[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are recurrent in Patos Lagoon, in southern Brazil. Among cyanotoxins, [D-Leu(1)] microcystin-LR is the predominant variant whose natural cycle involves water and sediment compartments. This study aimed to identify and isolate from sediment a bacterial strain capable of growing on [D-Leu(1)] microcystin-LR. Sediment and water samples were collected at two distinct aquatic spots: close to the Oceanographic Museum (P1), in Rio Grande City, and on São Lourenço Beach (P2), in São Lourenço do Sul City, southern Brazil.
[D-Leu(1)] microcystin-LR was isolated and purified from batch cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa strain RST9501. Samples of water and sediment from Rio Grande and São Lourenço do Sul were collected. Bacteria from the samples were allowed to grow in flasks containing solely [D-Leu(1)] microcystin-LR. This strain named DMSX was isolated on agar MSM with 8 g L(-1) glucose and further purified on a cyanotoxin basis growth. Microcystin concentration was obtained by using the ELISA immunoassay for microcystins whereas bacterial count was performed by epifluorescence microscopy. The genus Pseudomonas was identified by DNA techniques.
Although several bacterial strains were isolated from the samples, only one, DMXS, was capable of growing on [D-Leu(1)] microcystin-LR. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from DMXS strain classified the organism as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. DMXS strain incubated with [D-Leu(1)] microcystin-LR lowered the amount of toxin from 1 μg.L(-1) to < 0.05 μg.L(-1). Besides, an increase in the bacterial count-from 71 × 10(5) bacteria.mL(-1) to 117 × 10(5) bacteria.mL(-1)-was observed along the incubation.
The use of bacteria isolated from sediment for technological applications to remove toxic compounds is viable. Studies have shown that sediment plays an important role as a source of bacteria capable of degrading cyanobacterial toxins. This is the first Brazilian report on a bacterium-of the genus Pseudomonas-that can degrade [D-Leu(1)] microcystin-LR, the most frequent microcystin variant in Brazilian freshwaters.
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 12/2015; 21(1):4. DOI:10.1186/s40409-015-0001-3 · 0.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations of brain iron levels have been observed in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously demonstrated that iron overload in the neonatal period results in severe and persistent memory deficits in the adulthood. Protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central regulatory role in several cellular processes. Impairment of the UPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined the effects of iron exposure in the neonatal period (12th-14th day of postnatal life) on the expression of proteasome β-1, β-2, and β-5 subunits, and ubiquitinated proteins in brains of 15-day-old rats, to evaluate the immediate effect of the treatment, and in adulthood to assess long-lasting effects. Two different memory types, emotionally motivated conditioning and object recognition were assessed in adult animals. We found that iron administered in the neonatal period impairs both emotionally motivated and recognition memory. Polyubiquitinated protein levels were increased in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, of adult animals treated with iron. Gene expression of subunits β1 and β5 was affected by age, being higher in the early stages of development in the hippocampus, accompanied by an age-related increase in polyubiquitinated protein levels in adults. In the cortex, gene expression of the three proteasome subunits was significantly higher in adulthood than in the neonatal period. These findings suggest that expression of proteasome subunits and activity are age-dependently regulated. Iron exposure in the neonatal period produces long-lasting harmful effects on the UPS functioning, which may be related with iron-induced memory impairment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of the long-term dietary fish oil supplementation or the acute administration of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the mouse hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CYP). HC was induced in mice by a single CYP injection (300mg/kg ip). Animals received four different diets containing 10% and 20% of corn or fish oil, during 21days. Separated groups received DHA by ip (1μmol/kg) or intrathecal (i.t.; 10μg/site) routes, 1h or 15min before CYP. The behavioral tests (spontaneous nociception and mechanical allodynia) were carried out from 1h to 6h following CYP injection. Bladder inflammatory changes, blood cell counts and serum cytokines were evaluated after euthanasia (at 6h). Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed for assessing spinal astrocyte and microglia activation or GPR40/FFAR1 expression. Either fish oil supplementation or DHA treatment (ip and i.t.) markedly prevented visceral pain, without affecting CYP-evoked bladder inflammatory changes. Moreover, systemic DHA significantly prevented the neutrophilia/lymphopenia caused by CYP, whereas this fatty acid did not significantly affect serum cytokines. DHA also modulated the spinal astrocyte activation and the GPR40/FFAR1 expression. The supplementation with fish oil enriched in omega-3 fatty acids or parenteral DHA might be interesting nutritional approaches for cancer patients under chemotherapy schemes with CYP.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.09.007 · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic agents are used for the treatment of psychotic symptoms in patients with several brain disorders, such as schizophrenia. Atypical and typical antipsychotics differ regarding their clinical and side-effects profile. Haloperidol is a representative typical antipsychotic drug and has potent dopamine receptor antagonistic functions; however, atypical antipsychotics have been developed and characterized an important advance in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Purine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, constitute a ubiquitous class of extracellular signaling molecules crucial for normal functioning of the nervous system. Indirect findings suggest that changes in the purinergic system, more specifically in adenosinergic activity, could be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We investigated the effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, followed by an analysis of gene expression patterns in zebrafish brain. Haloperidol treatment (9 µM) was able to decrease ATP hydrolysis (35 %), whereas there were no changes in hydrolysis of ADP and AMP in brain membranes after antipsychotic exposure. Adenosine deamination in membrane fractions was inhibited (38 %) after haloperidol treatment when compared to the control; however, no changes were observed in ADA soluble fractions after haloperidol exposure. Sulpiride (250 µM) and olanzapine (100 µM) did not alter ectonucleotidase and ADA activities. Haloperidol also led to a decrease in entpd2_mq, entpd3 and adal mRNA transcripts. These findings demonstrate that haloperidol is an inhibitor of NTPDase and ADA activities in zebrafish brain, suggesting that purinergic signaling may also be a target of pharmacological effects promoted by this drug.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 07/2015; 41(6). DOI:10.1007/s10695-015-0093-2 · 1.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress is considered a risk factor for several human disorders. Despite the broad knowledge of stress responses in mammals, data on the relationship between unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) and its effects on purinergic signaling are limited. ATP hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases is an important source of adenosine, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) contributes to the control of the nucleoside concentrations. Considering that some stress models could affect signaling systems, the objective of this study was to investigate whether UCS alters ectonucleotidase and ADA pathway in zebrafish brain. Additionally, we analyzed ATP metabolism as well as ada1, ada2.1, ada2.2, adaL, and adaasi gene expression in zebrafish brain. Our results have demonstrated that UCS did not alter ectonucleotidase and soluble ADA activities. However, ecto-ADA activity was significantly decreased (26.8 %) in brain membranes of animals exposed to UCS when compared to the control group. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis did not show significant changes on ADA gene expression after the UCS exposure. The brain ATP metabolism showed a marked increase in adenosine levels (ADO) in animals exposed to UCS. These data suggest an increase on extracellular adenosine levels in zebrafish brain. Since this nucleoside has neuromodulatory and anxiolytic effects, changes in adenosine levels could play a role in counteracting the stress, which could be related to a compensatory mechanism in order to restore the homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of ethanol exposure on extracellular adenosine sources in zebrafish were evaluated. In the acute treatment, the embryos were exposed to 2% ethanol on day 1 post-fertilization (dpf). In the chronic treatment, the exposure was continued for 2. h/day up to 6dpf. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity was assessed by colorimetric method and gene expression determined by RT-qPCR in 7. dpf zebrafish. Body length, ocular distance and surface area of the eyes were registered in animals acutely exposed to ethanol and pretreated with AOPCP (5-500. nM), an ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor, or dipyridamole (10-100. μM), a blocker of nucleoside transport. Both ethanol exposures promoted increased ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity, impaired locomotion and morphology. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase expression was not affected. AOPCP promoted mild prevention of morphological defects caused by acute treatment, while dipyridamole worsened these defects. Early ethanol exposure altered adenosinergic tonus, especially through nucleoside transporters, contributing to morphological defects produced by ethanol in zebrafish.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB) and haemin (HM) enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 04/2015; 110(2):201-8. DOI:10.1590/0074-02760140320 · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anxiety is characterized by unpleasant bodily sensations, such as pounding heart and intense fear. The therapy involves the administration of benzodiazepine drugs. Purinergic signaling participates in the induction of several behavioral patterns and their actions are inactivated by ectonucleotidases and adenosine deaminase (ADA). Since there is evidence about the involvement of purinergic system in the actions mediated by benzodiazepines, we evaluated the effects in vitro and in vivo of administration of diazepam and midazolam on nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and ADA activities in zebrafish brain, followed by the analysis of gene expression pattern of these enzymes and adenosine receptors (A1, A2a1, A2a2, A2b). The in vitro studies demonstrated that diazepam decreased ATP (66 % for 500 µM) and ADP hydrolysis (40-54 % for 10-500 µM, respectively). Midazolam decreased ATP (16-71 % for 10-500 µM, respectively) and ADP (48-73.5 % for 250-500 µM, respectively) hydrolysis as well as the ecto-ADA activity (26-27.5 % for 10-500 µM, respectively). AMP hydrolysis was decreased in animals treated with of 0.5 and 1 mg/L midazolam (32 and 36 %, respectively). Diazepam and midazolam decreased the ecto-ADA activity at 1.25 mg/L and 1 mg/L (31 and 33 %, respectively), but only 0.1 mg/L midazolam induced an increase (40 %) in cytosolic ADA. The gene expression analysis demonstrated changes on ecto-5'-nucleotidase, A1, A2a1, A2a2, and A2b mRNA transcript levels after acute treatment with benzodiazepines. These findings demonstrated that benzodiazepine exposure induces a modulation of extracellular nucleotide and nucleoside metabolism, suggesting the purinergic signaling may be, at least in part, related to benzodiazepine effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by an inborn error in metabolism resulting from a deficiency in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids. High levels of BCAAs are associated with neurological dysfunction and the role of pro- and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neurological dysfunction of MSUD is still unclear. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effect of an acute BCAA pool administration on BDNF levels and on the pro-BDNF cleavage-related proteins S100A10 and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in rat brains. Our results demonstrated that acute Hyper-BCAA (H-BCAA) exposure during the early postnatal period increases pro-BDNF and total-BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum. Moreover, tPA levels were significantly decreased, without modifications in the tPA transcript levels in the hippocampus and striatum. On the other hand, the S100A10 mRNA and S100A10 protein levels were not changed in the hippocampus and striatum. In the 30-day-old rats, we observed increased pro-BDNF, total-BDNF and tPA levels only in the striatum, whereas the tPA and S100A10 mRNA expression and the immunocontent of S100A10 were not altered. In conclusion, we demonstrated that acute H-BCAA administration increases the pro-BDNF/total-BDNF ratio and decreases the tPA levels in animals, suggesting that the BCAA effect may depend, at least in part, on changes in BDNF post-translational processing.
Neurochemical Research 02/2015; 40(5). DOI:10.1007/s11064-015-1541-1 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imbalances in glutamatergic signaling have been proposed as the cause of several neurological disturbances. The use of MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, to mimic features of these neurological disorders is effective both in mammals and in fish. However, the variability of the subunits comprising the NMDA receptor during development alters the pharmacokinetic properties of the receptor and leads to different responses to this drug. Here, we evaluated the locomotor response of zebrafish to MK-801 (1, 5, and 20 μM) through the development (30 days postfertilization [dpf] to 2 years postfertilization [ypf]). The NMDA receptor subunit gene expression was also analyzed through the development (7 dpf to 2 ypf). Zebrafish displayed an age-related response to MK-801 with a higher response at 60 and 120 dpf. The magnitude of hyperlocomotion promoted by MK-801 seems to be less powerful for zebrafish in relation to rodents. The verification of expression levels in zebrafish NMDA receptor subunits shows that NR1.1 had a slight reduction throughout the development, while the NR2 subunits, especially NR2A.2 and NR2C.1, vary their expression levels according to the stage of development. The time-specific locomotor response to MK-801 through the development could be a consequence of differential NMDA receptor subunit expression. This result of developmental response to MK-801 is a crucial component in the consolidation of zebrafish as a suitable model to study glutamatergic neurotransmission in early phases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Adenosine is a well-known endogenous modulator of neuronal excitability with anticonvulsant properties. Thus, the modulation exerted by adenosine might be an effective tool to control seizures. In this study, we investigated the effects of drugs that are able to modulate adenosinergic signaling on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in adult zebrafish. The adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) decreased the latency to the onset of the tonic-clonic seizure stage. The adenosine A1 receptor agonist cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) increased the latency to reach the tonic-clonic seizure stage. Both the adenosine A2A receptor agonist and antagonist, CGS 21680 and ZM 241385, respectively, did not promote changes in seizure parameters. Pretreatment with the ecto-5'nucleotidase inhibitor adenosine 5'-(α,β-methylene) diphosphate (AMPCP) decreased the latency to the onset of the tonic-clonic seizure stage. However, when pretreated with the adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitor, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine (EHNA), or with the nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitors, dipyridamole and S-(4-Nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), animals showed longer latency to reach the tonic-clonic seizure status. Finally, our molecular analysis of the c-fos gene expression corroborates these behavioral results. Our findings indicate that the activation of adenosine A1 receptors is an important mechanism to control the development of seizures in zebrafish. Furthermore, the actions of ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ADA, and NTs are directly involved in the control of extracellular adenosine levels and have an important role in the development of seizure episodes in zebrafish.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lung redox state in an animal model of sepsis.
Sepsis was induced in rats by the cecal ligation and perforation model (CLP). After 3, 6, and 12 h, CLP protein content and expression of SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3 were evaluated, and SOD activity was assessed. Oxidative damage was determined by quantifying nitrotyrosine content. Lung localization of SOD3 was performed by immunohistochemistry. The protective effect of a SOD mimetic on oxidative damage, inflammation, and lung permeability was assessed 12 and 24 h after sepsis induction.
Lung levels of SOD1 decreased 3 and 12 h after sepsis, but SOD2 and SOD3 increased, as well as SOD activity. These alterations were not associated with changes in sod gene expression. Nitrotyrosine levels increased 3 and 12 h after sepsis. The administration of a SOD mimetic decreased nitrotyrosine and proinflammatory cytokine levels and improved lung permeability.
SOD2 and SOD3 increased after sepsis induction, but this was insufficient to protect the lung. Treatments based on SOD mimetics could have a role in lung injury associated with sepsis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypermethioninemic patients may exhibit different neurological dysfunctions, and the mechanisms underlying these pathologies remain obscure. Glutamate and ATP are important excitatory neurotransmitters co-released at synaptic clefts, and whose activities are intrinsically related. Adenosine-the final product of ATP breakdown-is also an important neuromodulator. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term (7-day) exposure to 1.5 or 3 mM methionine (Met) on glutamate uptake in brain tissues (telencephalon, optic tectum, and cerebellum) and on ATP, ADP, and AMP catabolism by ecto-nucleotidases found in brain membrane samples, using a zebrafish model. Also, we evaluated the expression of ecto-nucleotidase (ntdp1, ntdp2mg, ntdp2mq, ntdp2mv, ntdp3, and nt5e) and adenosine receptor (adora1, adora2aa, adora2ab, adora2b) genes in the brain of zebrafish exposed to Met. In animals exposed to 3.0 mM Met, glutamate uptake in the telencephalon decreased significantly. Also, ATP and ADP (but not AMP) catabolism decreased significantly at both Met concentrations tested. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of ntpd genes and of the adenosine receptors adora1 and adora2aa increased significantly after Met exposure. In contrast, adora2ab mRNA levels decreased after Met exposure. Our data suggest that glutamate and ATP accumulate at synaptic clefts after Met exposure, with potential detrimental effects to the nervous system. This phenomenon might explain, at least in part, the increased susceptibility of hypermethioninemic patients to neurological symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal caffeine intake on the neuromotor development of rat offspring and on acetylcholine degradation and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in the hippocampus of 14-day-old infant rats. Rat dams were treated with caffeine (0.3 g/L) throughout gestation and lactation until the pups were 14 days old. The pups were divided into three groups: (1) control, (2) caffeine, and (3) washout caffeine. The washout group received a caffeine solution until the seventh postnatal day (P7). Righting reflex (RR) and negative geotaxis (NG) were assessed to evaluate postural parameters as an index of neuromotor reflexes. An open-field (OF) test was conducted to assess locomotor and exploratory activities as well as anxiety-like behaviors. Caffeine treatment increased both RR and NG latency times. In the OF test, the caffeine group had fewer outer crossings and reduced locomotion compared to control, while the washout group showed increased inner crossings in relation to the other groups and fewer rearings only in comparison to the control group. We found decreased AChE activity in the caffeine group compared to the other groups, with no alteration in AChE transcriptional regulation. Chronic maternal exposure to caffeine promotes important alterations in neuromotor development. These results highlight the ability of maternal caffeine intake to interfere with cholinergic neurotransmission during brain development.
Brain Research 11/2014; 1595. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.10.039 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Spinal voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are pivotal regulators of painful and inflammatory alterations, representing attractive therapeutic targets. We examined the effects of epidural administration of the P/Q- and N-type VGCC blockers Tx3-3 and Phα1β, respectively, isolated from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, on symptomatic, inflammatory and functional changes allied to mouse cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC). The effects of P. nigriventer-derived toxins were compared with those displayed by MVIIC and MVIIA, extracted from the cone snail Conus magus.
HC was induced by a single i.p. injection of CPA (300 mg·kg(-1) ). Dose- and time-related effects of spinally administered P/Q and N-type VGCC blockers were assessed on nociceptive behaviour and macroscopic inflammation elicited by CPA. The effects of toxins were also evaluated on cell migration, cytokine production, oxidative stress, functional cystometry alterations and TRPV1, TRPA1 and NK1 receptor mRNA expression.
The spinal blockage of P/Q-type VGCC by Tx3-3 and MVIIC or N-type VGCC by Phα1β attenuated nociceptive and inflammatory events associated with HC, including bladder oxidative stress and cytokine production. CPA produced a slight increase in bladder TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA expression, which was reversed by all the toxins tested. Noteworthy, Phα1β strongly prevented bladder neutrophil migration, besides HC-related functional alterations, and its effects were potentiated by co-injecting the selective NK1 receptor antagonist CP-96345.
Conclusions and implications:
Our results shed new light on the role of spinal P/Q and N-type VGCC in bladder dysfunctions, pointing out Phα1β as a promising alternative for treating complications associated with CPA-induced HC.
British Journal of Pharmacology 10/2014; 172(3). DOI:10.1111/bph.12966 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraquat (PQ) is an agrochemical agent commonly used worldwide, which is allied to potential risks of intoxication. This herbicide induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ends up compromising various organs, particularly the lungs and the brain. This study evaluated the deleterious effects of paraquat on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripherally, with special attempts to assess the putative protective effects of the selective CXCR2 receptor antagonist SB225002 on these parameters. PQ-toxicity was induced in male Wistar rats, in a total dose of 50 mg/kg, and control animals received saline solution at the same schedule of administration. Separate groups of animals were treated with the selective CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 (1 or 3 mg/kg), administered 30 min before each paraquat injection. The major changes found in paraquat-treated animals were: decreased body weight and hypothermia, nociception behavior, impairment of locomotor and gait capabilities, enhanced TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the striatum, and cell migration to the lungs and blood. Some of these parameters were reversed when the antagonist SB225002 was administered, including recovery of physiological parameters, decreased nociception, improvement of gait abnormalities, modulation of striatal TNF-α and IL-1β expression, and decrease of neutrophil migration to the lungs and blood. Taken together, our results demonstrate that damage to the central and peripheral systems elicited by paraquat can be prevented by the pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 chemokine receptors. The experimental evidence presented herein extends the comprehension on the toxicodynamic aspects of paraquat, and opens new avenues to treat intoxication induced by this herbicide.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105740. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105740 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus, which causes hyperglycemia, affects the central nervous system and can impairs cognitive functions, such as memory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia on memory as well as on the activity of acethylcholinesterase. Hyperglycemia was induced in adult zebrafish by immersion in glucose 111mM by 14 days. The animals were divided in 4 groups: control, glucose-treated, glucose-washout 7-days and glucose-washout 14-days. We evaluated the performance in inhibitory avoidance task and locomotor activity. We also determined acethylcholinesterase activity and gene expression from whole brain. In order to counteract the effect of hyperglycemia underlined by effects on acethylcholinesterase activity, we treated the animals with galantamine (0.05ng/g), an inhibitor of this enzyme. Also we evaluated the gene expression of insulin receptor and glucose transporter from zebrafish brain. The hyperglycemia promoted memory deficit in adult zebrafish, which can be explained by increased AChE activity. The ache mRNA levels from zebrafish brain were decrease in 111mM glucose group and returned to normal levels after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. Insulin receptors (insra-1, insra-2, insrb-1 and insrb-2) and glut-3 mRNA levels were not significantly changed. Our results also demonstrated that galantamine was able to reverse the memory deficit caused by hyperglycemia, demonstrating that these effects involve modulation of AChE activity. These data suggest that the memory impairment induced by hyperglycemia is underlined by the cholinergic dysfunction caused by the mechanisms involving the control of acetylcholinesterase function and gene expression.
Behavioural brain research 08/2014; 274. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.08.033 · 3.03 Impact Factor