Katsuo Kamata

Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (198)477.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: AIM: Pre-menopausal women have less cardiovascular disease and lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than men the same age. Previously, we noted in mice that G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) negatively regulates the Akt/eNOS pathway in male diabetic aortas and that endothelial function via the Akt/eNOS pathway is less affected in female diabetic aortas. The cellular mechanisms underlying these sex differences remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the ways in which GRK2 might modulate vascular functions in male and female diabetic mice (DM). METHODS: Vascular functions were examined in aortic rings. GRK2, β-arrestin 2 and Akt/eNOS-signalling-pathway protein levels and activities were assayed by Western blotting. RESULTS: Phenylephrine-induced contraction was greater, while both clonidine-induced and insulin-induced relaxations were weaker (vs. male controls), in aortas from male type 2 DM, suggesting impairments of the Akt/eNOS pathway and α-adrenoceptor function. GRK2-inhibitor reversed only the impairment in Akt/eNOS-pathway-mediated relaxation in male DM. Increases in GRK2 activity, GRK2 expression in the membrane, plasma Ang II and systolic blood pressure were seen in male DM (vs. male controls) but not in female DM; these increases were attenuated by GRK2-inhibitor treatment. Repeatedly obtaining clonidine concentration-response curves led to reduced relaxation in male and in female DM aortas, indicating similar desensitization between female DM and male DM. This effect was reversed by GRK2-inhibitor in both sexes. CONCLUSION: GRK2 plays a key role in modulating the aortic vasodilator effect of clonidine by selectively affecting the Akt/eNOS pathway. This action of GRK2 is more powerful in male than in female DM.
    Acta Physiologica 08/2012; DOI:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2012.02473.x
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelin (ET)-1 is a likely candidate for a key role in diabetic vascular complications. In the present study, we hypothesized that treatment with pravastatin (an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) would normalize the ET-1-induced contraction in aortas isolated from type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. Contractile responses were examined by measuring isometric force in endothelium-denuded aortic helical strips from four groups: Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; genetic control), OLETF (type 2 diabetic), pravastatin-treated LETO, and pravastatin-treated OLETF rats. Both immunoblot analysis and immunoprecipitation assays were used to examine Src, protein phosphatase (PP)2A, kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR)1, and ERK signaling pathway protein levels and activities. In endothelium-denuded aortas isolated from OLETF rats at the chronic stage of diabetes (56-60 wk) (vs. those from age-matched LETO rats), we found the following: 1) ET-1-induced contraction was enhanced, 2) ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased, 3) phosphorylations of KSR1 and PP2A were reduced (i.e., enhancement of the kinase active state), 4) ERK1/2-KSR1 complexes were increased, and 5) Src tyrosine kinase activity was diminished. Endothelium-denuded aortas isolated from OLETF rats treated with pravastatin (10 mg/kg po, daily for 4 wk) exhibited normalized ET-1-induced contractions and suppressed ET-1-stimulated ERK phosphorylation, with the associated phosphorylated KSR1 and phosphorylated PP2A levels being increased toward normal levels. These results suggest that in type 2 diabetic rats, pravastatin normalizes ET-1-induced contraction in aortic smooth muscle via a suppression of PP2A/KSR1/ERK activities after an enhancement of Src kinase activity.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 08/2012; 303(7):H893-902. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.01128.2011
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: Extracellular nucleotides activate cell-surface purinergic (P2) receptors, contribute to the local regulation of vascular tone and play important roles in pathophysiological states. However, little is known about the vasodilator effects of P2Y(1) -receptor activation in diabetic states. We hypothesized that in a model of established type 1 diabetes, long-term streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, the arterial relaxation elicited by a P2Y(1) -receptor agonist would be impaired. METHODS: Relaxations to adenosine 5'-diphosphate sodium salt (ADP), 2-MeSADP (selective P2Y(1) -receptor agonist) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP) were examined in superior mesenteric artery rings from long-term STZ-induced diabetic rats (at 50-57 weeks after STZ injection). ADP-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in the superior mesenteric artery was assessed by measuring the levels of NO metabolites. Mesenteric artery expressions of P2Y(1) receptor, and ADP-stimulated levels of phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) (at Ser(1177) and at Thr(495) ) and eNOS were detected by Western blotting. RESULTS: Arteries from diabetic rats exhibited (vs. those from age-matched control rats): (i) reduced ADP-induced relaxation, which was partly or completely inhibited by endothelial denudation, by NOS inhibitor treatment and by a selective P2Y(1) -receptor antagonist, (ii) reduced 2-MeSADP-induced relaxation, (iii) reduced ADP-stimulated release of NO metabolites and (iv) impaired ADP-induced stimulation of eNOS activity (as evidenced by reduced the fold increase in eNOS phosphorylation at Ser(1177) with no difference in fold increase in eNOS phosphorylation at Thr(495) ). The protein expression of P2Y(1) receptor did not differ between diabetic and control arteries. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that P2Y(1) -receptor-mediated vasodilatation is impaired in superior mesenteric arteries from long-term type 1 diabetic rats. This impairment is because of reduced P2Y(1) -receptor-mediated NO signalling, rather than to reduced P2Y(1) -receptor expression.
    Acta Physiologica 07/2012; 207(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2012.02469.x
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, mainly due to coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis, in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, female gender is a protective factor in the development of, for example, atherosclerosis and hypertension. One of the female hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2), is known to protect against the cardiovascular injury resulting from endothelial dysfunction, but the mechanism by which it does so remains unknown. Our hypothesis was that E2-mediated activation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the subsequent endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, might protect the aorta in diabetic mellitus. The experimental type 2 diabetic model we employed to test that hypothesis (female mice given streptozotocin and nicotinamide) is here termed fDM. In fDM aortas, we examined the E2-induced relaxation response and the associated protein activities. In control (age-matched, nondiabetic) aortas, E2 induced a vascular relaxation response that was mediated via Akt/eNOS and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK)/eNOS pathways. In fDM aortas (vs. control aortas), (a) the E2-induced relaxation was enhanced, (b) the mediation of the response was different (via Akt/eNOS and p38 MAPK/eNOS pathways), and (c) E2 stimulation increased p38 MAPK and eNOS phosphorylations, decreased MEK phosphorylation, but did not alter estrogen receptor activity. We infer that at least in fDM aortas, E2 has beneficial effects (enhanced vascular relaxation and protection) that are mediated through Akt activation and (compensating for reduced MEK activation) p38 MAPK activation, leading to enhanced eNOS phosphorylation.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 06/2012; 464(2):205-15. DOI:10.1007/s00424-012-1131-x
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    ABSTRACT: In type 2 diabetes, impaired insulin-induced Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling may decrease the vascular relaxation response. Previously, we reported that this response was negatively regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). In this study, we investigated whether/how in aortas from ob/ob mice (a model of type 2 diabetes) GRK2 and β-arrestin 2 might regulate insulin-induced signaling. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was measured in aortic strips. GRK2, β-arrestin 2, and Akt/eNOS signaling pathway proteins and activities were mainly assayed by Western blotting. In ob/ob (vs. control [Lean]) aortas: 1) insulin-induced relaxation was reduced, and this deficit was prevented by GRK2 inhibitor, anti-GRK2 antibody, and an siRNA specifically targeting GRK2. The Lean aorta relaxation response was reduced to the ob/ob level by pretreatment with an siRNA targeting β-arrestin 2. 2) Insulin-stimulated Akt and eNOS phosphorylations were decreased. 3) GRK2 expression in membranes was elevated, and, upon insulin stimulation, this expression was further increased, but β-arrestin 2 was decreased. In ob/ob aortic membranes under insulin stimulation, the phosphorylations of Akt and eNOS were augmented by GRK2 inhibitor. In mouse aorta, GRK2 may be, upon translocation, a key negative regulator of insulin responsiveness and an important regulator of the β-arrestin 2/Akt/eNOS signaling, which is implicated in diabetic endothelial dysfunction.
    Diabetes 06/2012; 61(8):1978-85. DOI:10.2337/db11-1729
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    ABSTRACT: In type 2 diabetes, although Akt/endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation is known to be negatively regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), it is unclear whether the GRK2 inhibitor would have therapeutic effects. Here we examined the hypotensive effect of the GRK2 inhibitor and its efficacy agonist both vascular (aortic) endothelial dysfunction (focusing especially on the Akt/eNOS pathway) and glucose intolerance in two type 2 diabetic models (ob/ob mice and nicotinamide+streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice). Mice were treated with a single injection of the GRK2 inhibitor or vehicle, and the therapeutic effects were compared by examining vascular function and by Western blotting. The GRK2 inhibitor lowered blood pressure in both diabetic models but not in their age-matched controls. The GRK2 inhibitor significantly improved clonidine-induced relaxation only in diabetic (ob/ob and DM) mice, with accompanying attenuations of GRK2 activity and translocation to the plasma membrane. These protective effects of the GRK2 inhibitor may be attributable to the augmented Akt/eNOS pathway activation (as evidenced by increases in Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) and at Thr(308), and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser(1177)) and to the prevention of the GRK2 translocation and promotion of β-arrestin 2 translocation to the membrane under clonidine stimulation. Moreover, the GRK2 inhibitor significantly improved the glucose intolerance seen in the ob/ob mice. Our work provides the first evidence that in diabetes, the GRK2 inhibitor ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction via the Akt/eNOS pathway by inhibiting GRK2 activity and enhancing β-arrestin 2 translocation under clonidine stimulation, thereby contributing to a blood pressure-lowering effect. We propose that the GRK2 inhibitor may be a promising therapeutic agent for cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes.
    Endocrinology 05/2012; 153(7):2985-96. DOI:10.1210/en.2012-1101
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    ABSTRACT: In the present sutdy, we have examined the relationship between the CaMKII (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) pathway and endothelial dysfunction in aortas from GK (Goto-Kakizaki) Type 2 diabetic rats. The ACh (acetylcholine)-induced relaxation and NO production were each attenuated in diabetic aortas (compared with those from age-matched control rats). ACh-stimulated Ser(1177)-eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) phosphorylation was significantly decreased in diabetic aortas (compared with their controls). ACh markedly increased the CaMKII phosphorylation level within endothelial cells only in control aortas (as assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting). ACh-stimulated Thr(286)-CaMKII phosphorylation within endothelial cells was significantly decreased in diabetic aortas (compared with their controls). The ACh-induced relaxations, NO production, eNOS phosphorylation, and CaMKII phosphorylation were inhibited by KN93 and/or by lavendustin C (inhibitors of CaMKII) in control aortas, but not in diabetic ones. Pre-incubation of aortic strips with a PP (protein phosphatase)-1 inhibitor, PPI2 (protein phosphatase inhibitor 2), or with a PP2A inhibitor, CA (cantharidic acid), corrected the above abnormalities in diabetic aortas. The expression of PP2A type A subunit was increased in diabetic aortas. The ACh-stimulated Thr(320)-phosphorylation level of PP1α was lower in diabetic aortas than in their controls, but the total PP1α protein level was not different. These results suggest that the aortic relaxation responses, NO production, and eNOS activity mediated by CaMKII phosphorylation are decreased in this Type 2 diabetic model, and that these impairments of CaMKII signalling may be, at least in part, due to enhancements of PP1α activity and PP2A expression.
    Clinical Science 04/2012; 123(6):375-86. DOI:10.1042/CS20110621
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), an important and ubiquitously present vasoactive eicosanoid, may either constrict or dilate systemic vascular beds. However, little is known about the vascular contractile responsiveness to and signaling pathways for PGE(2) at the chronic stage of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that PGE(2)-induced arterial contraction is augmented in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats via the protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) pathway. Here, we investigated the vasoconstrictor effects of PGE(2) and of sulprostone (EP1-/EP3-receptor agonist) in rings cut from superior mesenteric arteries isolated from GK rats (37-44 weeks old). In arteries from GK rats (vs. those from age-matched Wistar rats), examined in the presence of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: 1) the PGE(2)- and sulprostone-induced vasocontractions (which were not blocked by the selective EP1 receptor antagonist sc19220) were enhanced, and these enhancements were suppressed by rottlerin (selective PKCδ inhibitor) but not by Gö6976 (selective PKCα/β inhibitor); 2) the sulprostone-stimulated phosphorylation of PKCδ (at Thr(505)), which yields an active form, was increased and 3) sulprostone-stimulated caldesmon phosphorylations, which are related to isometric force generation in smooth muscle, were increased. The protein expression of EP3 receptor in superior mesenteric arteries was similar between the two groups of rats. Our data suggest that the diabetes-related enhancement of EP3 receptor-mediated vasocontraction results from activation of the PKCδ pathway. Alterations in EP3 receptor-mediated vasocontraction may be important factors in the pathophysiological influences over arterial tone that are present in diabetic states.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 04/2012; 463(4):593-602. DOI:10.1007/s00424-012-1088-9
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)R) stimulation may cause vasodilation. It could thereby contribute to the antihypertensive effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) antagonists since AT(1)R blockade reportedly increases endogenous levels of Ang II, and this may then bind to the unblocked AT(2)R. Because this is potentially an important consideration in diabetes, we examined whether or not AT(2)R mediates vasorelaxation in db/db diabetic mice. We also examined if AT(2)R-mediated vasorelaxation is preserved after long-term treatment with the AT(1)R antagonist losartan. The effects of AT(2)R stimulation, with either Ang II or the selective agonist CGP-42112A, were studied in aortas from db/db mice (a type 2 diabetic model). CGP-42112A induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in db/db aortas (not in Lean aortas), and this was significantly weakened by the MEK-inhibitor PD98059. CGP-42112A-induced relaxations were increased by Ang II-stimulation (by the organ-culture method) or by AT(1)R blockade (by long-term losartan treatment) only in Lean aortas. Basal AT(2)R expression, and Ang II-stimulated MEK and eNOS phosphorylations were all increased in aortas from db/db (vs. Lean) mice. Long-term losartan treatment increased Ang II-stimulated MEK and eNOS phosphorylations in aortas from Lean, but not db/db, mice. Therefore, this study has provided evidence that AT(2)R-mediated NO production and vasorelaxation through a MEK pathway are enhanced (under basal conditions) in aortas from db/db (vs. Lean) mice. The preservation of such AT(2)R function during AT(1)R blockade needs to be considered in the search for a physiological role for AT(2)R.
    Pharmacological Research 03/2012; 66(1):41-50. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2012.02.010
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    ABSTRACT: Although pravastatin has known pleiotropic effects against adverse cardiovascular conditions, little is known about its effects on endothelium-derived contracting factor (EDCF)-mediated signalling. We aimed to determine the effects of pravastatin on the production of and responses to EDCF in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from rats at the chronic stage of type 2 diabetes. Contractions to acetylcholine (ACh) were examined in superior mesenteric artery rings from aged type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (56-60 weeks old), from control age-matched non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats and from pravastatin-treated (10 mg kg(-1) , p.o., daily for 4 weeks) OLETF rats. Mesenteric artery expressions of cyclo-oxygenases (COXs), microsomal-PGE synthases (mPGESs), RhoA and Rho-kinase proteins, and also the level of phosphorylated ezrin, radixin and moesin (PERM), a substrate for Rho-kinase, were detected by Western blotting. Arteries from OLETF rats exhibited (vs. LETO rats) (1) enhanced ACh-induced EDCF-mediated contractions, which were inhibited by the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632, (2) reductions in the ACh-stimulated release of both PGE(2) and superoxide and (3) increased COX-1 and PERM protein expressions. Mesenteric arteries from OLETF rats treated with pravastatin exhibited (vs. untreated OLETF) (1) reduced ACh-induced contraction, (2) suppressed ACh-induced PGE(2) production and superoxide generation and (3) reduced ACh-induced PERM protein expression. These results suggest that pravastatin exerts beneficial effects against abnormal EDCF signalling by suppressing Rho-kinase and promoting antioxidant activity in the mesenteric arteries of rats at the chronic stage of type 2 diabetes.
    Acta Physiologica 12/2011; 205(2):255-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2011.02403.x
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of endothelin (ET)-1 are increased in the diabetic state, as is endogenous ET(A)-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction. However, the responsible mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ET-1-induced vasoconstriction is augmented in type 2 diabetes with hyperglycemia through an increment in advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). So, we investigated whether treatment with aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of AGEs, would normalize the ET-1-induced contraction induced by ET-1 in strips of thoracic aortas isolated from OLETF rats at the chronic stage of diabetes. In such aortas (vs. those from age-matched genetic control LETO rats): (1) the ET-1-induced contraction was enhanced, (2) the levels of HIF1α/ECE1/plasma ET-1 and plasma CML-AGEs were increased, (3) the ET-1-stimulated ERK phosphorylation mediated by ET(A)-R was increased, (4) the expression level of Jab1-modified ET(A)-R protein was reduced, and (5) the expression level of O-GlcNAcylated ET(A)-R protein was increased. Aortas isolated from such OLETF rats that had been treated with AG (50mg/kg/day for 10 weeks) exhibited reduced ET-1-induced contraction, suppressed ET-1-stimulated ERK phosphorylation accompanied by down-regulation of ET(A)-R, and increased modification of ET(A)-R by Jab1. Such AG-treated rats exhibited normalized plasma ET-1 and CML-AGE levels, and their aortas exhibited decreased HIF1α/ECE1 expression. However, such AG treatment did not alter the elevated levels of plasma glucose or insulin, or systolic blood pressure seen in OLETF rats. These data from the OLETF model suggest that within the timescale studied here, AG normalizes ET-1-induced aortic contraction by suppressing ET(A)-R/ERK activities and/or by normalizing the imbalance between Jab1 and O-GlcNAc in type 2 diabetes.
    Peptides 11/2011; 33(1):109-19. DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2011.11.018
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    ABSTRACT: In diabetic states, endothelial dysfunction is related to vascular complications. We hypothesized that insulin-induced relaxation and the associated proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2)/Src/Akt pathway would be abnormal in aortas from the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rat, which exhibits hyperglycemia/insulin resistance, and that losartan treatment of such rats (25 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 2 wk) would correct these abnormalities. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was by measuring isometric force in helical strips of aortas from four groups, each of 30 rats: normal Wistar (control), GK (diabetic), losartan-treated normal, and losartan-treated GK. Pyk2, Src, and Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling-pathway protein levels and activities were assayed mainly by Western blotting and partly by immunohistochemistry. In GK (vs. age-matched control) aortas, various insulin-stimulated levels [nitric oxide production and the phosphorylations of eNOS at Ser(1177), of Akt at Thr(308), of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) at Ser(241), of Src at Tyr(416), and of Pyk2 at Tyr(579)] were all significantly decreased and unaffected by either Src inhibitor (PP2) or Pyk2 inhibitor (AG17), while the insulin-stimulated levels of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307), total-eNOS, and total-Akt were significantly increased. Losartan treatment normalized these altered levels. The insulin-stimulated phosphorylation levels of Src/PDK1/Akt/eNOS, but not of Pyk2, were decreased by PP2 in control and losartan-treated GK, but not in GK, aortas. These results suggest that in the GK diabetic aorta increased phospho-IRS-1 (at Ser(307)) and decreased Pyk2/Src activity inhibit insulin-induced stimulation of the PDK/Akt/eNOS pathway. The observed increase in phospho-IRS-1 (at Ser(307)) may result from increased angiotensin II activity.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 09/2011; 301(6):H2383-94. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00178.2011
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular problems are major causes of morbidity and mortality, the main problems being coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis, in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, female gender is a protective factor in the development of, for example, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Our aim was to investigate possible gender differences in the activation of Akt/eNOS signaling in aortas from a mouse type 2 diabetic model. Nonfasting plasma glucose was significantly above control in the diabetic mice (both males and females). Plasma insulin was not different between the age-matched controls and the diabetic mice (of either gender). In diabetic males (vs male controls and/or diabetic females): (a) systemic blood pressure was elevated, (b) the clonidine- and insulin-induced Akt-dependent aortic relaxations were impaired, but the ACh-induced Akt-independent and SNP-induced endothelium-independent aortic relaxations were not, (c) Akt and eNOS expression levels were lower, (d) both Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser(1177) in the aorta were lower under clonidine- or insulin-stimulation, but not under ACh-stimulation. These results suggest that in mice: (i) endothelial functions mediated via the Akt/eNOS pathway are abrogated in type 2 diabetes only in males and (ii) in females (vs males), eNOS expression is elevated and the endothelium resists dysfunction.
    Pharmacological Research 09/2011; 65(1):56-65. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2011.08.009
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the vascular contractile responsiveness to, and signaling pathways for, extracellular nucleotides in the chronic stage of type 2 diabetes or whether the ANG II type 1 receptor blocker losartan might alter such responses. We hypothesized that nucleotide-induced arterial contractions are augmented in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and that treatment with losartan would normalize the contractions. Here, we investigated the vasoconstrictor effects of ATP/UTP in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from GK rats (37-42 wk old) that had or had not received 2 wk of losartan (25 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)). In arteries from GK rats (vs. those from Wistar rats), 1) ATP- and UTP-induced contractions, which were blocked by the nonselective P2 antagonist suramin, were enhanced, and these enhancements were suppressed by endothelial denudation, by cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, or by a cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) inhibitor; 2) both nucleotides induced increased release of PGE(2) and PGF(2α); 3) nucleotide-stimulated cPLA(2) phosphorylations were increased; 4) COX-1 and COX-2 expressions were increased; and 5) neither P2Y2 nor P2Y6 receptor expression differed, but P2Y4 receptor expression was decreased. Mesenteric arteries from GK rats treated with losartan exhibited (vs. untreated GK) 1) reduced nucleotide-induced contractions, 2) suppressed UTP-induced release of PGE(2) and PGF(2α), 3) suppressed UTP-stimulated cPLA(2) phosphorylation, 4) normalized expressions of COX-2 and P2Y4 receptors, and 5) reduced superoxide generation. Our data suggest that the diabetes-related enhancement of ATP-mediated vasoconstriction was due to P2Y receptor-mediated activation of the cPLA(2)/COX pathway and, moreover, that losartan normalizes such contractions by a suppressing action within this pathway.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 08/2011; 301(5):H1850-61. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00502.2011
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    ABSTRACT: In diabetic states, hyperinsulinemia may negatively regulate Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. Our main aim was to investigate whether and how insulin might negatively regulate Akt/eNOS activities via G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in aortas from ob/ob mice. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was measured in aortic rings from ob/ob mice (a type 2 diabetes model). GRK2, β-arrestin2, and Akt/eNOS signaling-pathway protein levels and activities were mainly assayed by Western blotting. Plasma insulin was significantly elevated in ob/ob mice. Insulin-induced relaxation was significantly decreased in the ob/ob aortas [vs. age-matched control (lean) ones]. The response in ob/ob aortas was enhanced by PKC inhibitor or GRK2 inhibitor. Akt (at Thr(308)) phosphorylation and eNOS (at Ser(1177)) phosphorylation, and also the β-arrestin2 protein level, were markedly decreased in the membrane fraction of insulin-stimulated ob/ob aortas (vs. insulin-stimulated lean ones). These membrane-fraction expressions were enhanced by GRK2 inhibitor and by PKC inhibitor in the ob/ob group but not in the lean group. PKC activity was much greater in ob/ob than in lean aortas. GRK2 protein and activity levels were increased in ob/ob and were greatly reduced by GRK2 inhibitor or PKC inhibitor pretreatment. These results suggest that in the aorta in diabetic mice with hyperinsulinemia an upregulation of GRK2 and a decrease in β-arrestin2 inhibit insulin-induced stimulation of the Akt/eNOS pathway and that GRK2 overactivation may result from an increase in PKC activity.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 05/2011; 301(2):H571-83. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.01189.2010
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial function are mediated via the Akt/eNOS pathway. We investigated the reductions of these mechanism(s) in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic model (nicotinamide+streptozotocin-induced) mice were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet either containing or not containing losartan, an AT₁ R antagonist. Relaxations and NO productions were measured in isolated aortas. G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) protein levels and activities in the Akt/eNOS signaling-pathway were mainly assayed by Western blotting. Clonidine- and insulin-induced relaxations and NO productions, all of which were significantly decreased in aortas isolated from the diabetics, were normalized by 4 weeks' losartan administration. Plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and GRK2 protein levels were increased in diabetes, and each was normalized by 4 week's losartan administration. Additionally, there was a direct correlation between the plasma Ang II and aortic GRK2 protein levels. In the diabetics, the clonidine-induced responses (but not the insulin-induced ones) were enhanced by GRK2-inhibitor. Akt phosphorylation was markedly below control in the clonidine-stimulated diabetes. The phosphorylation of Akt at Thr³⁰⁸ was significantly normalized and the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser¹¹⁷⁷ tended to be increased by GRK2-inhibitor in the clonidine-stimulated diabetics. Our data suggest that (a) the Akt/eNOS pathway is downstream of GRK2, and that GRK2 inhibits Akt/eNOS activities, and (b) this pathway underlies the impaired NO production seen in type 2 diabetes, in which there are defective phosphorylations of Akt and eNOS that may be caused by an upregulation of GRK2 secondary to a high plasma Ang II level. Inhibitors of GRK2 warrant further investigation as potential new therapeutic agents in diabetes.
    Pharmacological Research 05/2011; 64(5):535-46. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2011.05.001
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    ABSTRACT: Eight isocarbostyril derivatives are prepared from scoparine A and B.
    ChemInform 03/2011; 42(11). DOI:10.1002/chin.201111218
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    ABSTRACT: In obese patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin delivery to and insulin-dependent glucose uptake by skeletal muscle are delayed and impaired. The mechanisms underlying the delay and impairment are unclear. We demonstrate that impaired insulin signaling in endothelial cells, due to reduced Irs2 expression and insulin-induced eNOS phosphorylation, causes attenuation of insulin-induced capillary recruitment and insulin delivery, which in turn reduces glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Moreover, restoration of insulin-induced eNOS phosphorylation in endothelial cells completely reverses the reduction in capillary recruitment and insulin delivery in tissue-specific knockout mice lacking Irs2 in endothelial cells and fed a high-fat diet. As a result, glucose uptake by skeletal muscle is restored in these mice. Taken together, our results show that insulin signaling in endothelial cells plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Furthermore, improving endothelial insulin signaling may serve as a therapeutic strategy for ameliorating skeletal muscle insulin resistance.
    Cell metabolism 03/2011; 13(3):294-307. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2011.01.018
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the changes occurring in diabetic animals in the responsiveness of the myocardium to alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptor agonists, we examined both alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated electrophysiological and mechanical responses in the depolarized right ventricular papillary muscle of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats and age-matched controls. Both methoxamine (10(-7)-10(-4) M) and isoproterenol (10(-9)-10(-6) M) enhanced the slow response action potential in a concentration-department manner. The amplitude and the APD50 (time required for 50% repolarization) of the methoxamine-induced slow response action potential were both markedly increased in STZ-induced diabetic rats in comparison with control rats, whereas those of the isoproterenol-induced slow response were significantly decreased. The methoxamine-induced contraction in depolarized muscle was slightly but not significantly increased in STZ-induced diabetic rats, whereas the isoproterenol-induced contractile response was significantly attenuated. The maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) for [3H]dihydroalprenolol and for [3H]prazosin were both significantly decreased in diabetic rats, compared with age-matched control rats, without any change in the affinity constants. The slow response action potential induced by methoxamine but not isoproterenol was attenuated by IAP (islet-activating factor) treatment (50 micrograms/kg, i.v. for 3 days). These results suggest that an alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated electrophysiological response is unmasked when the beta-adrenoceptor-mediated response is desensitized in the papillary muscle of STZ-induced diabetic rats.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2011; 75(7):781-788. DOI:10.1139/y97-095
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    ABSTRACT: The endothelium-dependent relaxation of superior mesenteric arteries of Wistar and genetically diabetic WBN/Kob rats was compared. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine (ACh) and A23187 was depressed in WBN/Kob rats. Relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside, an endothelium-independent agent, in strips from WBN/Kob rats was similar to that in strips from Wistar rats. Indomethacin (5 x 10(-6) M) enhanced the relaxation responses to ACh in strips from both WBN/Kob and Wistar rats; however, endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh remained attenuated in WBN/Kob rats. These results show that endothelium-dependent relaxation is impaired not only in thoracic aorta but also in superior mesenteric arteries in genetically diabetic rats.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2011; 71(3-4):297-300. DOI:10.1139/y93-046

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  • 1987–2012
    • Hoshi University
      • Department of Physiology and Morphology
      Shinagawa, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2007
    • Hosei University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1992
    • Taisho Pharmaceutical
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1985–1987
    • Meijo University
      • Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan