[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a more heterogeneous population than previously thought. Extensive analysis of reconstitution kinetics after transplantation now permits new classifications of HSCs based on lineage balance. Previously unrecognized classes of HSCs, such as myeloid- and lymphoid-biased HSCs, have emerged. However, varying nomenclature has been used to describe these cells, promoting confusion in the field. To establish a common nomenclature, we propose a re-classification of short-, intermediate-, and long-term (ST, IT, and LT) HSCs defined as: ST <6 months, IT >6 months, and LT >12. We observe that myeloid-biased HSCs or α cells overlap with LT-HSCs, whereas lymphoid-biased HSCs or γ/δ cells overlap with ST-HSCs, suggesting that HSC lifespan is linked to cell differentiation. We also suggest that HSC heterogeneity prompts reconsideration of long-term (>4 months) multilineage reconstitution as the gold standard for HSC detection. In this review, we discuss relationships among ST-, IT-, and LT-HSCs relevant to stem cell heterogeneity, hierarchical organization, and differentiation pathways.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consensus holds that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to multipotent progenitors (MPPs) of reduced self-renewal potential and that MPPs eventually produce lineage-committed progenitor cells in a stepwise manner. Using a single-cell transplantation system and marker mice, we unexpectedly found myeloid-restricted progenitors with long-term repopulating activity (MyRPs), which are lineage-committed to megakaryocytes, megakaryocyte-erythroid cells, or common myeloid cells (MkRPs, MERPs, or CMRPs, respectively) in the phenotypically defined HSC compartment together with HSCs. Paired daughter cell assays combined with transplantation revealed that HSCs can give rise to HSCs via symmetric division or directly differentiate into MyRPs via asymmetric division (yielding HSC-MkRP or HSC-CMRP pairs). These myeloid bypass pathways could be essential for fast responses to ablation stress. Our results show that loss of self-renewal and stepwise progression through specific differentiation stages are not essential for lineage commitment of HSCs and suggest a revised model of hematopoietic differentiation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescent-protein transgenic mice are useful for obtaining marked somatic cells to study kinetics of development or differentiation. Fluorescence-marked hematopoietic stem cells in particular are commonly used for studying hematopoiesis. However, as far as we know, no transgenic mouse line is described in which a fluorescent protein is stably and constitutively expressed in all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes and platelets. Using the random segregation of provirus (RSP) method, we generated from retrovirally transduced mouse embryonic stem cells a transgenic mouse line expressing a red/orange fluorescent protein, Kusabira Orange (KuO). KuO transgenic mouse line cells carry only one proviral integration site and stably express KuO in all hematopoietic-lineage elements, including erythrocytes and platelets. Moreover, bone-marrow transplantation in KuO transgenic mice demonstrated normal hematopoieisis. KuO transgenic mice likely will prove useful for study of hematopoiesis that includes erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The niche microenvironment controls stem cell number, fate, and behavior. The bone marrow, intestine, and skin are organs with highly regenerative potential, and all produce a large number of mature cells daily. Here, focusing on adult stem cells in these organs, we compare the structures and cellular components of their niches and the factors they produce. We then define the niche as a functional unit for stem cell regulation. For example, the niche possibly maintains quiescence and regulates fate in stem cells. Moreover, we discuss our hypothesis that many stem cell types are regulated by both specialized and nonspecialized niches, although hematopoietic stem cells, as an exception, are regulated by a nonspecialized niche only. The specialized niche is composed of 1 or a few types of cells lying on the basement membrane in the epithelium. The nonspecialized niche is composed of various types of cells widely distributed in mesenchymal tissues. We propose that the specialized niche plays a role in local regulation of stem cells, whereas the nonspecialized niche plays a role in relatively broad regional or systemic regulation. Further work will verify this dual-niche model to understand mechanisms underlying stem cell regulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside and self-renew in the bone marrow (BM) niche. Overall, the signaling that regulates stem cell dormancy in the HSC niche remains controversial. Here we demonstrate that TGF-β type II receptor-deficient HSCs show low-level Smad activation and impaired long-term repopulating activity, underlining the critical role of TGF-β/Smad signaling in HSC maintenance. TGF-β is produced as a latent form by a variety of cells so we searched for those that express activator molecules for latent TGF-β. Non-myelinating Schwann cells in BM proved responsible for activation. These glial cells ensheathed autonomic nerves, expressed HSC niche-factor genes, and were in contact with a substantial proportion of HSCs. Autonomic-nerve denervation reduced the numbers of these active TGF-β producing cells and led to rapid loss of HSCs from BM. We propose that glial cells are components of a bone marrow niche and maintain HSC hibernation by regulating activation of latent TGF-β.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained at a very low frequency in adult bone marrow under steady-state conditions. However, it is not fully understood how homeostasis of bone marrow HSCs is maintained. We attempted to identify a key molecule involved in the regulation of HSC numbers, a factor that, in the absence of Lnk, leads to HSC expansion. Here, we demonstrate that upon stimulation with thrombopoietin, expression of Bcl-xL, an antiapoptotic protein, was highly enhanced in Lnk-deficient HSCs compared to normal HSCs. As a result, Lnk-deficient HSCs underwent reduced apoptosis following exposure to lethal radiation. Downregulation of Bcl-xL expression in Lnk-deficient HSCs by short-hairpin RNA resulted in a great reduction of their capacity for reconstitution. These findings suggest that Lnk/Sh2b3 constrains the expression of Bcl-xL and that the loss of Lnk/Sh2b3 function enhances survival of HSCs by inhibiting apoptosis. Furthermore, our observations indicate that HSCs in patients with an Lnk/Sh2b3 mutation might become resistant to apoptosis due to thrombopoietin-mediated enhanced expression of Bcl-xL. Consequently, reduced apoptosis could facilitate accumulation of HSCs with oncogenic mutations leading to development of myeloproliferative disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in both bone marrow (BM) and spleen in adult mice. However, whether BM and spleen HSCs are functionally similar is not known. Spleen HSCs were compared with BM HSCs by various assays.
Whole BM and spleen cells were quantitatively analyzed by competitive repopulation. Single-cell transplantation was performed with HSCs purified from BM and spleen. A parabiosis model was used to distinguish organ-specific HSCs from circulating HSCs. The cell cycle was analyzed with pyronin Y staining and bromodeoxyuridine uptake.
Repopulating and self-renewal potentials were similar on a clonal basis between BM and spleen HSCs, whereas the HSC frequency in the spleen was significantly lower than that in the BM. Analysis of parabiotic mice suggested that most HSCs are long-term residents in each organ. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that spleen HSCs cycle twice as frequently as do BM HSCs, suggesting that G(0) phase length is longer in BM HSCs than in spleen HSCs. The cycling difference between BM and spleen HSCs was also observed in mice that had been reconstituted with BM or spleen cells, suggesting that HSC quiescence is regulated in an organ-specific manner.
Spleen HSCs and BM HSCs are functionally similar, but their cycling behaviors differ.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS), a rare hematological malignancy, is an aggressive neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. The molecular etiology and pathology of this disease remain unclear, hampering the development of an effective therapy, and there remains a need for more, and more realistic, animal models. HS cells typically show a histiocytic (ie, tissue macrophage-like) morphology and express histiocyte/macrophage markers in the absence of lymphocyte markers. In this study, we report that Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-)Dok-3(-/-) mice develop HS, but do not exhibit elevated incidence of other types of tumors. These mutant mice showed earlier mortality than wild-type (WT) or the other mutant mice, and this mortality was associated with HS. In total, 17 of 21 tumor-bearing Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-)Dok-3(-/-) mice necropsied at 25-66 weeks of age showed multiple organ spread, with osteolytic lesions and orthotopic invasion from the bone marrow to skeletal muscle. Tumors from the mice were transplantable. In addition, all Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-)Dok-3(-/-) mice, but only a small proportion of Dok-3(-/-) mice and no Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-) mice, exhibited abnormal accumulation of macrophages in the lung on necropsy at 8-12 weeks of age. Macrophages derived from Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-)Dok-3(-/-) mice displayed an exaggerated proliferative response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) compared with WT and mutant controls. Together, these findings indicate that Dok-1, Dok-2, and Dok-3 cooperatively suppress aggressive HS, and commend Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-)Dok-3(-/-) mice as a useful model for the study of this neoplasia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been extensively characterized based on functional definitions determined by experimental transplantation into lethally irradiated mice. In mice, HSCs are heterogeneous with regard to self-renewal potential, in vitro colony-forming activity, and in vivo behavior. We attempted prospective isolation of HSC subsets with distinct properties among CD34(-/low) c-Kit+Sca-1+Lin- (CD34-KSL) cells. CD34-KSL cells were divided, based on CD150 expression, into three fractions: CD150high, CD150med, and CD150neg cells. Compared with the other two fractions, CD150high cells were significantly enriched in HSCs, with great self-renewal potential. In vitro colony assays revealed that decreased expression of CD150 was associated with reduced erythroblast/megakaryocyte differentiation potential. All three fractions were regenerated only from CD150high cells in recipient mice. Using single-cell transplantation studies, we found that a fraction of CD150high cells displayed latent and barely detectable myeloid engraftment in primary-recipient mice but progressive and multilineage reconstitution in secondary-recipient mice. These findings highlight the complexity and hierarchy of reconstitution capability, even among HSCs in the most primitive compartment.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/2010; 207(6):1173-82. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generally uses fibroblastic cells, but other cell sources may prove useful in both research and clinical settings. Although proof of cellular origin requires genetic-marker identification in both target cells and established iPSCs, somatic cells other than mature lymphocytes mostly lack such markers. Here we show definitive proof of direct reprogramming of murine hematopoietic cells with no rearranged genes. Using iPSC factor transduction, we successfully derived iPSCs from bone marrow progenitor cells obtained from a mouse whose hematopoiesis was reconstituted from a single congenic hematopoietic stem cell. Established clones were demonstrated to be genetically identical to the transplanted single hematopoietic stem cell, thus proving their cellular origin. These hematopoietic cell-derived iPSCs showed typical characteristics of iPSCs, including the ability to contribute to chimerism in mice. These results will prompt further use of hematopoietic cells for iPSC generation while enabling definitive studies to test how cellular sources influence characteristics of descendant iPSCs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Rho GTPase family members play essential roles in hematopoiesis. Of these, Rac1 is thought to be required for the appropriate spatial localization of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPCs) within the bone marrow (BM), whereas Rac2 likely plays a role in BM retention of HSPCs. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying Rac-mediated functions in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we studied Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous proteins (WAVEs), the specific effectors downstream of the Rac GTPases in actin polymerization. We here showed that CD34(-/low)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)lineage(-) HSCs (CD34(-)KSL HSCs) express WAVE2 but neither WAVE1 nor WAVE3. Because WAVE2 knockout mice are embryonic-lethal, we utilized HSCs in which the expression of WAVE2 was reduced by small interfering RNA. We found that knockdown (KD) of WAVE2 in HSCs affected neither in vitro colony formation nor cell proliferation but did impair in vivo long-term reconstitution. Interestingly, WAVE2 KD HSCs exhibited unaltered homing but showed poor BM repopulation detected as early as day 5 after transplantation. The mechanistic studies on WAVE2 KD HSCs revealed modest but significant impairment in both cobblestone-like area-forming on stromal layers and actin polymerization upon integrin ligation by fibronectin. These results suggested that WAVE2-mediated actin polymerization, potentially downstream of Rac1, plays an important role in intramarrow mobilization and proliferation of HSCs, which are believed to be crucial steps for long-term marrow reconstitution after transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular ontogeny of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains poorly understood because their isolation from and their identification in early developing small embryos are difficult. We attempted to dissect early developmental stages of HSCs using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation system combined with inducible HOXB4 expression. Here we report the identification of pre-HSCs and an embryonic type of HSCs (embryonic HSCs) as intermediate cells between ESCs and HSCs. Both pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs were isolated by their c-Kit(+)CD41(+)CD45(-) phenotype. Pre-HSCs did not engraft in irradiated adult mice. After co-culture with OP9 stromal cells and conditional expression of HOXB4, pre-HSCs gave rise to embryonic HSCs capable of engraftment and long-term reconstitution in irradiated adult mice. Blast colony assays revealed that most hemangioblast activity was detected apart from the pre-HSC population, implying the early divergence of pre-HSCs from hemangioblasts. Gene expression profiling suggests that a particular set of transcripts closely associated with adult HSCs is involved in the transition of pre-HSC to embryonic HSCs. We propose an HSC developmental model in which pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs sequentially give rise to adult types of HSCs in a stepwise manner.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(3):e4820. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in a bone marrow niche in a nondividing state from which they occasionally are aroused to undergo cell division. Yet, the mechanism underlying this unique feature remains largely unknown. We have recently shown that freshly isolated CD34-KSL hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in a hibernation state exhibit inhibited lipid raft clustering. Lipid raft clustering induced by cytokines is essential for HSCs to augment cytokine signals to the level enough to re-enter the cell cycle. Here we screened candidate niche signals that inhibit lipid raft clustering, and identified that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) efficiently inhibits cytokine-mediated lipid raft clustering and induces HSC hibernation ex vivo. Smad2 and Smad3, the signaling molecules directly downstream from and activated by TGF-beta receptors were specifically activated in CD34-KSL HSCs in a hibernation state, but not in cycling CD34+KSL progenitors. These data uncover a critical role for TGF-beta as a candidate niche signal in the control of HSC hibernation and provide TGF-beta as a novel tool for ex vivo modeling of the HSC niche.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can supply all blood cells throughout the adult life of individuals. Based on this property, HSCs have been used for bone marrow and cord blood transplantation. Among various stem cells, HSCs were recognized earliest and were studied most extensively, providing a model for other stem cells. Knowledge of HSC regulation has rapidly accumulated of late. Contributions of scientists in Japan to progress HSC biology are here briefly overviewed. Focusing on the original work accomplished in Japan in the last two decades, people who have led such activities are introduced and their relationships with one another are sketched.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 07/2008; 363(1500):2089-97. · 6.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are complex phenomena that involve the interplay of several growth factors and receptors. Recently, we have demonstrated that in Keratin-14 (K14) promoter-driven Vegf-A transgenic (Tg) mice, not only angiogenesis but also lymphangiogenesis is stimulated. However, the mechanism by which VEGFR1 is involved in lymphangiogenesis remains unclear.
To examine how important the tyrosine kinase (TK) of VEGFR1 is in lymphangiogenesis in K14 Vegf-A Tg mice, we crossed the K14 Vegf-A Tg mice with VEGFR1-TK-deficient mice to generate double mutant K14 Vegf-A Tg Vegfr1 tk(-/-) mice. K14 Vegf-A Tg Vegfr1 tk(-/-) mice exhibit a remarkable decrease in lymphangiogensis as well as angiogenesis in subcutaneous tissues. To address the mechanism underlying the decrease in lymphangiogensis, we investigated the recruitment of monocyte-macrophage-lineage cells into the skin. The recruitment of VEGFR1-expressing macrophages driven by VEGF-A was reduced in K14 Vegf-A Tg Vegfr1 tk(-/-) mice. Vegf-A Tg mice that received VEGFR1-TK-deficient bone marrow showed a reduction of macrophage recruitment, lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis compared with those in K14 Vegf-A Tg mice.
VEGFR1 signaling promotes lymphangiogenesis as well as angiogenesis mainly by increasing bone marrow-derived macrophage recruitment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-27, one of the most recently discovered IL-6 family cytokines, activates both the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 and STAT3, and plays multiple roles in pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses. IL-27 acts on various types of cells including T, B, and macrophage through the common signal-transducing receptor gp130 and its specific receptor WSX-1, but the effect of IL-27 on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains unknown. Here, we show that IL-27 together with stem cell factor (SCF) directly acts on HSCs and supports their early differentiation in vitro and in vivo. CD34(-/low)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)lineage marker(-) (CD34(-)KSL) cells, a population highly enriched in mouse HSCs, were found to express both IL-27 receptor subunits. In vitro cultures of CD34(-)KSL cells with IL-27 and SCF resulted in an expansion of progenitors including short-term repopulating cells, while some of their long-term repopulating activity also was maintained. To examine its in vivo effect, transgenic mice expressing IL-27 were generated. These mice exhibited enhanced myelopoiesis and impaired B lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow with extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Moreover, IL-27 similarly acted on human CD34(+) cells. These results suggest that IL-27 is one of the limited cytokines that play a role in HSC regulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) niche in a noncycling state and enter the cell cycle at long intervals. This unique property of HSCs is reminiscent of hibernation in mammals. However, little is known about inter- and intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying this unique property of HSCs. This is largely due to the paucity of HSCs making application of traditional signal transduction assays difficult. To address these issues, we have developed a novel assay based on in-droplet single-cell staining and quantitative fluorescence imaging analysis. Using this assay system, we demonstrate that freshly isolated HSCs from the BM niche lack lipid raft clustering, exhibit repression of the AKT-FOXO signaling pathway, and express abundant p57(Kip2) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Lipid raft clustering induced by cytokines was essential for HSC re-entry into the cell cycle. Conversely, inhibition of lipid raft clustering caused sustained nuclear accumulation of FOXO transcription factors and induced HSC hibernation ex vivo. Among niche signals examined, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) efficiently inhibited lipid raft clustering and induced p57(Kip2) expression, leading to HSC hibernation. These data uncover a critical role for lipid rafts in HSC fate decision and establish the role of TGF-beta as a niche signal in control of HSC hibernation in the BM niche.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 07/2007; 1106:54-63. · 4.38 Impact Factor