, VWF antigen level, multimer structure and thrombotic potential in the VWF knockout hydrodynamic injection model.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2012; 10(5):940-50. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Annual reporting of inhibitors to factors (FVIII) and IX (FIX) to the Canadian Haemophilia Registry has suggested a lower prevalence than that published in the literature. We performed a prospective study to determine the prevalence of patients with inhibitors directed against either FVIII or FIX. Patients with inhibitors were classified as: (i) inhibitor test positive; (ii) inhibitor test negative but on immune tolerance induction (ITI); (iii) inhibitor test negative but bypass treatment recommended; or (iv) inhibitor resolved. One year later, the cohort was re-classified. The prevalence of inhibitors on 1 May, 2007 was 3.3% for haemophilia A, 0.6% for haemophilia B and 8.9% and 2.1% for severe haemophilia A and B. One year later 17 individuals gained and 11 individuals lost inhibitor status (10 of these with ITI). This study suggests that the prevalence of inhibitors in our population is lower than that was previously published. We hypothesize that this is primarily due to the increased use of ITI, but other factors may be the unselected nature of the cohort and the restriction of the study to one date thereby conforming as close as practical to the definition of prevalence rather than incidence. The classification system used in this study was easy for clinics to apply and was important in defining the population with inhibitors.