[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are resistant to the toxic effect of ZnCl2 (0.005 mM, 3 h) and slightly sensitive to the effect of kainate (0.1 mM, 3 h). Simultaneous treatment of CGNs with kainate and ZnCl2 caused intensive neuronal death, which was attenuated by external acidosis (pH 6.5) or 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA, Na+/H+ exchange blocker, 0.03 mM). Intracellular zinc and calcium ion concentrations ([Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i) were increased under the toxic action of kainate + ZnCl2, this effect being significantly decreased on external acidosis and increased in case of EIPA addition. Neuronal Zn2+ imaging demonstrated that EIPA increases the cytosolic concentration of free Zn2+ on incubation in Zn2+-containing solution. These data imply that acidosis reduces ZnCl2/kainate toxic effects by decreasing Zn2+ entry into neurons, and EIPA prevents zinc stores from being overloaded with zinc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A single intraperitoneal injection to rats of the mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone antioxidant SkQR1 at dose 1 μmol/kg significantly improved reproduction by the rats of the passive avoidance conditional reflex. In vitro experiments on hippocampal slices showed that a single intraperitoneal injection of SkQR1 24 h before the preparation of the slice significantly increases the synaptic transmission efficiency of the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 field. The findings indicate that SkQR1 has a positive effect on memory processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disbalance of zinc (Zn2+) and copper (Cu2+) ions in the central nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative disorders such as multisystem atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Wilson-Konovalov disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Among these, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most frequent age-related neurodegenerative pathologies with disorders in Zn2+ and Cu2+ homeostasis playing a pivotal role in the mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this review we generalized and systematized current literature data concerning this problem. The interactions of Zn2+ and Cu2+ with amyloid precursor protein (APP), β-amyloid (Abeta), tau-protein, metallothioneins, and GSK3β are considered, as well as the role of these interactions in the generation of free radicals in AD and PD. Analysis of the literature suggests that the main factors of AD and PD pathogenesis (oxidative stress, structural disorders and aggregation of proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction, energy deficiency) that initiate a cascade of events resulting finally in the dysfunction of neuronal networks are mediated by the disbalance of Zn2+ and Cu2+.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of cerebellar granule neurons in culture to the inhibitor of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA) for 24 h resulted in intense death of neurons. Menadione and the antioxidant trolox prevented the neurocytotoxic effect of EIPA. We previously reported that menadione protected a culture of cerebellar granule neurons from death induced by inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain . Blockade of complex I is probably the main cause of neuronal death induced by EIPA. Moreover, lipid peroxidation may also be involved in the neurodestructive effect of EIPA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial matrix is the only intracellular compartment that is negatively charged compared to the cytosol. This is why any cation penetrating the mitochondrial membrane must be accumulated inside mitochondria. This principle was used to construct mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (mtAOX) composed of an antioxidant moiety and a penetrating cation with delocalized positive charge. The mtAOX most active in various in vitro tests are MitoQ and SkQ, cationic derivatives of mitochondrial ubiquinone and chloroplast plastoquinone, respectively. Their high activities are due to the fact that the reduced (active) form of MitoQ and SkQ can be regenerated by the mitochondrial respiratory chain from their oxidized forms produced as a result of the antioxidant action of these quinones. An additional important advantage of SkQ is that the “window” between anti- and prooxidant activities of this compound is very much wider than that of MitoQ. Both MitoQ and SkQ have already been tested on animals to treat various diseases that seem to be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by mitochondria. In several cases, the use of SkQ was more successful than MitoQ. In particular, it was found that SkQ prolongs the life span of various organisms (from fungi to mammals) and retards (sometimes even reverses) a group of traits typical for aging. Clinical trials of drops of an aqueous solution of SkQ as a medicine have already given a positive result in the case of the age-related disease “dry-eye syndrome.” The SkQ1-containing drops of Visomitin are now available in Russian drugstores.
Systems Biology of Free Radicals and Antioxidants, 01/2014: pages 323-354; , ISBN: 978-3-642-30017-2
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bivalent metal cations are key components in the reaction of DNA synthesis. They are necessary for all DNA polymerases, being involved as cofactors in catalytic mechanisms of nucleotide polymerization. It is also known that in the presence of Mn2+ the accuracy of DNA synthesis is considerably decreased. The findings of this work show that Cd2+ and Zn2+ selectively inhibit the Mn2+-induced error-prone DNA polymerase activity in extracts of cells from human and mouse tissues. Moreover, these cations in low concentrations also can efficiently inhibit the activity of homogeneous preparations of DNA polymerase iota (Pol ι), which is mainly responsible for the Mn2+-induced error-prone DNA polymerase activity in cell extracts. Using a primary culture of granular cells from postnatal rat cerebellum, we show that low concentrations of Cd2+ significantly increase cell survival in the presence of toxic Mn2+ doses. Thus, we have shown that in some cases low concentrations of Cd2+ can display a positive influence on cells, whereas it is widely acknowledged that this metal is not a necessary microelement and is toxic for organisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial medicine was established more than 50 years ago after discovery of the very first pathology caused by impaired mitochondria. Since then, more than 100 mitochondrial pathologies have been discovered. However, the number may be significantly higher if we interpret the term "mitochondrial medicine" more widely and include in these pathologies not only those determined by the genetic apparatus of the nucleus and mitochondria, but also acquired mitochondrial defects of non-genetic nature. Now the main problems of mitochondriology arise from methodology, this being due to studies of mitochondrial activities under different models and conditions that are far from the functioning of mitochondria in a cell, organ, or organism. Controversial behavior of mitochondria ("friends and foes") to some extent might be explained by their bacterial origin with possible preservation of "egoistic" features peculiar to bacteria. Apparently, for normal mitochondrial functioning it is essential to maintain homeostasis of a number of mitochondrial elements such as mitochondrial DNA structure, membrane potential, and the system of mitochondrial quality control. Abrogation of these elements can cause a number of pathologies that have become subjects of mitochondrial medicine. Some approaches to therapy of mitochondrial pathologies are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bath application of 200 nM amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ) to rat hippocampal slices impairs induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of the population spike in pyramidal layer of the CA1 field of the hippocampus. Intraperitoneal injection of mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative SkQ1at very low concentrations (250 nmol/kg body weight) given 24 h before the slice preparation or 1 h treatment of hippocampal slices with 250 nM SkQ1 prevents the deleterious effect of Aβ on LTP. To elucidate which part of the molecule is responsible for this type of neuroprotective activity, the effect of the analog of SkQ1 lacking plastoquinone (C12TPP) was studied. It was found that C12TPP was much less efficient in LTP protection than SkQ1 itself. It means that the plastoquinone part of the SkQ1 molecule is responsible for the LTP rescue. To summarize, in vivo and in vitro injection of SkQ1 compensates for Aβ-induced oxidative damage of long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, which is considered to be the main reason of memory loss and impairment of other cognitive functions associated with Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, SkQ1 may be considered as a promising candidate for the treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal brain aging leads to decrease in cognitive functions, shrink in brain volume, loss of nerve fibers and degenerating myelin, reduction in length and branching of dendrites, partial loss of synapses, and reduction in expression of genes that play central roles in synaptic plasticity, vesicular transport, and mitochondrial functioning. Impaired mitochondrial functions and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species can contribute to the damage of these genes in aging cerebral cortex. This review discusses the possibility of using mitochondria-targeted antioxidants to slow the processes of brain aging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many ischemia-induced neurological pathologies including stroke are associated with high oxidative stress. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants could rescue the ischemic organ by providing specific delivery of antioxidant molecules to the mitochondrion, which potentially suffers from oxidative stress more than non-mitochondrial cellular compartments. Besides direct antioxidative activity, these compounds are believed to activate numerous protective pathways. Endogenous anti-ischemic defense may involve the very powerful neuroprotective agent erythropoietin, which is mainly produced by the kidney in a redox-dependent manner, indicating an important role of the kidney in regulation of brain ischemic damage. The goal of this study is to track the relations between the kidney and the brain in terms of the amplification of defense mechanisms during SkQR1 treatment and remote renal preconditioning and provide evidence that the kidney can generate signals inducing a tolerance to oxidative stress-associated brain pathologies.
We used the cationic plastoquinone derivative, SkQR1, as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant to alleviate the deleterious consequences of stroke. A single injection of SkQR1 before cerebral ischemia in a dose-dependent manner reduces infarction and improves functional recovery. Concomitantly, an increase in the levels of erythropoietin in urine and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the brain was detected 24 h after SkQR1 injection. However, protective effects of SkQR1 were not observed in rats with bilateral nephrectomy and in those treated with the nephrotoxic antibiotic gentamicin, indicating the protective role of humoral factor(s) which are released from functional kidneys. Renal preconditioning also induced brain protection in rats accompanied by an increased erythropoietin level in urine and kidney tissue and P-GSK-3β in brain. Co-cultivation of SkQR1-treated kidney cells with cortical neurons resulted in enchanced phosphorylation of GSK-3β in neuronal cells.
The results indicate that renal preconditioning and SkQR1-induced brain protection may be mediated through the release of EPO from the kidney.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51553. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051553 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A protective effect of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, a cationic rhodamine derivative linked to a plastoquinone molecule (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decylrhodamine-19, SkQR1) was studied in the model of open focal trauma of rat brain sensorimotor cortex. It was found that daily intraperitoneal injections of SkQR1 (100 nmol/kg) for 4 days after the trauma improved performance in a test characterizing neurological deficit and decreased the volume of the damaged cortical area. Our results suggest that SkQR1 exhibits profound neuroprotective effect, which may be explained by its antioxidative activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is generally accepted that mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species is nonlinearly related to the value of the mitochondrial membrane potential with significant increment at values exceeding 150 mV. Due to this, high values of the membrane potential are highly dangerous, specifically under pathological conditions associated with oxidative stress. Mild uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is an approach to preventing hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. We confirmed data obtained earlier in our group that dodecylrhodamine 19 (C(12)R1) (a penetrating cation from SkQ family not possessing a plastoquinone group) has uncoupling properties, this fact making it highly potent for use in prevention of pathologies associated with oxidative stress induced by mitochondrial hyperpolarization. Further experiments showed that C(12)R1 provided nephroprotection under ischemia/reperfusion of the kidney as well as under rhabdomyolysis through diminishing of renal dysfunction manifested by elevated level of blood creatinine and urea. Similar nephroprotective properties were observed for low doses (275 nmol/kg) of the conventional uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. Another penetrating cation that did not demonstrate protonophorous activity (SkQR4) had no effect on renal dysfunction. In experiments with induced ischemic stroke, C(12)R1 did not have any effect on the area of ischemic damage, but it significantly lowered neurological deficit. We conclude that beneficial effects of penetrating cation derivatives of rhodamine 19 in renal pathologies and brain ischemia may be at least partially explained by uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Programmed execution of various cells and intracellular structures is hypothesized to be not the only example of elimination of biological systems - the general mechanism can also involve programmed execution of organs and organisms. Modern rating of programmed cell death mechanisms includes 13 mechanistic types. As for some types, the mechanism of actuation and manifestation of cell execution has been basically elucidated, while the causes and intermediate steps of the process of fatal failure of organs and organisms remain unknown. The analysis of deaths resulting from a sudden heart arrest or multiple organ failure and other acute and chronic pathologies leads to the conclusion of a special role of mitochondria and oxidative stress activating the immune system. Possible mechanisms of mitochondria-mediated induction of the signaling cascades involved in organ failure and death of the organism are discussed. These mechanisms include generation of reactive oxygen species and damage-associated molecular patterns in mitochondria. Some examples of renal failure-induced deaths are presented with mechanisms and settings determined by some hypothetical super system rather than by the kidneys themselves. This system plays the key role in the process of physiological senescence and termination of an organism. The facts presented suggest that it is the immune system involved in mitochondrial signaling that can act as the system responsible for the organism's death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Addition of 200 nM β-amyloid 1-42 (Abeta) to a rat hippocampal slice impairs the induction of a long-term post-tetanic potentiation (LTP) of population spike (PS) in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 field of hippocampus. Intraperitoneal injection into the rat of the mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative SkQR1 (1 µmol/kg of weight given 24 h before the slices were made) abolishes the deleterious effect of Abeta on LTP. These data demonstrate that SkQR1 therapy is able to compensate the Abeta-induced impairments of long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, which are the main cause of loss of memory and other cognitive functions associated with Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance tomography, staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and tests for evaluation of functional disturbances "cylinder" and "limb stimulation" showed that daily intraperitoneal injection of dipeptide mimetic of nerve growth factor GK-2 (1 mg/kg) for 6 days to rats with experimental focal ischemia provoked by unilateral intravascular occlusion of a branch of the middle cerebral artery significantly improved neurological deficit and decreased the infarction area.
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 09/2011; 151(5):584-7. DOI:10.1007/s10517-011-1388-7 · 0.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this review, we discuss the role of glutamine in the nervous system as a precursor of the excitatory neuromediator glutamate, on one hand, and as an energy substrate for mitochondria in nerve and glial cells during normal and pathological processes, on the other hand. Particular attention is devoted to the functioning of the glutamine-glutamate cycle enzymes during brain ischemia and hypoglycemia and to processes of neuromediator regeneration in neurons. We thoroughly discuss the role of glutamine synthetase in mechanisms of ammonium detoxification and the role of glutamine as a possible factor in astrocyte damage. The analyzed data suggest that the constant maintenance of optimal concentrations and ratio of glutamine to glutamate in nerve tissue is not only critically important for the normal functioning of nervous system, but is also necessary for neuron and astrocyte viability.
The International journal of neuroscience 05/2011; 121(8):415-22. DOI:10.3109/00207454.2011.570464 · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The specific aim of this study was to elucidate the role of mitochondria in a neuronal death caused by different metabolic effectors and possible role of intracellular calcium ions ([Ca(2+)](i)) and glutamine in mitochondria- and non-mitochondria-mediated cell death. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone was found to cause intensive death of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) that was preceded by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). The neuronal death induced by rotenone was significantly potentiated by glutamine. In addition, inhibition of Na/K-ATPase by ouabain also caused [Ca(2+)](i) increase, but it induced neuronal cell death only in the absence of glucose. Treatment with glutamine prevented the toxic effect of ouabain and decreased [Ca(2+)](i). Blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors prevented neuronal death and significantly decreased [Ca(2+)](i), demonstrating that toxicity of rotenone and ouabain was at least partially mediated by activation of these receptors. Activation of glutamate receptors by NMDA increased [Ca(2+)](i) and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential leading to markedly decreased neuronal survival under glucose deprivation. Glutamine treatment under these conditions prevented cell death and significantly decreased the disturbances of [Ca(2+)](i) and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential caused by NMDA during hypoglycemia. Our results indicate that glutamine stimulates glutamate-dependent neuronal damage when mitochondrial respiration is impaired. However, when mitochondria are functionally active, glutamine can be used by mitochondria as an alternative substrate to maintain cellular energy levels and promote cell survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a specific fluorescent probe of mitochondrial membrane potential (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester), we have shown that glucose deprivation (GD) of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) for 3 h lowers mitochondrial membrane potential in these cells. Longer glucose starvation (24 h) causes CGN death that is not prevented by blockers of ionotropic glutamate receptors (MK-801 (10 µM) and NBQX (10 µM)). Glutamine or pyruvate (2 mM) maintain membrane potential of mitochondria and decrease CGN death under GD conditions. In the presence of glucose the mitochondrial respiratory chain blocker rotenone induces neuron death potentiated by glutamine. The potentiation effect is completely prevented by blockers of ionotropic glutamate receptors. These results show that glutamine under conditions of GD can be utilized by mitochondria as substrate, but at the same time, in the case of mitochondrial function deterioration, metabolism of this amino acid results in glutamate accumulation to toxic level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe acidosis caused death of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Acidosis was accompanied by a progressive increase of the intracellular zinc ions ([Zn(2+)](i)) and decrease of [Ca(2+)](i). Zn(2+) chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), prevented the increase of [Zn(2+)](i) and acidosis-induced neuronal death. However, neuronal death was insensitive to blockade of ASIC1 channels with amiloride, as CGNs display considerably lower expression of ASIC1a than other neurons. The antioxidant trolox and menadione significantly protected neurons from acidotic death. Earlier, we demonstrated that menadione rescues neurons from the deleterious effect of inhibition of mitochondrial complex I (Isaev et al. Neuroreport 15:2227-2231, 2004). We speculate that excessive Zn(2+)-dependent production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondrial complex I may be a general motive for the induction of cell death in CGNs under acidotic conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mitochondria-targeted chimeric compound consisting of a rhodamine derivative linked to a plastoquinone molecule (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decylrhodamine, SkQR1) was studied under conditions of acute brain or kidney damage. A protective effect of this compound was demonstrated in a model of focal brain ischemia, rat kidney ischemia/reperfusion, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis, or crush syndrome), and pyelonephritis. We found that a single intraperitoneal injection of SkQR1 diminishes the size of the ischemic zone in the brain and improves performance of a test characterizing neurological deficit in ischemic animals. Control substance not containing plastoquinone appeared to be not neuroprotective. The data show that SkQR1 is a nephroprotectant and neuroprotectant, which can be due to the antioxidative action of this Skulachev cation.