ABSTRACT: Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) can be associated with serious infectious complications. We evaluated the effect of education and feedback on process measures to improve PVC care and infectious complications.
Quasi-experimental controlled crossover study with sampling before and after education.
An 804-bed tertiary care teaching hospital.
Nurses and patients in 10 non-intensive care units.
We implemented a process to improve PVC care in 10 non-intensive care units. The 4 periods (each 3 months in duration) included a preintervention period and a staggered educational intervention among nurses. During intervention period 1, 5 units participated in the intervention (group A), and 5 units served as a control group (group B). Group B underwent the intervention during intervention period 2, and both groups A and B received feedback on performance during intervention period 3. Process measures were evaluated twice monthly, and feedback was given to nurses directly and to the unit manager on a monthly basis.
During the preintervention period, there were no significant differences between groups A and B. Of 4,904 intravascular catheters evaluated, 4,434 (90.4%) were peripheral. By the end of the study, there were significant improvements in processes, compared with the preintervention period, including accurate documentation of dressing (from 442 cases [38%] to 718 cases [59%]; P < .0001), catheter dressing being intact (from 968 cases [88.5%] to 1,024 cases [95.2%]; P < .0001), and correct demonstration of scrubbing the hub before infusion (from 161 demonstrations [54%] to 316 demonstrations [95%]; P < .0001). There was a significant reduction in PVC-associated bloodstream infection, from 2.2 cases per 10,000 patient-days during the preintervention period (5 cases) to 0.44 cases per 10,000 patient days during the 3 intervention periods (3 cases; P = .016).
Education and real-time feedback to nurses increases and sustains compliance with processes to reduce the risk of infection from PVCs.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 05/2012; 33(5):449-55. · 3.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Avoiding placement of unnecessary urinary catheters (UCs) in the emergency department (ED) affects UC utilization during hospitalization. The authors sought to evaluate the effect of establishing institutional guidelines for appropriate UC placement coupled with emergency physician (EP) education on UC utilization.
Urinary catheter utilization was measured before and after the establishment of guidelines and EP education. Data collected included the presence of a UC on ED arrival, placement of a UC in the ED, documentation of a physician order for UC placement, reasons for placement, and compliance with the guidelines. Chi-square analyses were used to study the association between pre- and postintervention time periods and catheter use.
A total of 377 (15%) patients had UCs; only 151 (47%) UCs initially placed in the ED had a physician order documented. UC placement was appropriately indicated in 75.5% of patients with a documented physician order, but in only 52% of cases without a documented physician order (p<0.001). The physician intervention was associated with an overall reduction in UC utilization from 16.4% to 13% (p=0.018). Physicians ordered 40% fewer UCs postintervention compared to preintervention. Preintervention, a physician order for UC placement was found indicated in 72.6% patients, compared to 82.2% patients with UC placed postintervention (p=0.21).
Establishing guidelines for UC placement and physician education in the ED were associated with a marked reduction in utilization. However, addressing appropriate UC utilization may require evaluating other factors such as nursing influence on utilization.
Academic Emergency Medicine 03/2010; 17(3):337-40. · 1.86 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Our goals were to evaluate the risk factors predisposing to saphenous vein harvest surgical site infection (HSSI), the microbiology implicated, associated outcomes including 30-day mortality, and identify opportunities for prevention of infection.
All patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures from January 2000 through September 2004 were included. Data were collected on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, in addition to microbiology and outcomes.
Eighty-six of 3578 (2.4%) patients developed HSSI; 28 (32.6%) of them were classified as deep. The median time to detection was 17 (range, 4-51) days. An organism was identified in 64 (74.4%) cases; of them, a single pathogen was implicated in 50 (78%) cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen: 19 (38% [methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) = 12, methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) = 7]). Gram-negative organisms were recovered in 50% of cases, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa predominating in 11 (22%) because of a single pathogen. Multiple pathogens were identified in 14 (22%) cases. The 30-day mortality was not significantly different in patients with or without HSSI. Multivariate analysis showed age, diabetes mellitus, obesity, congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency, and duration of surgery to be associated with increased risk.
Diabetes mellitus, obesity, congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency, and duration of surgery were associated with increased risk for HSSI. S aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen.
American journal of infection control 05/2009; 37(8):653-7. · 3.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of nurse-led multidisciplinary rounds on reducing the unnecessary use of urinary catheters (UCs).
Quasi-experimental study with a control group, in 3 phases: preintervention, intervention, and postintervention.
Twelve medical-surgical units within a 608-bed teaching hospital, from May 2006 through April 2007.
A nurse trained in the indications for UC utilization participated in daily multidisciplinary rounds on 10 medical-surgical units. If no appropriate indication for a patient's UC was found, the patient's nurse was asked to contact the physician to request discontinuation. Data were collected before the intervention (for 5 days), during the intervention (for 10 days), and 4 weeks after the intervention (for 5 days). Two units served as controls.
Of 4,963 patient-days observed, a UC was present in 885 (for a total of 885 "UC-days"). There was a significant reduction in the rate of UC utilization from 203 UC-days per 1,000 patient-days in the preintervention phase to 162 UC-days per 1,000 patient-days in the intervention phase (P = .002). The postintervention rate of 187 UC-days per 1,000 patient-days was higher than the rate during the intervention (P = .05) but not significantly different from the preintervention rate (P = .32). The rate of unnecessary use of UCs also decreased from 102 UC-days per 1,000 patient-days in the preintervention phase to 64 UC-days per 1,000 patient-days during the intervention phase (P < .001); and, significantly, the rate rose to 91 UC-days per 1,000 patient-days in the postintervention phase (P = .01). The rate of discontinuation of unnecessary UCs in the intervention phase was 73 (45%) of 162.
A nurse-led multidisciplinary approach to evaluate the need for UCs was associated with a reduction of unnecessary UC use. Efforts to sustain the intervention-induced reduction may be successful when trained advocates continue this effort with each team.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 09/2008; 29(9):815-9. · 3.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate factors related to a gradual rise in sternal surgical site infection (SSI) rates.
Retrospective cohort study.
A 608-bed, tertiary care teaching hospital.
All patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) from January 2000 through September 2004.
Of 3,578 patients who underwent CABG, 144 (4%) had sternal SSI. There was an increase in infection rate, with a marked reduction in the number of operations per year. The percentage of patients with peripheral vascular disease increased from 12% to 24.3% (P<.001), and the percentage with congestive heart failure increased from 17% to 22% (P<.001). Between 2002 and 2004, the mean duration of surgery increased from 233 to 290 minutes (P<.001), the percentage of patients with a National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) risk index of 2 increased from 14.3% to 38% (P<.001), and the percentage of patients with a postoperative stay in the intensive care unit of greater than 72 hours increased from 29% to 40.6% (P<.001). Multivariate analysis showed diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, obesity, duration of surgery, and postoperative stay in the intensive care unit of greater than 72 hours to be independently associated with infection.
An increase in infection in the CABG population not associated with an outbreak may be a reflection of a change in the severity of illness. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative markers for increased infection risk may be used, in addition to the NNIS risk index, to assess the patient population risk.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 07/2007; 28(6):655-60. · 3.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Eliminating nosocomial infections was identified as one of eight priorities for action for Ascension Health. St. John Hospital and Medical Center (SJHMC), and St. Vincent's Hospital (STV), designated alpha sites, developed best practices for the prevention of catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSIs) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), respectively.
Both hospitals used the Institute for Healthcare Improvement model of "bundles" to achieve the goal of reducing nosocomial infections and also implemented multidisciplinary rounds and the use of daily goal sheets in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Through the use of ventilator bundle, central line (CL) bundle, MDRs, and daily goal sheets, both facilities reduced CR-BSIs and VAPs by more than 50%.
SJHMC saw the benefit of having the physical presence of the ICPs in the ICUs, providing the staff with on-the-spot reinforcement of the initiative. STV found by starting the change process through the use of a flexible MDR team, the hospital was able to successfully implement positive changes in its ICU culture. On the basis of the success in the ICU, the concept of MDR teams eventually was adapted and spread to all units. Open communication among all patient caregivers was extended and served to provide improved patient care throughout the hospital.
Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources 12/2006; 32(11):612-20.
ABSTRACT: Surgical-site infection (SSI) is a serious and costly complication following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). We analyzed surgical factors, microbiology, and complications at a 608-bed community teaching hospital to identify opportunities for prevention.
All patients undergoing CABG procedures from June 1997 through December 2000 were analyzed. Hospital records and postdischarge surveillance data were reviewed for demographics, surgical information, timing and classification of infection, microbiology, and bacteremic events.
Of 3,443 patients undergoing CABG, sternal SSI developed in 122 (3.5%); 71 (58.2%) were classified as superficial SSI and 51 (41.8%) as deep SSI. Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis was employed in all cases. On average, infection occurred 21.5 days (range, 4 to 315) after CABG. Most cases were diagnosed on readmission (59%); 20 cases (16%) were identified by postdischarge surveillance. Microbiological data were positive in 109 (89.3%), with a single pathogen implicated in most (86.2%). Gram-positive cocci were most frequently recovered (81%); gram-negative bacilli (17%), gram-positive bacilli (1%), and yeast (1%) were less common. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen (49%). Bacteremia was noted in 22 instances (18%). It was significantly associated with deep SSI (P =. 002) and identified only in S. aureus cases.
SSI complicated 3.5% of the procedures. S. aureus was implicated in most of the cases and was significantly associated with deep SSI. It was the only pathogen associated with secondary bacteremia. In addition to standard guidelines, targeted methods against S. aureus should help reduce the overall rate of SSI.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 07/2004; 25(6):468-71. · 3.67 Impact Factor