Yukio Sawaishi

National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan

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Publications (49)176.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease.
    Brain & development 07/2012; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize Alexander disease (AxD) phenotypes and determine correlations with age at onset (AAO) and genetic mutation. AxD is an astrogliopathy usually characterized on MRI by leukodystrophy and caused by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mutations. We present 30 new cases of AxD and reviewed 185 previously reported cases. We conducted Wilcoxon rank sum tests to identify variables scaling with AAO, survival analysis to identify predictors of mortality, and χ(2) tests to assess the effects of common GFAP mutations. Finally, we performed latent class analysis (LCA) to statistically define AxD subtypes. LCA identified 2 classes of AxD. Type I is characterized by early onset, seizures, macrocephaly, motor delay, encephalopathy, failure to thrive, paroxysmal deterioration, and typical MRI features. Type II is characterized by later onset, autonomic dysfunction, ocular movement abnormalities, bulbar symptoms, and atypical MRI features. Survival analysis predicted a nearly 2-fold increase in mortality among patients with type I AxD relative to those with type II. R79 and R239 GFAP mutations were most common (16.6% and 20.3% of all cases, respectively). These common mutations predicted distinct clinical outcomes, with R239 predicting the most aggressive course. AAO and the GFAP mutation site are important clinical predictors in AxD, with clear correlations to defined patterns of phenotypic expression. We propose revised AxD subtypes, type I and type II, based on analysis of statistically defined patient groups.
    Neurology 09/2011; 77(13):1287-94. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of an 11-month-old girl with congenital axonal neuropathy and West syndrome. She had generalized hypotonia and an abnormal posture since birth, and apparently, her development was stalled. Deep tendon reflexes were absent, and at 5 months of age, she developed West syndrome followed by refractory seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed mild cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, high-signal-intensity areas in the white matter, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. No action potentials were detected in both lower and upper extremities in motor and sensory conduction velocity analysis performed at 11 months of age. Sural nerve biopsy was performed, and analysis of the biopsied specimen revealed axonal degeneration. Originally designed resequencing analysis using microarray was carried out for the 27 genes associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, but no disease-causing mutations were identified. So far, there have been no reports on simultaneous development of congenital axonal neuropathy and West syndrome.
    Brain & development 01/2011; 33(8):692-6. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    Yukio Sawaishi
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 12/2010; 52(12):1081-2. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a progressive and catastrophic epileptic disorder caused by chronic localized encephalitis. We performed a nationwide survey of RE to assess the clinical picture, treatment effect, and prognosis of Japanese RE patients. The subjects were 27 patients (male:12; female:15) from 13 medical facilities. All of them satisfied the clinical and neuroimaging criteria for RE, including 14 pathologically proven cases. They were divided into the childhood-onset rapidly progressive type (CORP, n=19), and late-onset slowly progressive type (LOSP, n=8). The mean age at epilepsy onset was 4 years and 4 months in CORP, and 16 years in LOSP. The mean period between the onset age of epilepsy and development of frequent seizures was 1 year and 4 months in the former, and 3 years and 4 months in the latter. The immunomodulatory treatment including high-dose steroid (n=14) and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapies (IVIgG, n=12) achieved more than a 50% reduction in the seizure frequency in 5 (36%) and 4 (33%) patients, respectively. Eight and seven patients underwent focal cortical resection and functional hemispherectomy, leading to significant improvement in 5 of the 8 patients and excellent seizure control in all 7 patients, respectively. Although the high-dose steroid and IVIG therapies may have alleviated the exacerbation of seizures in those with RE, they could not halt the disease progression. Functional hemispherectomy is still the only curative therapy for RE, despite the fact that the early introduction of this procedure remains controversial.
    Brain & development 11/2009; 32(6):445-53. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Yukio Sawaishi
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    ABSTRACT: Alexander disease is classified as one of the leukodystrophies, which are degenerative diseases primarily affecting the cerebral white matter. Formal diagnosis is achieved by showing diffuse accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the brain by biopsy or autopsy. Showing a heterozygous mutation in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene is currently sufficient for diagnosis. The mechanisms of Rosenthal fiber formation remain unclear. However, both the quality and quantity of GFAP are important. GFAP-epsilon (rodent homologous GFAP-delta), one of the alternatively spliced GFAP isoforms, may also play a modulating role in aggregate formation. The current ease of diagnosis has accelerated the accumulation of a wide variety of patients with Alexander disease along with the widespread use of MRI. In contrast to the classical infantile type, patients with juvenile and adult types mainly complain of bulbar symptoms and usually show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem and cervical spinal cord with mild or minimal leukodystrophic changes. Among the many MRI findings of Alexander disease, periventricular linear lesions with various names depending on the thickness and shape seem to represent the unique pathophysiology, because the subventricular zone of the adult human brain includes special astrocytes that behave as multipotent progenitor cells and specifically produce GFAP-epsilon. Except for a few mutations, no clear phenotype-genotype correlation has been established for Alexander disease, although male preponderance in the infantile type suggests that phenotypes may be partly affected by gender.
    Brain & development 05/2009; 31(7):493-8. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alexander disease is a rare disorder of the central nervous system caused by a de novo mutation in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene. Unlike the much more common infantile form, the juvenile form is slowly progressive with bulbar, pyramidal and cerebellar signs. Herein, we report a 9-year old Japanese girl suffering from frequent vomiting, slurred speech and truncal ataxia. Juvenile Alexander disease was diagnosed by genetic analysis, which detected a novel GFAP mutation, D360V. We also describe our clinical success in treating this patient with thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH).
    Brain and Development 12/2006; 28(10):663-7. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy and other abnormal manifestations of REM sleep. Recently, it was discovered that the pathophysiology of idiopathic narcolepsy-cataplexy is linked to orexin ligand deficiency in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Orexin neurons localize in the posterior hypothalamic area, which was previously described as "waking center" by von Economo in 1920s. Hypersomnia due to orexin ligand deficiency can also occur during the course of other neurological conditions, such as hypothalamic tumor, encephalopathy and demyelinating disorder (i.e. symptomatic hypersomnia). We experienced 8 pediatric cases with symptomatic hypersomnia. These cases were diagnosed as brain tumor (n = 2), head trauma (n = 1), encephalopathy (n = 1), demyelinating disorder (n = 3) and infarction (n = 1). Six pediatric cases with orexin measurements from the literatures were additionally included and total 14 cases were studied. Although it is difficult to rule out the comorbidity of idiopathic narcolepsy in some cases, a review of the case histories reveals numerous unquestionable cases of symptomatic hypersomnia. In these cases, the occurrences of the hypersomnia run parallel with the rise and fall of the causative diseases. Most of symptomatic hypersomnia cases show both extended nocturnal sleep time and EDS consisting of prolonged sleep episodes of NREM sleep. The features of nocturnal sleep and EDS in symptomatic hypersomnia are more similar to idiopathic hypersomnia than to narcolepsy.
    No to hattatsu. Brain and development 10/2006; 38(5):340-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Periaxin (PRX) plays an important role in the myelination of the peripheral nerve and consequently in the pathogenesis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). To date, nine nonsense or frameshift PRX mutations have been reported in eight families with CMT. The patients with PRX mutations appeared to show characteristic clinical features with early onset but slow or no progression, a common result of mutations that lead to missing a C-terminal acidic domain. Here, we report a Japanese CMT patient with these characteristic clinical features, who was a compound heterozygote for PRX R1070X and L132FsX153 mutations. We previously reported that three Japanese isolated families also had the homozygous R1070X mutation. To examine the potential founder effect of the R1070X mutation in the Japanese population, we performed haplotype analysis and found that each R1070X allele lay on a different haplotype background in these four families. Therefore, the high frequency of the R1070X mutation among the Japanese population is not likely the consequence of a founder effect, but probably a result of a mutation hot spot.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2006; 51(7):625-8. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nearly 80% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have some types of lesion identified by conventional 1.5 tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We performed high-field 3 T MRI in a 5-year-old patient with recurrent complex partial seizures who was diagnosed as having right temporal lobe epilepsy based on the results of single photon emission computed tomography and ictal video-electroencephalogram monitoring, because 1.5 T MRI failed to detect any abnormalities in the suspected region. High-field 3 T MRI revealed a small high-intensity lesion on fast spin-echo short inversion time inversion-recovery images of the hippocampus, possibly responsible for the seizures. This is the first report detecting a hippocampal lesion by 3 T MRI, which could not be found by conventional 1.5 T MRI.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/2005; 205(3):287-91. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 4-year-old female with choroid plexus carcinoma developed progressive disturbance of consciousness 2 years after postoperative treatment with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and focal methotrexate injection into a residual tumor cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed white matter lesions localized around the expanding large cyst. A malignant recurrence of choroid plexus carcinoma with a propensity of cerebrospinal fluid overproduction was suspected. However, daily drainage of cerebrospinal fluid from the cyst and treatment with glycerol and dexamethasone achieved improvement. Diffuse hypoperfusion over the lesions on single-photon emission computed tomography denied the possibility of residual tumor aggravation and together with subsequent atrophic changes confirmed that the lesions reflect localized leukoencephalopathy, possibly associated with methotrexate forced into the parenchyma as a result of the expanding intracystic high pressure.
    Pediatric Neurology 02/2005; 32(1):68-71. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lafora disease (LD) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by epilepsy, myoclonus, and progressive neurological deterioration. LD is caused by mutations in the EMP2A gene encoding a protein phosphatase. A second gene for LD, termed NHLRC1 and encoding a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, was recently identified on chromosome 6p22. The LD is relatively common in southern Europe, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. A few sporadic cases with typical LD phenotype have been reported from Japan; however, our earlier study failed to find EPM2A mutations in four Japanese families with LD. We recruited four new families from Japan and searched for mutations in EPM2A . All eight families were also screened for NHLRC1 mutations. We found five independent families having novel mutations in NHLRC1. Identified mutations include five missense mutations (p.I153M, p.C160R, p.W219R, p.D245N, and p.R253K) and a deletion mutation (c.897insA; p.S299fs13). We also found a family with a ten base pair deletion (c.822-832del10) in the coding region of EPM2A. In two families, no EPM2A or NHLRC1 mutation was found. Our study, in addition to documenting the genetic and molecular heterogeneity observed for LD, suggests that mutations in the NHLRC1 gene may be a common cause of LD in the Japanese population.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2005; 50(7):347-52. · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Neurology 01/2005; 63(12):2440-2. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ribavirin is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug with inhibitory activity against many RNA viruses, including measles virus. Five patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were treated with ribavirin by intraventricular administration. Although there were transient side effects attributed to ribavirin, such as drowsiness, headache, lip and gingival swelling, and conjunctival hyperemia, intraventricular ribavirin therapy was generally safe and well tolerated. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ribavirin concentration decreased, as described by a monoexponential function, after a single intraventricular dose. There was considerable interindividual variability, however, in the peak level and half-life. We aimed to adjust the individual dose and frequency of intraventricular administration based on the peak level and half-life of ribavirin in the CSF in order to maintain the CSF ribavirin concentration at the target level. Clinical effectiveness (significant neurologic improvement and/or a significant decrease in titers of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies against measles virus in CSF) was observed for four of five patients. For these four patients, CSF ribavirin concentrations were maintained at a level at which SSPE virus replication was almost completely inhibited in vitro and in vivo, whereas the concentration was lower in the patient without clinical improvement. These results suggest that intraventricular administration of ribavirin is effective against SSPE if the CSF ribavirin concentration is maintained at a high level. Intraventricular ribavirin therapy should be pursued further for its potential use for patients with SSPE and might be applied in the treatment of patients with encephalitis caused by other RNA viruses.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2005; 48(12):4631-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a family with dominantly inherited asymptomatic Alexander's disease due to a novel Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mutation. The proband, a 16-month-old boy, presented with megalocephaly and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing the typical findings of Alexander's disease. Molecular analysis showed that he was a heterozygote of the L331P mutation of GFAP. His mother and sister, without megalocephaly or other neurological abnormalities, were also heterozygotes of the mutation and their brain magnetic resonance imaging showed mild changes in the caudates and deep frontal white matters. These results suggest the existence of a forme fruste of Alexander's disease. The L331P mutation may be associated with the mild phenotype of Alexander's disease. To elucidate the genotype-phenotype correlation in Alexander's disease, molecular diagnosis and MRI examination are required for many patients and their families.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 11/2004; 225(1-2):125-7. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periaxin (PRX) plays a significant role in the myelination of the peripheral nerve. To date, seven non-sense or frameshift PRX mutations have been reported in six pedigrees with Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy or severe Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT). We detected a PRX mutation in three patients in the screening of 66 Japanese demyelinating CMT patients who were negative for the gene mutation causing dominant or X-linked demyelinating CMT. Three unrelated patients were homozygous for a novel R1070X mutation and presented early-onset but slowly progressive distal motor and sensory neuropathies. Mutations lacking the carboxyl-terminal acidic domain may show loss-of-function effects and cause severe demyelinating CMT.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2004; 49(7):376-9. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ten patients with SSPE were surveyed during the last 4 years from the viewpoint of clinical safety for use of ribavirin therapy. Although effectiveness varied among cases, they were all treated safely with intraventricular ribavirin. This study suggests that treatment is safe and well-tolerated.
    Brain and Development 11/2003; 25(7):514-7. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the orexin concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-OX) in two patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis who underwent intracerebroventricular (ICV) α-interferon (IFN-α) therapy. In these patients, CSF-OX were in the normal range before ICV administration of IFN-α, and it decreased to undetectable levels after the initiation of IFN-α therapy. It was reported that the production of prepro-OX, which is a precursor of OX, was prevented when IFN-α was given to the gene promoter region of prepro-OX. These results suggest that the production of OX may be suppressed by inhibition of promotor activity when IFN-α is given to the cerebral ventricle in humans.
    Sleep and Biological Rhythms 06/2003; 1(2):143 - 145. · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 2-year-old girl demonstrating gait disturbance and dysuria was evaluated and showed two large remote tumors at the left lateral ventricle and lower spinal canal. Pathological analysis demonstrated both of the tumors to be choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) with high MIB-1 labeling index. The enhanced mitotic propensity would have contributed to an early stage of drop metastasis from the primary site to the sacral sac and following accelerated formation of a longitudinal tumor, which had grown in the subarachnoid space conforming to the spinal canal and finally caused the presenting symptoms of spinal dysfunction. This report shows that CPC can develop exophytically in the subarachnoid space as well as in the ventricle simultaneously before appearance of clinical symptoms and confirms the importance of extensive neuroimaging in its evaluation.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 06/2003; 63(1):75-9. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Neuropediatrics 03/2003; 34(1):52-3. · 1.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

663 Citations
176.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry
      • Department of Child Neurology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1996–2009
    • Akita University Hospital
      Akita, Akita, Japan
  • 1999–2006
    • Akita University
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Akita, Akita-ken, Japan
  • 2002–2004
    • Yamagata University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan