[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In their previous analysis of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) from an Ukrainian-American cohort that was exposed to iodine-131 ((131) I) from the Chernobyl accident, the authors identified RET/PTC rearrangements and other driver mutations in 60% of tumors.
METHODS: In this study, the remaining mutation-negative tumors from that cohort were analyzed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to identify novel chromosomal rearrangements and to characterize their relation with radiation dose.
RESULTS: The ETS variant gene 6 (ETV6)-neurotrophin receptor 3 (NTRK3) rearrangement (ETV6-NTRK3) was identified by RNA-Seq in a tumor from a patient who received a high (131) I dose. Overall, the rearrangement was detected in 9 of 62 (14.5%) post-Chernobyl PTCs and in 3 of 151 (2%) sporadic PTCs (P = .019). The most common fusion type was between exon 4 of ETV6 and exon 14 of NTRK3. The prevalence of ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangement in post-Chernobyl PTCs was associated with increasing (131) I dose, albeit at borderline significance (P = .126). The group of rearrangement-positive PTCs (ETV6-NTRK3, RET/PTC, PAX8-PPARγ) was associated with significantly higher dose response compared with the group of PTCs with point mutations (BRAF, RAS; P < .001). In vitro exposure of human thyroid cells to 1 gray of (131) I and γ-radiation resulted in the formation of ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangement at a rate of 7.9 × 10(-6) cells and 3.0 × 10(-6) cells, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The authors report the occurrence of ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangements in thyroid cancer and demonstrate that this rearrangement is significantly more common in tumors associated with exposure to (131) I and has a borderline significant dose response. Moreover, ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangement can be directly induced in thyroid cells by ionizing radiation in vitro and, thus, may represent a novel mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.
Cancer 03/2014; 120(6):799-807. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Thyroid cancer incidence rates in the United States and globally have increased steadily over the last 40 years, primarily due to a tripling of the incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze trends in demographic, clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics of PTC from 1974 to 2009. Design and Setting: We identified and histologically reviewed 469 consecutive cases of PTC from one US institution from 4 preselected periods (1974 to 1985, 1990 to 1992, 2000, and 2009) and assessed BRAF and RAS point mutations and RET/PTC rearrangements among 341 tumors ≥0.3 cm in size. Changes over time were analyzed using polytomous and binary logistic regression; all analyses were adjusted for age and sex. Results: During this period, the median age of patients at diagnosis increased from 37 to 53 years (P < .001) and the percentage of microcarcinomas (≤1.0 cm) increased from 33% to 51% (P < .001), whereas extrathyroidal extension and advanced tumor stage decreased from 40% to 21% (P = .005) and from 43% to 28% (P = .036), respectively. Changes in tumor histopathology showed a decrease in classic PTC and an increase in the follicular variant (P < .001). The proportion of tumors with a BRAF mutation was stable (∼46%) but increased from 50% to 77% (P = .008) within classic papillary PTCs. The proportion of tumors with RAS mutations increased from 3% to 25% and within follicular pattern tumors from 18% to 44% (P < .001). The proportion of RET/PTC rearrangements decreased from 11% to 2% (P = .038). Conclusions: Similar to US national trends, we found an increasing age at diagnosis and greater detection of smaller-sized intrathyroidal PTCs. However, the overall proportion of BRAF mutations remained stable. Sharply rising percentages of the follicular variant histology and RAS mutations after 2000 suggest new and more recent etiologic factors. The increased incidence is not likely to be due to environmental or therapeutic radiation because the percentage of RET/PTC rearrangements decreased.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 02/2014; 99(2):E276-E285. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Brain glioma is a relatively rare and fatal malignancy in adulthood with few known risk factors. Some observational studies have reported inverse associations between diabetes and subsequent glioma risk, but possible mechanisms are unclear. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of original data from five nested case-control studies and two case-control studies from the U.S. and China that included 962 glioma cases and 2,195 controls. We examined self-reported diabetes history in relation to glioma risk, as well as effect modification by seven glioma risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also examined the associations between 13 diabetes risk-associated SNPs, identified from genome-wide association studies, and glioma risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results: We observed a 42% reduced risk of glioma for individuals with a history of diabetes (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.40-0.84). The association did not differ by sex, study design, or after restricting to glioblastoma, the most common histological sub-type. We did not observe any significant per-allele trends among the 13 diabetes-related SNPs examined in relation to glioma risk. Conclusion: These results support an inverse association between diabetes history and glioma risk. The role of genetic susceptibility to diabetes cannot be excluded, and should be pursued in future studies together with other factors that might be responsible for the diabetes-glioma association. Impact: These data suggest the need for studies that can evaluate, separately, the association between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and subsequent risk of adult glioma.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 11/2013; · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:A strong, consistent association between childhood irradiation and subsequent thyroid cancer provides an excellent model for studying radiation carcinogenesis.Methods:We evaluated gene expression in 63 paired RNA specimens from frozen normal and tumour thyroid tissues with individual iodine-131 (I-131) doses (0.008-8.6 Gy, no unirradiated controls) received from Chernobyl fallout during childhood (Ukrainian-American cohort). Approximately half of these randomly selected samples (32 tumour/normal tissue RNA specimens) were hybridised on 64 whole-genome microarrays (Agilent, 4 × 44 K). Associations between I-131 dose and gene expression were assessed separately in normal and tumour tissues using Kruskal-Wallis and linear trend tests. Of 155 genes significantly associated with I-131 after Bonferroni correction and with 2-fold increase per dose category, we selected 95 genes. On the remaining 31 RNA samples these genes were used for validation purposes using qRT-PCR.Results:Expression of eight genes (ABCC3, C1orf9, C6orf62, FGFR1OP2, HEY2, NDOR1, STAT3, and UCP3) in normal tissue and six genes (ANKRD46, CD47, HNRNPH1, NDOR1, SCEL, and SERPINA1) in tumour tissue was significantly associated with I-131. PANTHER/DAVID pathway analyses demonstrated significant over-representation of genes coding for nucleic acid binding in normal and tumour tissues, and for p53, EGF, and FGF signalling pathways in tumour tissue.Conclusion:The multistep process of radiation carcinogenesis begins in histologically normal thyroid tissue and may involve dose-dependent gene expression changes.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 17 September 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.574 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Common variants in two of the five genetic regions recently identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of risk of glioma were reported to interact with a history of allergic symptoms. In a pooled analysis of five epidemiologic studies, we evaluated the association between the five GWAS implicated gene variants and allergies and autoimmune conditions (AIC) on glioma risk (851 adult glioma cases and 3,977 controls). We further evaluated the joint effects between allergies and AIC and these gene variants on glioma risk. Risk estimates were calculated as odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI), adjusted for age, gender, and study. Joint effects were evaluated by conducting stratified analyses whereby the risk associations (OR and 95 % CI) with the allergy or autoimmune conditions for glioma were evaluated by the presence or absence of the 'at-risk' variant, and estimated p interaction by fitting models with the main effects of allergy or autoimmune conditions and genotype and an interaction (product) term between them. Four of the five SNPs previously reported by others were statistically significantly associated with increased risk of glioma in our study (rs2736100, rs4295627, rs4977756, and rs6010620); rs498872 was not associated with glioma in our study. Reporting any allergies or AIC was associated with reduced risks of glioma (allergy: adjusted OR = 0.71, 95 % CI 0.55-0.91; AIC: adjusted OR = 0.65, 95 % CI 0.47-0.90). We did not observe differential association between allergic or autoimmune conditions and glioma by genotype, and there were no statistically significant p interactions. Stratified analysis by glioma grade (low and high grade) did not suggest risk differences by disease grade. Our results do not provide evidence that allergies or AIC modulate the association between the four GWAS-identified SNPs examined and risk of glioma.
Cancer Causes and Control 08/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Childhood exposure to iodine-131 from the 1986 nuclear accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, led to a sharp increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence in regions surrounding the reactor. Data concerning the association between genetic mutations in PTCs and individual radiation doses are limited.
METHODS: Mutational analysis was performed on 62 PTCs diagnosed in a Ukrainian cohort of patients who were < 18 years old in 1986 and received 0.008 to 8.6 Gy of (131) I to the thyroid. Associations between mutation types and (131) I dose and other characteristics were explored.
RESULTS: RET/PTC (ret proto-oncogene/papillary thyroid carcinoma) rearrangements were most common (35%), followed by BRAF (15%) and RAS (8%) point mutations. Two tumors carrying PAX8/PPARγ (paired box 8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) rearrangement were identified. A significant negative association with (131) I dose for BRAF and RAS point mutations and a significant concave association with (131) I dose, with an inflection point at 1.6 Gy and odds ratio of 2.1, based on a linear-quadratic model for RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements were found. The trends with dose were significantly different between tumors with point mutations and rearrangements. Compared with point mutations, rearrangements were associated with residence in the relatively iodine-deficient Zhytomyr region, younger age at exposure or surgery, and male sex.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first demonstration of PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements in post-Chernobyl tumors and show different associations for point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements with (131) I dose and other factors. These data support the relationship between chromosomal rearrangements, but not point mutations, and (131) I exposure and point to a possible role of iodine deficiency in generation of RET/PTC rearrangements in these patients.
Cancer 05/2013; 119(10):1792-1799. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction following exposure to low or moderate doses of radioactive Iodine-131 ((131)I) at a young age is a public health concern. However, quantitative data are sparse concerning (131)I-related risk of these common diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in association with (131)I exposure during childhood (≤ 18 years) due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (ATPO) in relation to measurement-based (131)I dose estimates was conducted in a Belarusian cohort of 10,827 individuals screened for various thyroid diseases. RESULTS: Mean age at exposure (± SD) was 8.2 ± 5.0 years. Mean (median) estimated (131)I thyroid dose was 0.54 (0.23) Gy (range 0.001 - 26.6 Gy). We found significant positive associations of (131)I dose with hypothyroidism (mainly subclinical and antibody-negative) and serum TSH concentration. The excess odds ratio per 1 Gy for hypothyroidism was 0.34 (95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.62) and varied significantly by age at exposure and at examination, presence of goiter, and urban/ rural residency. We found no evidence of positive associations with antibody-positive hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, AIT, or elevated ATPO. CONCLUSIONS: The association between (131)I dose and hypothyroidism in the Belarusian cohort is consistent with that previously reported for a Ukrainian cohort and strengthens evidence of the effect of environmental (131)I exposure during childhood on hypothyroidism, but not other thyroid outcomes.
Environmental Health Perspectives 05/2013; · 7.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:The chromosome 9p21.3 region has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers.Methods:We systematically examined up to 203 tagging SNPs of 22 genes on 9p21.3 (19.9-32.8 Mb) in eight case-control studies: thyroid cancer, endometrial cancer (EC), renal cell carcinoma, colorectal cancer (CRC), colorectal adenoma (CA), oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and osteosarcoma (OS). We used logistic regression to perform single SNP analyses for each study separately, adjusting for study-specific covariates. We combined SNP results across studies by fixed-effect meta-analyses and a newly developed subset-based statistical approach (ASSET). Gene-based P-values were obtained by the minP method using the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product program. We adjusted for multiple comparisons by Bonferroni correction.Results:Rs3731239 in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors 2A (CDKN2A) was significantly associated with ESCC (P=7 × 10(-6)). The CDKN2A-ESCC association was further supported by gene-based analyses (P(gene)=0.0001). In the meta-analyses by ASSET, four SNPs (rs3731239 in CDKN2A, rs615552 and rs573687 in CDKN2B and rs564398 in CDKN2BAS) showed significant associations with ESCC and EC (P<2.46 × 10(-4)). One SNP in MTAP (methylthioadenosine phosphorylase) (rs7023329) that was previously associated with melanoma and nevi in multiple genome-wide association studies was associated with CRC, CA and OS by ASSET (P=0.007).Conclusion:Our data indicate that genetic variants in CDKN2A, and possibly nearby genes, may be associated with ESCC and several other tumours, further highlighting the importance of 9p21.3 genetic variants in carcinogenesis.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 29 January 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.7 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 01/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in immune function may be important in the etiology of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). To identify genetic markers in immune-related pathways, we evaluated 3,985 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 230 candidate gene regions (adhesion-extravasation-migration, arachidonic acid metabolism/eicosanoid signaling, complement and coagulation cascade, cytokine signaling, innate pathogen detection and antimicrobials, leukocyte signaling, TNF/NF-kB pathway or other) in a case-control study of 344 PTC cases and 452 controls. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and calculate one degree of freedom P values of linear trend (PSNP-trend ) for the association between genotype (common homozygous, heterozygous, variant homozygous) and risk of PTC. To correct for multiple comparisons, we applied the false discovery rate method (FDR). Gene region- and pathway-level associations (PRegion and PPathway ) were assessed by combining individual PSNP-trend values using the adaptive rank truncated product method. Two SNPs (rs6115, rs6112) in the SERPINA5 gene were significantly associated with risk of PTC (PSNP-FDR/PSNP-trend = 0.02/6×10(-6) and PSNP-FDR/PSNP-trend = 0.04/2×10(-5), respectively). These associations were independent of a history of autoimmune thyroiditis (OR = 6.4; 95% confidence interval: 3.0-13.4). At the gene region level, SERPINA5 was suggestively associated with risk of PTC (PRegion-FDR/PRegion = 0.07/0.0003). Overall, the complement and coagulation cascade pathway was the most significant pathway (PPathway = 0.02) associated with PTC risk largely due to the strong effect of SERPINA5. Our results require replication but suggest that the SERPINA5 gene, which codes for the protein C inhibitor involved in many biological processes including inflammation, may be a new susceptibility locus for PTC.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e57243. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown consistent associations between obesity and increased thyroid cancer risk, but, to date, no studies have investigated the relationship between thyroid cancer risk and obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). METHODS: We evaluated 575 tag SNPs in 23 obesity-related gene regions in a case-control study of 341 incident papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cases and 444 controls of European ancestry. Logistic regression models, adjusted for attained age, year of birth, and sex were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with SNP genotypes, coded as 0, 1, and 2 and modeled continuously to calculate P-trends. RESULTS: Nine out of 10 top-ranking SNPs (Ptrend<0.01) were located in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene region, while the other was located in INSR (insulin receptor). None of the associations were significant after correcting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support an important role of obesity-related genetic polymorphisms in determining the risk of PTC. Impact: Factors other than selected genetic polymorphisms may be responsible for the observed associations between obesity and increased PTC risk.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 10/2012; · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risk factors for thyroid cancer (TC) in males are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between history of benign thyroid and endocrine disorders and risk of TC among 4.5 million male veterans admitted to U.S. Veterans Affairs hospitals between July 1, 1969, and September 30, 1996.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge records with 1053 cases of TC.
We estimated relative risks (RR) and computed 95% confidence intervals (CI) for TC using time-dependent Poisson regression models. To evaluate potential ascertainment bias and/or delayed diagnosis of TC, we also analyzed RR by time between diagnosis of benign disorder and TC (<5 or ≥ 5 yr).
RR for TC were significantly elevated with many disorders and were often higher less than 5 yr compared with 5 yr or more before TC diagnosis. RR (95% CI) less than 5 yr/at least 5 yr were 67.9 (42.4-108.8)/28.9 (9.2-90.2) for thyroid adenoma, 77.8 (64.5-93.1)/25.9 (17.9-38.0) for nontoxic nodular goiter, 23.9 (13.8-41.3)/12.9 (4.8-34.4) for thyroiditis, 8.8 (6.9-11.3)/6.0 (3.8-9.6) for hypothyroidism, 6.4 (4.4-9.4)/ 2.0 (0.8-4.8) for thyrotoxicosis, and 1.2 (1.0-1.4)/1.1 (0.9-1.5) for diabetes. For some disorders, RR also significantly varied by attained age and race with younger patients and Blacks having higher RR than older patients and Whites.
We found strong associations for a history of thyroid adenoma, nodular goiter, thyroiditis, or hypothyroidism with TC in males allowing for increased surveillance/delayed diagnosis and evidence that some of these associations are modified by age and race.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 05/2012; 97(8):2661-9. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relationships are unclear between polymorphisms in genes involved in metabolism and detoxification of various chemicals and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk as well as their potential modification by alcohol or tobacco intake. We evaluated associations between 1647 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 132 candidate genes/regions involved in metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds (Phase I/II, oxidative stress, and metal binding pathways) and PTC risk in 344 PTC cases and 452 controls. For 15 selected regions and their respective SNPs, we also assessed interaction with alcohol and tobacco use. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the main effect of SNPs (P(trend)) and interaction with alcohol/tobacco intake. Gene- and pathway-level associations and interactions (P(gene interaction)) were evaluated by combining P(trend) values using the adaptive rank-truncated product method. While we found associations between PTC risk and nine SNPs (P(trend) ≤ 0.01) and seven genes/regions (P(region)<0.05), none remained significant after correction for the false discovery rate. We found a significant interaction between UGT2B7 and NAT1 genes and alcohol intake (P(gene interaction)=0.01 and 0.02 respectively) and between the CYP26B1 gene and tobacco intake (P(gene interaction)=0.02). Our results are suggestive of interaction between the genetic polymorphisms in several detoxification genes and alcohol or tobacco intake on risk of PTC. Larger studies with improved exposure assessment should address potential modification of PTC risk by alcohol and tobacco intake to confirm or refute our findings.
Endocrine Related Cancer 03/2012; 19(3):333-44. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, millions of residents of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine were exposed to large doses of radioactive iodine isotopes, mainly I-131. The purpose of the Ukraine-American (UkrAm) and Belarus-American (BelAm) projects are to quantify the risks of thyroid cancer in the framework of a classical cohort study, comprising subjects who were aged under 18 years at the time of the accident, had direct measurements of thyroid I-131 radioactivity taken within two months after the accident, and were residents of three heavily contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Zhitomir, Kiev, and Chernigov regions). Four two-year screening examination cycles were implemented from 1998 until 2007 to study the risks associated with thyroid cancer due to the iodine exposure caused during the Chernobyl accident. A standardised procedure of clinical examinations included: thyroid palpation, ultrasound examination, blood collection followed by a determination of thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine content test, and fine-needle aspiration if required. Among the 110 cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed in UkrAm as the result of four screening examinations, 104 cases (94.5%) of papillary carcinomas, five cases (4.6%) of follicular carcinomas, and one case (0.9%) of medullary carcinoma were diagnosed.
Journal of Radiological Protection 03/2012; 32(1):N65-9. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hormonal differences are hypothesized to contribute to the approximately ≥2-fold higher thyroid cancer incidence rates among women compared with men worldwide. Although thyroid cancer cells express estrogen receptors and estrogen has a proliferative effect on papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells in vitro, epidemiologic studies have not found clear associations between thyroid cancer and female hormonal factors. We hypothesized that polymorphic variation in hormone pathway genes is associated with the risk of developing papillary thyroid cancer.
We evaluated the association between PTC and 1151 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 58 candidate gene regions involved in sex hormone synthesis and metabolism, gonadotropins, and prolactin in a case-control study of 344 PTC cases and 452 controls, frequency matched on age and sex. Odds ratios and p-values for the linear trend for the association between each SNP genotype and PTC risk were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. SNPs in the same gene region or pathway were aggregated using adaptive rank-truncated product methods to obtain gene region-specific or pathway-specific p-values. To account for multiple comparisons, we applied the false discovery rate method.
Seven SNPs had p-values for linear trend <0.01, including four in the CYP19A1 gene, but none of the SNPs remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Results were similar when restricting the dataset to women. p-values for examined gene regions and for all genes combined were ≥0.09.
Based on these results, SNPs in selected hormone pathway genes do not appear to be strongly related to PTC risk. This observation is in accord with the lack of consistent associations between hormonal factors and PTC risk in epidemiologic studies.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 02/2012; 22(2):151-6. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 8q24 chromosomal region identified from genome-wide scans have been associated with the risk of several cancers, including breast (rs1562430), prostate (rs1447295), and colon (rs6983267). A genome-wide scan in 26 families with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) also found susceptibility loci in 8q24, supporting a closer evaluation of this chromosomal region in relation to the risk of sporadic PTC.
We evaluated 157 tag SNPs in the 8q24 chromosomal region between 120.91 Mb and 128.78 Mb (including rs1562430, rs1447295, and rs6983267) in a case-control study of 344 PTC cases and 452 age and gender frequency-matched controls. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and compute P values of linear trend for PTC with genotypes of interest. To account for multiple comparisons, we applied the false discovery rate (FDR) method.
We did not find a significant association between rs1562430, rs1447295, or rs6983267 and PTC risk. We found that one SNP (rs4733616) was associated with PTC risk at P = .003, and 12 other SNPs were associated with PTC risk at P < .05. However, no SNPs remained significant after FDR correction.
Our findings do not support a strong association between SNPs in the 8q24 chromosomal region and risk of sporadic PTC, but several SNPs with small effects might exist.
The Laryngoscope 01/2012; 122(5):1040-2. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The strong and consistent relationship between irradiation at a young age and subsequent thyroid cancer provides an excellent model for studying radiation carcinogenesis in humans. We thus evaluated differential gene expression in thyroid tissue in relation to iodine-131 (I-131) doses received from the Chernobyl accident. Sixty three of 104 papillary thyroid cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in the Ukrainian-American cohort with individual I-131 thyroid dose estimates had paired RNA specimens from fresh frozen tumor (T) and normal (N) tissue provided by the Chernobyl Tissue Bank and satisfied quality control criteria. We first hybridized 32 randomly allocated RNA specimen pairs (T/N) on 64 whole genome microarrays (Agilent, 4×44 K). Associations of differential gene expression (log(2)(T/N)) with dose were assessed using Kruskall-Wallis and trend tests in linear mixed regression models. While none of the genes withstood correction for the false discovery rate, we selected 75 genes with a priori evidence or P kruskall/P trend <0.0005 for validation by qRT-PCR on the remaining 31 RNA specimen pairs (T/N). The qRT-PCR data were analyzed using linear mixed regression models that included radiation dose as a categorical or ordinal variable. Eleven of 75 qRT-PCR assayed genes (ACVR2A, AJAP1, CA12, CDK12, FAM38A, GALNT7, LMO3, MTA1, SLC19A1, SLC43A3, ZNF493) were confirmed to have a statistically significant differential dose-expression relationship. Our study is among the first to provide direct human data on long term differential gene expression in relation to individual I-131 doses and to identify a set of genes potentially important in radiation carcinogenesis.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e39103. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide, thyroid cancer incidence rates are higher among women than men. While this suggests a possible etiologic role of female sex hormones, clear associations between hormonal and reproductive factors and thyroid cancer have not been observed. However, few large prospective studies have been conducted.
Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hormonal and reproductive factors and incident thyroid cancer were estimated using Cox regression methods in the prospective US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Between 1995 and 2006, 312 first primary incident thyroid cancers were diagnosed among 187,865 postmenopausal women ages 50-71 at baseline.
Thyroid cancer was not associated with ages at menarche or menopause, menopause type, or parity. Oral contraceptive use for ≥10 years (vs. never use) was inversely associated with thyroid cancer risk (HR, 0.48; 95%CI, 0.28-0.84; P(trend)=0.01). Women who reported current menopausal hormone therapy at baseline had an increased thyroid cancer risk vs. never users (HR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.07-1.79) but there was no trend with increasing duration of use. Women with benign breast disease (BBD) had a significantly higher thyroid cancer risk vs. women without BBD (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.09-1.99).
Our results do not support a strong role for female hormonal and reproductive factors including ages at menarche and menopause, type of menopause or parity, in thyroid cancer etiology among postmenopausal women. Compared with previous studies, no clear patterns emerge for exogenous hormone use but further analysis in large, prospective populations may be informative. The HR for BBD is consistent with the one previous prospective analysis that examined this association.