[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the cornerstone of revascularization in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The radial artery catheterization (RAC) is associated with less bleeding complications. However it is not clear whether the benefit on bleedings associated with RAC could be translated into a reduction of long term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). In patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), we have to determine if the use of RAC allows the recanalization of the coronary artery in a timely fashion. We aimed to confirm that RAC reduces haemorrhagic complications and determine if this advantage on bleedings could be translated into a 6 months MACE reduction. We also checked if RAC did not lengthen the time puncture to balloon (TPB) in the subgroup of STEMI patents.
All patients hospitalized for an ACS and treated with PCI between 01/2008 and 12/2008 were considered for this study. Predictors of in hospital minor and major bleedings and 6 months MACE were sought by uni and multivariate analysis.
Altogether, 626 patients were included. 509 treated with RAC and 117 with a femoral artery catheterization (FAC). As compared to FAC, RAC decreased in hospital minor and major bleedings, respectively by 80%(OR=0.2, CI=0.06-0.6, p=0,004) and 74% (OR=0.26, CI=0.1-0.7, p=0,007). In patients with STEMI, there was no difference in TPB whatever the arterial access used (13 min vs 14 min, p=0.7). At 6 months, RAC was found as an independent predictor for less MACE (OR=0.4, CI=0.1-1.1, p=0.05).
Patients treated by PCI derive benefit from the use of RAC on in-hospital bleedings but also on the reduction of 6 months ischemic events. In STEMI patients it does not extend the TPB. Use of RAC should have a widespread diffusion.
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements 01/2010; 2(1):16-17.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The degree of carotid stenosis (%ST) remains the most frequently used parameter for identifying patients with high risk of stroke but the relationship between %ST and the occurrence of stroke remains controversial. The objectives of this study were to check (1) the relationship between the %ST and the plaque volume index (PVI) as measured by echography and Doppler, (2) the relationship between the intima media thickness (IMT), a vessel wall remodeling index and the PVI an atheromatous growth index. For each of the 128 patients, (165 carotid stenosis), we measured the % ST (section or diameter), the max stenosis velocity (V(max)), the PVI and the common carotid IMT. The %ST (section) ranged from 10% to 93% (mean 66+/-18), V(max) from 0.3m/s to 3m/s (mean 1.2+/-0.8), PVI from 0.61cm(3) to 1.17cm(3) (mean 0.41+/-0.21) and the IMT from 0.08cm up to 0.31cm (mean 0.12+/-0.03). There was no significant correlation between either PVI and %ST (section or diameter), PVI and minimal stenosis section area (S1) or between PVI and V(max). There was no significant correlation between IMT and both %ST area and PVI. PVI was significantly correlated with the whole artery section area (S2) and the plaque length (L). The %ST (section or diameter) was significantly correlated with S1 but not with S2. The absence of correlation between the PVI and the %ST confirm that these two parameters describe two different processes of the atheromatous development.
Ultrasound in medicine & biology 07/2009; 35(9):1436-42. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the literature, echocardiographic assessment of the prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism is based on analysis of right ventricle free-wall motion or on a composite index combining right ventricular dilatation, paradoxical septal wall motion, and pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of a single quantitative echocardiographic criterion, the right/left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (RV/LV) ratio.
Registry data on 1,416 consecutive patients hospitalized for acute pulmonary embolism were used to study retrospectively a population of 950 patients who underwent echocardiographic assessment on hospital admission and for whom the RV/LV ratio was available.
The hospital mortality rate for the series was 3.3%. Sensitivity and specificity of RV/LV ratio >or= 0.9 for predicting hospital mortality were 72% and 58%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed the independent predictive factors for hospital mortality to be the following: systolic BP < 90 mm Hg (odds ratio [OR], 10.73; p < 0.0001), history of left heart failure (OR, 8.99; p < 0.0001), and RV/LV ratio >or= 0.9 (OR, 2.66; p = 0.01).
In our retrospective series, an echocardiographic RV/LV ratio >or= 0.9 was shown to be an independent predictive factor for hospital mortality. This criterion may be of value in selecting cases of submassive pulmonary embolism with a poor prognosis that are liable to benefit from thrombolytic treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although thrombolysis (THL) and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) are two validated options in reperfusion algorithms for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), recent papers seems to show that PPCI could be the best therapeutic option irrespective of the time to treatment (TT) and of the cardiovascular risk profile of the patient. The impact of TT and age on reperfusion strategies requires elucidation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of time to treatment and age on the 1-year mortality of patients presenting with STEMI, for each reperfusion strategy.
The study population consisted in 794 patients directly admitted to the cardiological intensive care unit for STEMI < or =12 hours. The relationship between TT and 1-year mortality was studied using logistic regression models. The models were implemented on the overall population and on 3 different age groups: [<65 years]; [> or =65 and <75 years]; [> or =75 years] for patients undergoing THL (n=299) and for patients undergoing PPCI (n=495). There was no significant between-group difference in all-cause 1-year mortality for the patients [<65 years] and those [> or =65 and <75 years]. In contrast, the 1-year mortality was significantly higher in the patients [> or =75 years] undergoing THL (51.4 vs. 15.3%; p<0.001). The analysis of the curves of mortality suggests that 1- year mortality of patients with STEMI depend not only on reperfusion strategy but so on the time to treatment and on the age of the patients.
In STEMI, on a 1-year mortality criteria, PPCI is not always upper than THL, particularly for patients<65 years treated within the first two hours after symptoms onset. TT and age affects the results of the reperfusion strategies and must be still incorporated in the reperfusion algorithms of STEMI.
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 01/2008; 101(1):48-54. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of major pulmonary embolism should be considered in case of acute respiratory distress, particularly in high thrombo-embolic risk situation. Clinical examination, combined with blood gas analysis, electrocardiogram and chest X-ray are generally suggestive of pulmonary embolism but are not sufficient. In patients with shock, hypotension or after cardiac arrest (massive forms), bedside transthoracic echocardiography is the first choice diagnostic test whereas CT-scan should be considered in less severely ill patients. Troponin dosage and measurement of right upon left ventricular diameter ratio (by echocardiography or CT-scan) are mandatory in the prognostic evaluation of submassive forms (i.e. hemodynamically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction). Thrombolysis is clearly indicated in patients suffering from massive pulmonary embolism and should be discussed in young patients (less than 70 years), with no identified bleeding risk, suffering from submassive form when troponin rate is increased and/or ventricular diameter ratio is over 0.9. Surgical embolectomy should be considered in case of contraindication or failure of thrombolysis.
La Revue du praticien 05/2007; 57(7):743-6, 748-50.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the elderly patients, the optimal reperfusion strategy of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains a topic of debate. Moreover, there is a lack of data regarding the effect of time to treatment (TT) on prognosis of STEMI in elderly patients.
The goal of our work was to analyze, in real life, the link between TT and 1-year mortality in patients with STEMI (> or =75 years) who were treated with thrombolysis (THL) or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Data were extracted from our university hospital prospective registry. Between 1995 and 2005, all patients who met the criteria (> or =75 years old, has had an acute STEMI <12 h, has been admitted directly into our cardiologic care unit, and has had a revascularization procedure) were included in the analysis. Using logistic regression, we studied the relation between TT and 1-year mortality for each strategy of reperfusion in patients with STEMI who were > or =75 years old.
One hundred fifty-nine consecutive patients with STEMI <12 h were analyzed; 35 were treated with THL and 124 were treated with primary PCI. Mean age (+/-S.D.) was 80+/-4 years, and 56% of patients were men. In logistic regression analysis, TT was not associated to death after THL (P=.81), while it was positively correlated after PCI (P=.03). All-cause 1-year mortality was markedly higher in the THL group than in the PCI group (51.4% vs. 15.3%; P<.001).
Our work suggests that the extrapolation of algorithm of revascularization used in younger patients is not appropriate for elderly patients. Specific algorithm of revascularization and recommendations are needed in elderly patients.
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine 01/2007; 8(2):90-3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: thrombolysis (THL) and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are therapeutic options in acute myocardial infarction (MI). These strategies have similar efficiency, particularly in the early phase. However, in these randomized studies, different times to treatment (TT) threshold are recognized as discriminant.
to validate, on a one year mortality criteria the best TT threshold in the real life.
794 patients, admitted directly in our institution with a Ml< or =12 hours; 299 were treated by THL and 495 by PCI. The primary end-point was 1-year mortality according to TT and strategy of revascularization. Three TT thresholds were tested (120, 150 and 180 min) to define the best strategy of revascularisation.
only the 150 min TT threshold showed a significant difference between the two strategies. If TT was less than 150 min, relative risk of 1-year mortality was 1.36 (p=0.62) for patients treated by THL compared to those treated with PCI. By contrast, the relative risk of one year mortality was 1.95 if Tr was greater than 150 min (p=0.02).
TT is a key factor to define the best strategy of reperfusion. The critical threshold seems to be at 150 min. THL should be considered as a therapeutic choice only if administered within the first 150 min. After this delay, primary PCI should be preferred.
Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux 02/2006; 99(1):7-12. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency ablation, which is increasingly used in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia, can be complicated with pericardial effusion and one case of Dressler's syndrome has already been reported after an atrioventricular pathway ablation. This case reports a second case complicating an atrioventricular node radiofrequency ablation procedure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors report the case of a 62 year old patient admitted for a tamponade, revealing a mixed lympho-epithelial thymoma with invasion of the pericardium, the aorta and of the pulmonary arteria. The histological diagnosis was confirmed by a surgical biopsy performed after emergency pericardiocentesis. A neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by incomplete surgical resection and then a post operative radiotherapy. A local relapse was diagnosed at one year follow up by CT scan and a second line chemotherapy was administered. No further relapse occurred and patient was alive at four years.
Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux 07/2005; 98(6):680-3. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IVA/diagonal coronary bifurcation is a high risk area for atheromatous disease. Major technical and strategic risks make the treatment of these lesions a real "challenge" for the interventional cardiologist: angioplasty-stenting and surgery are in direct competition.
the aim of this study was to determine the significance of interventional techniques in treating the IVA/diagonal bifurcation, drawing on the experiences of a cardiological haemodynamic laboratory and comparing these results with those obtained with the reference technique, represented by aorto-coronary bypass with the internal mammary artery.
this was a monocentric retrospective study of a series of 133 patients treated with angioplasty-stenting between January 1997 and December 2002 for a new IVA/Dg bifurcation lesion. Patients admitted for myocardial infarction were excluded.
no matter which angioplasty revascularisation technique was used, the angiographic success rate was 95% with 3% occlusions of the diagonal artery. At six months, 72% of patients were asymptomatic, the rate of treated lesion revascularisation (TLR) was 21.9%. At one year 68.8% of patients were asymptomatic, and the TLR was 24.2%. The technique evolved during the six years, especially with the expansion of the radial approach and increasingly frequent use of the "kissing balloon"; at one year the TLR and the rate of major cardiac events was 31% in 1997 and 15% in 2002.
angioplasty-stenting in this at-risk region is thus favourable, and gives results comparable with those of internal mammary/IVA bypass, save on the TLR. However, the development of stents "pre-formed" for the bifurcation and especially "active" endoprostheses could represent a solution to the delicate problem of restenosis.
Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux 05/2005; 98(4):317-24. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of preceding unstable angina on the short-term prognosis of myocardial infarction based on early complications: cardiac failure, cardiac rupture, ventricular septal defect, sustained ventricular tachycardia ventricular fibrillation and hospital mortality. A continuous series of 1,910 patients admitted with 7 days of myocardial infarction was analysed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to their previous coronary history: Group A (myocardial infarction preceded by unstable angina) and Group B (myocardial infarction without preceding unstable angina). Group B was subdivided into Group B1 (myocardial infarction de novo) and Group B2 (myocardial infarction with previous stable angina). The results showed that patients with previous unstable angina (Group A) had a lower hospital mortality (7.9%) than those without (Group B) (13.3%) (p = 00017), fewer cardiac ruptures (1.1 versus 2.9%, p = 0.03) and less ventricular fibrillation (2.6 versus 4.5%, p = 0.053). Subgroups analysis showed that patients with de novo myocardial infarction (Group B1) had more sustained ventricular tachycardia than those with previous stable angina (Group B2) (5.3 versus 2.7%, p = 0.04). The authors conclude that pre-infarction unstable angina, possibly by ischaemic pre-conditioning, is an independent factor of a better prognosis in myocardial infarction.
Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux 03/2002; 95(2):87-92. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ventilation/perfusion pulmonary scintigraphy (PS), the current mainspring in the diagnosis of pulmonary oedema (PE), is frequently non-conclusive. The objective of this study was to determine, prospectively, the diagnostic value of the association of D-dimers and helicoidal thoracic scanner (HTS) in a continuous series of ambulatory adults with suspected PE and admitted to a cardiologic emergency unit.
Exclusion criteria were as follows: symptoms or clinical signs of seventy, contraindication for HTS and/or on pulmonary angiography, curative anticoagulant therapy for more than 48 hours, history of PE less than 3 months before or the impossibility of conducting all the examinations with 48 hours. All the patients underwent determination of D-dimers by rapid ELISA test, HTS and 2 reference examinations, venous Doppler of the lower limbs and a PS, completed by pulmonary angiography if the PS did not permit diagnosis and the venous Doppler was negative.
One hundred and six patients were selected over a recruitment period of 18 months. The prevalence of PE was of 45% (48/106). Forty-four of the 48 PE of the series were central form. HTS was considered dubious in 10 patients (10.4%, PE+ n = 2, PE- n = 8). The results of D-dimers were negative in only 34.5% patients without PE (20/58). Pulmonary angiography was necessary in 15 patients. The negative and positive predictive values of D-dimers were respectively of 100 and 55.8% (48/86) and those of HTS respectively 100 (46/46) and 92% (46/50).
The diagnostic strategy of clinical suspicion of PE, starting with determination of D-dimers by rapid ELISA test followed by helicoidal thoracic scanner in the case of a positive result, was particularly effective in this series of patients with a high prevalence of PE. These results must be confirmed in a larger series and in a general emergency unit.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thromboembolic venous disease includes deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs and pulmonary embolism, a common acute complication. The usual treatment is anticoagulation. Thrombolytic drugs are only used in severe cases. Of the thrombolytic agents and therapeutic protocols in use, alteplase 100 mg/2 hours seems to be the best compromise between the risk of bleeding and efficacy in reducing pulmonary resistances by 30 to 40% and relatively early pulmonary revascularisation of 40-50%. As in myocardial infarction, cerebral haemorrhage is the main complication and the risk is higher in elderly (over 70 years of age) patients who have undergone invasive procedures. Massive pulmonary embolism, defined by clinical criteria, is presently the only formal indication of thrombolysis in this context. In non-massive embolism with right ventricular dysfunction, thrombolysis could also be indicated in the absence of haemorrhagic risk. In deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs, the role of thrombolysis is limited and controversial; in many cases, the risk of haemorrhage is greater than the potential benefits.
Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux 12/2001; 94(11 Suppl):1327-32. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the potential benefit of thrombolysis in patients with massive pulmonary embolism (PE) with stable hemodynamics and right ventricular dysfunction.
Retrospective, cohort study.
University-based, tertiary referral medical center.
One hundred fifty-three consecutive patients with massive PE from January 1992 to December 1997 treated with heparin or thrombolysis. Measurements and results: Massive PE was confirmed by perfusion lung scan or pulmonary angiography. Right ventricular dysfunction was assessed by echocardiography (right ventricular/left ventricular [RV/LV] diastolic diameter ratio > 0.6) in all patients. In order to study a homogeneous population, 64 patients treated with thrombolysis (group 1) were matched on baseline RV/LV diameter ratio to 64 patients treated with heparin (group 2). Perfusion lung scan was repeated at day 7 to day 10. Mean relative improvement in perfusion lung scans was higher in group 1 than group 2 (54% vs 42%, respectively). PE recurrences were the same in both groups (4.7%; n = 3). There were no bleeding complications and no deaths in group 2. Conversely, in group 1, 15.6% (n = 10) of patients suffered from bleeding (4.7%; n = 3 with intracranial bleeding) and 6.25% (n = 4) of them died.
The results of this monocenter registry do not support the indication for thrombolysis in patients suffering from massive PE with stable hemodynamics and right ventricular dysfunction. Appropriate therapy in such patients still remains unknown. Further prospective randomized trials should be performed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of ventricular late potentials (VLP) during the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI) depending on the treatment used.
This retrospective study was carried out over the period January 1992 to December 1997, and involved 238 patients admitted for primary MI and treated less than six hours after the onset of symptoms by intravenous thrombolysis (rt-PA, n = 83) or primary angioplasty (ATCI, n = 82) and in those cases treated over six hours after the onset of symptoms by standard treatment (heparin, n = 73). Rt-PA perfusion was considered to be effective when the three following criteria were simultaneously present: i) pain sedation; ii) regression of the ST dysfunction > 50%; iii) creatine phosphokinase (CPK) peak before the 16th hour. Treatment success for angioplasty (ATCI+) was confirmed by a TIMI 3 (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) score for MI arterial perfusion, with residual stenosis of the MI artery of < 50%. Ventricular late potentials (VLP) were investigated between day six and 14, and considered to be present when two of the following criteria were met: total duration of filtered QRS, i.e., QRSd > 114 ms; signal amplitude in the 49 last ms of filtered QRS, i.e., RMS40 < 20 mV, duration of the terminal part of filtered QRS that was below 40 mV, i.e., LAS40 > 38 ms (40 Hz). VLP prevalence was as follows: 25% (rt-PA group), 345 (ATCI group), and 33% (standard treatment) respectively (P = NS). In the thrombolysis with reperfusion subgroup (n = 54/83, 65%), VLP incidence was 18.5% (n = 10/54) versus 35.5% (n = 27/76) in the subgroup ACTI+ (n = 76/82, 93%) (P = 0.03).
The prevalence of VLP appears to be significantly decreased in the the case of thrombolysis with reperfusion compared to that observed in the ATCI+ group. One of the possible explanations for this abnormally high prevalence in the angioplasty group could be a dysfunction involving reocclusion after initially successful myocardial reperfusion therapy.
Annales de Cardiologie et d Angéiologie 09/2000; 49(6):335-42. · 0.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared prospectively the diagnostic value of dobutamine echocardiography and exercise myocardial scintigraphy for restenosis at 6 months after angioplasty of the left anterior descending artery. Forty-one patients aged 58 +/- 10 years, admitted to hospital for myocardium infarction (N = 22) or unstable angina (N = 19), with single vessel disease, were treated by angioplasty of one lesion of the left anterior descending artery after initial evaluation of the left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography. At 6 months, left ventricular function was reassessed by echocardiography, dobutamine echocardiography and exercise myocardial scintigraphy (Thallium 201) performed without treatment. Coronary angiography was performed at the same time and showed 8 restenosis (19.5%). Overall, in this series, dobutamine echo and scintigraphy had respectively a sensitivity of 37.5% and 75%, and a specificity of 97% and 70% (p < 0.02). Nine patients had left ventricular dysfunction unchanged compared with the initial measurement without viability in the territory of the left anterior descending artery with low dose dobutamine (group 1); thirty-two patients had improved or normal left ventricular ejection fraction with myocardial viability (group 2). In group 1, no cases of restenosis were detected by dobutamine echocardiography but_of them had myocardial scintigraphic evidence of ischaemia. In group 2, the sensitivity of the two techniques was comparable but dobutamine echo was more specific than scintigraphy (96 versus 75%, p = 0.03). In conclusion, dobutamine echocardiography may be indicated in the diagnosis of restenosis of the left anterior descending artery and in cases of viability in its territory. In its absence, myocardial scintigraphy seems to be preferable.
Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux 07/2000; 93(6):711-7. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Between December 1991 and February 19999, 25 patients (56 +/- 10 years) underwent salvage angioplasty with coronary stenting after failure of thrombolysis (TIMI 2), rtPA (N = 18), n-PA (N = 4), K2-tu-PA (N = 2) and streptokinase (N = 1). All were treated by aspirin and 96% were given ticlopidine for one month. The culprit artery was the left anterior descending (48%), the left circumflex (8%) or the right coronary (44%). The average ejection fraction was 41%; 4 patients (16%) had cardiogenic shock. The stents were implanted for occlusive coronary dissection (36%), threatening dissection (40%), partial result of angioplasty (20%) or of first intention (4%). In all, 31 stents were implanted (1.2 +/- 0.57 stent/target lesion ratio with an average length of 20.9 +/- 10.2 mm). The stents were tabular in 51% of cases. The angiographic success rate (TIMI 3 and residual stenosis < 50%) was 96% with maximum inflation pressures of 13.7 +/- 2.5 atm and balloons with an average diameter of 3.3 +/- 0.5 mm. Intra-aortic balloon pumping was required in 7 patients (28%). The 30 day results included a mortality rate of 16% (4 patients), a recurrence of infarction in 4%; there were no repeat angioplasties, coronary bypass surgery or blood transfusions. The predictive factors of recurrent coronary events were: age over 60 (p = 0.04), multivessel coronary disease (p = 0.007), cardiogenic shock (p = 0.004) and left ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.015). The authors conclude that cases of failure of thrombolysis are at high risk and that salvage angioplasty with coronary stenting is associated with excellent angiographic results. Patients with cardiogenic shock, however, have a high mortality, irrespective of coronary patency and the use of intra-aortic balloon pumping.
Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux 05/2000; 93(4):347-53. · 0.40 Impact Factor