Lars Thomassen

BioMed Central, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (104)250.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke in young adults is a major health problem being associated with a higher vascular morbidity and mortality compared to controls, and a stroke recurrence rate of 25% during the first decade. The assumed cause of infarction and the detected risk factors determine the early- and long-term treatment. However, for many patients the cause of stroke remains unknown. Risk factor profile and etiology differ in young and elderly ischemic stroke patients, and atherosclerosis is the determined underlying condition in 10 to 15%. However, subclinical atherosclerosis is probably more prevalent and may go unrecognized.Ultrasound imaging is a sensitive method for the detection of arterial disease and for measurement of adipose tissue. The relationship between intima-media thickness (IMT), plaques, cardiovascular risk factors including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and ischemic events has repeatedly been shown.We have established The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study (NOR-SYS) as a three-generation research program with the goal to increase our knowledge on heredity and the development of arterial disease and ischemic stroke. Extended standardized ultrasound examinations are done in order to find subclinical vessel disease for early and better prophylaxis.Methods/design: NOR-SYS is a prospective long-term research program. Standardized methods are used for anamnestic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and ultrasound data collection in ischemic stroke patients aged <=60 years, their partners and joint adult offspring. The ultrasound protocol includes the assessment of intracranial, carotid and femoral arteries, abdominal aorta, and the estimation of VAT. To date, the study is a single centre study with approximately 400 patients, 250 partners and 350 adult offspring expected to be recruited at our site. NOR-SYS aims to increase our knowledge about heredity and the development of arterial vascular disease in young patients with ischemic stroke and their families. Moreover, optimization of diagnostics, prophylaxis and early intervention are major targets with the intention to reduce stroke recurrence and other clinical arterial events, physical disability, cognitive impairment and death.NOR-SYS is reviewed and approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics, Western-Norway (REK-Vest 2010/74), and registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01597453.
    BMC Neurology 07/2013; 13(1):89. DOI:10.1186/1471-2377-13-89 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Risk factors for IS in young adults differ between genders and evolve with age, but data on the age- and gender-specific differences by stroke etiology are scare. These features were compared based on individual patient data from 15 European stroke centers. Stroke etiology was reported in detail for 3331 patients aged 15-49 years with first-ever IS according to Trial of Org in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), cardioembolism (CE), small-vessel occlusion (SVO), other determined etiology, or undetermined etiology. CE was categorized into low- and high-risk sources. Other determined group was divided into dissection and other non-dissection causes. Comparisons were done using logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, and center heterogeneity. Etiology remained undetermined in 39.6%. Other determined etiology was found in 21.6%, CE in 17.3%, SVO in 12.2%, and LAA in 9.3%. Other determined etiology was more common in females and younger patients, with cervical artery dissection being the single most common etiology (12.8%). CE was more common in younger patients. Within CE, the most frequent high-risk sources were atrial fibrillation/flutter (15.1%) and cardiomyopathy (11.5%). LAA, high-risk sources of CE, and SVO were more common in males. LAA and SVO showed an increasing frequency with age. No significant etiologic distribution differences were found amongst southern, central, or northern Europe. The etiology of IS in young adults has clear gender-specific patterns that change with age. A notable portion of these patients remains without an evident stroke mechanism according to TOAST criteria.
    European Journal of Neurology 07/2013; DOI:10.1111/ene.12228 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low body temperature is considered neuroprotective in ischemic stroke, yet some studies suggest that low body temperature may also inhibit clot lysis and recanalization. We hypothesized that low body temperature was associated with persistent proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting with symptoms of proximal MCA occlusion, suggesting a possible detrimental effect of low body temperature on recanalization. All patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to our Stroke Unit between February 2006 and August 2012 were prospectively registered in a database. Computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed in patients admitted <6 hours after stroke onset. Based on presenting symptoms, patients were classified according to the Oxford Community Stroke Project classification (OCSP). Patients with symptomatic proximal MCA occlusion were compared to patients with total anterior circulation infarct (TACI) without MCA occlusion on CT angiography. During the study period, 384 patients with acute ischemic stroke were examined with CT angiography. A total of 79 patients had proximal MCA occlusion and 31 patients had TACI without MCA occlusion. Median admission body temperatures were lower in patients with MCA occlusion compared to patients without occlusion (36.3°C versus 36.7°C, P = 0.027). Admission body temperature <36.5°C was independently associated with persistent MCA occlusion when adjusted for confounders in multivariate analyses (odds ratio 3.7, P = 0.007). Our study showed that low body temperature on admission was associated with persistent proximal MCA occlusion. These results may support a possible detrimental effect of low body temperature on clot lysis and recanalization.
    Vascular Health and Risk Management 06/2013; 9:297-302. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S44570
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    ABSTRACT: In the recent Helsingborg declaration, acute organized stroke unit care was described as the backbone of the chain of care for all European stroke victims. Access to stroke units is, however, still limited. To improve the availability and the quality of affordable stroke care, the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) has appointed an ESO Stroke Unit Certification Committee to define the requirements and criteria for official certification as ESO Stroke Units and ESO Stroke Centres based on scientific evidence from randomized controlled trials, clinical practice guidelines, and expert consensus. Important features of modern stroke care include the presence of a dedicated stroke unit ward, a multiprofessional team approach, a comprehensive stroke unit organization, including emergency room organization, adherence to diagnostic and therapeutic time-windows, early swallowing diagnostics and therapy, intravenous thrombolytic therapy, periods of automated monitoring, access to decrompressive craniectomy and intraarterial thrombolysis, early mobilization and rehabilitation, supported discharge and basic aftercare with treatment of risk factors and poststroke prevention. The Committee defined the target population, the necessary infrastructure, technical equipment, diagnostic pathways, therapeutic interventions, nursing care, and multiprofessional rehabilitation. The definitions also cover the hospital environment characteristics and the stroke unit's interactions with other departments. Quality indicators for benchmarking are presented. Although the ESO Stroke Unit's requirements are largely evidence-based, expert consensus is also included where evidence was unavailable. These recommendations of the ESO task force should stimulate hospitals in Europe to apply for ESO certification. Fulfilling of the criteria will be checked by on-site visits.
    Stroke 01/2013; 44(3). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.670430 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many patients with acute ischaemic stroke do not receive intravenous thrombolysis due to contraindications. We aimed to assess safety, short-term clinical development, short-term outcome and mortality in patients treated off-label with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). METHODS: Stroke patients treated with tPA within 4.5 h after symptom onset during 2006-2011 were prospectively included. Patients with contraindications to tPA according to national guidelines were compared to patients without any of these contraindications. Separate analyses were performed on patients who had compatible contraindications and did not receive tPA. Primary outcome was rate of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH). Secondary outcomes were short-term clinical development, short-term outcome and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Of the 265 patients who received tPA, 135 patients (50.9%) had formal contraindications and 130 patients (49.1%) had no such contraindications. Rates of SICH were similar for patients with or without contraindications (P = 0.305). Patients with contraindications to tPA had a similar rate of clinical improvement (P = 0.504), a trend of less favourable outcome (P = 0.052) and higher mortality (P = 0.005) than patients without contraindications. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between presence of contraindications to tPA and short-term outcome or mortality when adjusted for age, sex and admission National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score. Short-term outcome and mortality were similar in patients with contraindications who received tPA and patients with contraindications who did not receive tPA (n = 134). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous thrombolysis with tPA may be safe and efficient in stroke patients with a number of formal contraindications to tPA. Prospective randomized trials are imperative to clarify the need for a re-evaluation of the current contraindications to tPA.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 01/2013; DOI:10.1111/ane.12076 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our population-based long-term follow-up of young ischaemic stroke patients and controls showed 10-fold increased mortality and fivefold increased arterial event rate nearly 12 years after study inclusion. We now assess memory, anxiety, depression and sleep in relation to employment and functional outcome, treatment goals and results from a last alive-dead survey. METHODS: Patients (n = 232) ≤ 49 years with an index-stroke between 1988 and 1997 were retrospectively selected and compared with age- and sex-matched controls (n = 453). At follow-up from 2004 to 2005, 144 (77%) of 187 patients were clinically examined. Self-assessment information about memory problems, anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, education and employment was compared with answers from standardized questionnaires from 167 controls. Functional outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). RESULTS: Patients compared with controls had more memory problems (41.0% vs. 5.4%, P < 0.001), anxiety (19.4% vs. 9%, P = 0.009), depression (29.2% vs. 13.2%, P = 0.001) and sleeping problems (36.1% vs. 19.2%, P = 0.001). In the multiple regression analysis male gender (OR 9.3, 95%CI 0.10-0.61, P = 0.002), normal memory (OR 12.7, 95%CI 0.07-0.47, P < 0.001) and mRS 0-1 (OR 15.7, 95%CI 0.002-0.12, P < 0.001) were factors for full-time employment. Blood pressure was < 140/90 mmHg in 39% of patients, 49% stopped smoking and 38.2% used statins. After a mean observation time of 18.3 years, 63 (27.2%) of 232 patients were dead. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show a heterogeneous prognosis and high mortality even for long-time survivors of ischaemic stroke at a young age. Prospective studies of young stroke patients and controls are necessary for direct comparison.
    European Journal of Neurology 01/2013; 20(5). DOI:10.1111/ene.12073 · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • Stroke 01/2013; · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 30% of all stroke patients suffer from post-stroke visual impairment. Hemianopia is the most common symptom, but also neglect, diplopia, reduced visual acuity, ptosis, anisocoria, and nystagmus are frequent. Partial or complete recovery of visual disorders can occur, but many patients suffer permanent disability. This disability is often less evident than impairment of motor and speech functions, but is negatively correlated with rehabilitation outcome and can lead to a significant reduction in day-to-day functioning. To be visually impaired after stroke reduces quality of life and causes social isolation because of difficulties in navigating/orientating in the surroundings. A thorough diagnosis including targeted examination and later follow-up with eye examination and perimetry is essential in order to establish the extent of the visual impairment and to select the best rehabilitation strategy. Patients seem to profit from visual rehabilitation focused on coping strategies.
    Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 01/2013; 127(196):52-6. DOI:10.1111/ane.12050
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    ABSTRACT: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a subtle memory disorder not matching criteria for dementia. There is evidence for vascular comorbidity in several types of dementia. We hypothesized that neurovascular workup would detect a high degree of vascular disease in patients with MCI. In cooperation with our memory clinic, patients with amnestic MCI were referred to our department for neurovascular investigation. The workup encompassed ultrasound examination with carotid duplex including Intima-Media-Thickness (IMT) measurement, and transcranial Doppler (TCD) including one-hour microemboli monitoring, cerebrovascular reactivity measurement and Bubble test. Cerebral MRI for the evaluation of vascular and white-matter lesions, brain atrophy, hippocampal volumes, and amyloid angiopathy was performed. Ten patients were included. Vascular risk factors were present in six patients. Four patients had atherosclerotic lesions, three classified as mild, and one as moderate carotid stenosis. IMT > 1 mm was found in two patients, with a maximum IMT of 1.11 mm. None of the patients with acceptable bone window had intracranial stenosis in TCD. Vasoreactivity was pathologically low in one patient. Permanent right-left shunt was found in three patients, of which one showed spontaneous cerebral microembolism. Hippocampal volume reduction and cortical atrophy were found in four patients. Chronic ischemic changes in MRI were present in one patient, and three patients had subcortical infarctions. Cortical infarctions, microbleeds, or amyloid angiopathy were not found. Pure amnestic MCI is probably less associated with cerebrovascular disease and may be more consistent with evolving Alzheimer's disease. However, vascular risk factors are common in these patients.
    Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 01/2013; 127(196):73-6. DOI:10.1111/ane.12054
  • Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 01/2013; 128(3). · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transient ischemic attack has been redefined as a tissue-based diagnosis and MRI recommended as the preferred imaging modality. We aimed to investigate whether an increased use of MRI leads to a decrease in the proportion of TIA as compared to cerebral infarction. We also sought to see whether DWI-positive patients with transient ischemic symptoms <24 h differ from DWI-negative TIA patients in terms of performed diagnostic investigations and clinical characteristics. METHODS: Patients admitted with cerebral infarction or TIA in the period 2006-2011 were prospectively registered. The use of MRI in patients with transient ischemic symptoms <24 h and proportion of TIA were annually recorded. DWI-positive and DWI-negative patients with transient ischemic symptoms <24 h were compared in univariate analyses regarding baseline data, diagnostic investigations, and etiology. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of DWI lesions. RESULTS: The use of MRI increased from 65.0% in 2006-2008 to 89.0% in 2009-2011 (P < 0.001). The proportion of TIA as compared to cerebral infarction decreased from 12.2% in 2006-2008 to 8.3% in 2009-2011 (P = 0.002). DWI-positive patients were more often examined with 24-h Holter monitoring (P < 0.001) and echocardiography (P < 0.001). Lower age (P < 0.001) and prior myocardial infarction (P < 0.029) were independently associated with DWI lesions in patients with transient ischemic symptoms <24 h. CONCLUSIONS: An increased use of MRI and a tissue-based TIA definition resulted in a decrease in the proportion of TIA at discharge as compared to cerebral infarction. DWI-positive patients had a more extensive cardiac work-up and were associated with lower age and prior myocardial infarction.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 12/2012; DOI:10.1111/ane.12068 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose. We hypothesized that patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) suffer from more severe cerebral infarction than patients with paroxysmal AF due to differences in clot structure and volume. Methods. This study includes consecutive patients with acute cerebral infarction and persistent or paroxysmal AF documented by ECG any time prior to stroke onset. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used to assess stroke severity on admission. Short-term outcome was determined by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score, Barthel index, and NIHSS score 7 days after stroke onset. Risk factors were registered on admission. Eligible patients were treated with thrombolysis. Results. In total, 141 (52%) patients had paroxysmal AF, and 129 (48%) patients had persistent AF. NIHSS score on admission, mRS score at day 7, and mortality were significantly higher among patients with persistent AF. Thrombolysis was less effective in patients with persistent AF. Conclusions. Our study shows that patients with persistent AF and acute cerebral infarction have poorer short-term outcome than patients with paroxysmal AF. Differences in clot structure or clot volume may explain this.
    09/2012; 2012:650915. DOI:10.5402/2012/650915
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Although patients >80 years were excluded in RCTs for tPA treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), many centers treat old patients. We wanted to examine whether age ≥80 years is an independent predictor of outcome after tPA. MATERIALS: We included 77 consecutive patients ≥80 years and 83 patients <80 years treated with tPA within 4.5 h after onset of AIS. Baseline variables were analyzed by multiple stepwise logistic regression analyses against three outcomes: symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), death and good functional outcome (mRS, 0-1) at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: Age ≥80 years was associated with increased risk of sICH (OR, 18.2 [95% CI, 1.0-324.1], P = 0.048), and death (OR, 3.3 [95% CI, 1.2-9.1], P = 0.018), but not with functional outcome at 3 months. Other factors associated with death were longer onset to treatment time (OTT) (OR, 1.007/min increase [95% CI, 1.00-1.015], P = 0.047), higher NIHSS (OR, 1.12 per point increase [95% CI, 1.04-1.19], P = 0.001), and previous stroke (OR, 4.0 [95% CI, 1.2-13.7], P = 0.03). Predictors of good functional outcome were shorter OTT (OR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.98-1.00], P = 0.02) and lower NIHSS (OR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.74-0.87] P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: Age ≥80 years might be an independent risk factor for sICH and death the first 3 months after treatment with tPA for AIS, but does not influence the chance of a good functional outcome. We suggest to treat patients over 80 years with tPA, but be cautious if the time from onset (OTT) is long.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 09/2012; DOI:10.1111/ane.12008 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) and CT-angiography (CTA) are reliable tools for detection of intracranial stenosis. Current ultrasonographic criteria for middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis are usually limited to a dichotomized grading (< or ≥ 50 %). As for carotid arteries, continuity equation might provide a more accurate evaluation of degree of MCA stenosis. We aimed to apply continuity equation to calculate degree of MCA stenosis with TCCS and to compare these results with CTA. Materials and Methods: All patients admitted to our Neurovascular Center with ischemic stroke or TIA underwent TCCS examination. Degree of MCA stenosis was calculated based on continuity equation as (1 - [PSVprestenotic/PSVintrastenotic] × 100) %. CTA was performed when TCCS detected MCA stenosis, and degree of stenosis was calculated by diameter (D) as: (1 - [Dprestenotic/Dintrastenotic] × 100) %. Correlation between TCCS and CTA results was tested. Continuity equation method was compared to cut-off velocity method for detection of ≥ 50 % MCA stenosis. To assess TCCS inter-observer agreement, evaluation of MCA stenosis was repeated by another neurosonographer in a subgroup of patients. Results: The overall correlation coefficient between TCCS and CTA was 0.85 (p < 0.0001). Correlation coefficient for stenosis defined with CTA as ≥ 50 % was 0.94 (p < 0.0001). TCCS inter-observer agreement on degree of stenosis was 0.85 (p = 0.001). In detection of ≥ 50 % MCA stenosis, continuity equation method showed a sensitivity of 78 % (14/18) and a specificity of 86 % (19/22), while the cut-off velocity method showed a sensitivity of 67 % (12/18) and a specificity of 86 % (19/22). Conclusion: This study shows that ultrasonographic evaluation of MCA stenosis applying the continuity equation provides reproducible and accurate results, and is more sensitive in detection of ≥ 50 % MCA stenosis than cut-off velocity method.
    Ultraschall in der Medizin 08/2012; DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1313076 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared among young patients with ischemic stroke the distribution of vascular risk factors among sex, age groups, and 3 distinct geographic regions in Europe. We included patients with first-ever ischemic stroke aged 15 to 49 years from existing hospital- or population-based prospective or consecutive young stroke registries involving 15 cities in 12 countries. Geographic regions were defined as northern (Finland, Norway), central (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Switzerland), and southern (Greece, Italy, Turkey) Europe. Hierarchical regression models were used for comparisons. In the study cohort (n=3944), the 3 most frequent risk factors were current smoking (48.7%), dyslipidemia (45.8%), and hypertension (35.9%). Compared with central (n=1868; median age, 43 years) and northern (n=1330; median age, 44 years) European patients, southern Europeans (n=746; median age, 41 years) were younger. No sex difference emerged between the regions, male:female ratio being 0.7 in those aged <34 years and reaching 1.7 in those aged 45 to 49 years. After accounting for confounders, no risk-factor differences emerged at the region level. Compared with females, males were older and they more frequently had dyslipidemia or coronary heart disease, or were smokers, irrespective of region. In both sexes, prevalence of family history of stroke, dyslipidemia, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and atrial fibrillation positively correlated with age across all regions. Primary preventive strategies for ischemic stroke in young adults-having high rate of modifiable risk factors-should be targeted according to sex and age at continental level.
    Stroke 07/2012; 43(10):2624-30. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.662866 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothermia is considered neuroprotective and a potential treatment in cerebral ischemia. Some studies suggest that hyperthermia may promote clot lysis. We hypothesized that low body temperature would prolong time to spontaneous clot lysis resulting in an association between low body temperature and severe neurological deficits in the early phase of ischemic stroke. In this prospective study, patients (n = 516) exhibiting ischemic stroke with symptom onset within 6 hours were included. Body temperature and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score were registered on admission. Because low body temperature on admission may be secondary to immobilization due to large stroke, separate analyses were performed on patients with cerebral hemorrhage admitted within 6 hours (n = 85). Linear regression showed that low body temperature on admission was independently associated with a high NIHSS score within 6 hours of stroke onset in patients with ischemic stroke (P < 0.001). The association persisted when NIHSS was measured at 24 hours after admission. No such associations were found in patients with cerebral hemorrhage admitted within 6 hours of stroke onset. Our study suggests that low body temperature within 6 hours of symptom onset is associated with severe ischemic stroke. This is in support of our hypothesis, although other contributing mechanisms cannot be excluded.
    Vascular Health and Risk Management 06/2012; 8:333-8. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S31614
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombin potently activates platelets through the protease-activated receptor PAR-1. Vorapaxar is a novel antiplatelet agent that selectively inhibits the cellular actions of thrombin through antagonism of PAR-1. We randomly assigned 26,449 patients who had a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or peripheral arterial disease to receive vorapaxar (2.5 mg daily) or matching placebo and followed them for a median of 30 months. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. After 2 years, the data and safety monitoring board recommended discontinuation of the study treatment in patients with a history of stroke owing to the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. At 3 years, the primary end point had occurred in 1028 patients (9.3%) in the vorapaxar group and in 1176 patients (10.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for the vorapaxar group, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001). Cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or recurrent ischemia leading to revascularization occurred in 1259 patients (11.2%) in the vorapaxar group and 1417 patients (12.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95; P=0.001). Moderate or severe bleeding occurred in 4.2% of patients who received vorapaxar and 2.5% of those who received placebo (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.43 to 1.93; P<0.001). There was an increase in the rate of intracranial hemorrhage in the vorapaxar group (1.0%, vs. 0.5% in the placebo group; P<0.001). Inhibition of PAR-1 with vorapaxar reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or ischemic events in patients with stable atherosclerosis who were receiving standard therapy. However, it increased the risk of moderate or severe bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRA 2P-TIMI 50 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00526474.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 03/2012; 366(15):1404-13. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1200933 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visual field defects (VFD) after stroke can cause significant disability and reduction in quality of life. Adequate diagnosis of VFD and referral to visual rehabilitation are important to improve outcome. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective clinical audit to investigate how neurologists detect and follow up VFD in stroke patients in a university hospital in Norway. All patients registered in the Bergen NORSTROKE Registry from February 2006 to May 2009 with (1) occipital lobe infarctions and (2) non-occipital infarction and clinically detected VFD were included in the study. Their medical records were reviewed for referral to perimetry for examination of VFD and for referral to a visual rehabilitation program within the first year after brain injury. Of 353 patients, 34 (9.6%) were referred to perimetry and 8 (2.3%) to visual rehabilitation. Patients referred to perimetry were younger (65.1 vs. 74.7 years, p < 0.001), had lower modified Rankin Scale scores (2.53 vs. 3.47, p = 0.003), and scored lower on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale upon admission (6.68 vs. 13.90, p < 0.001). Men were more often referred to perimetry than women (73.5 vs. 26.5%, p < 0.001), and those referred were younger (61.2 vs. 75.8 years, p = 0.03). Only few patients were referred to perimetry, and even fewer were offered visual rehabilitation. Age and gender were negative predictors for referral. Neurologists' awareness of the significant disability related to VFD must be increased. Focused diagnostics on visual impairment and early referral to a visual rehabilitation program should be mandatory in stroke unit services.
    03/2012; 2(1):17-23. DOI:10.1159/000337016
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    ABSTRACT: Newer Scandinavian data on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are scarce. We aimed at providing updated community-based data on the incidence, characteristics and outcome of ICH leading to hospitalization in the southernmost region in Norway. We analyzed data from all consecutive patients hospitalized with a first-ever ICH in the five-year period 2005-2009 in a well-defined area served by one single hospital. Cases were found by computerized search in a register covering all in- and outpatients. Adjusted to the standard European population the annual incidence rate per 100,000 was 16.9 for men, 8.8 for women (p < 0.001) and 12.5 for both sexes. The incidence rates rose continuously with increasing age through all age groups in both sexes. The proportion with warfarin-associated ICH was 26.9%. The overall 30-day case fatality rate was 36.6%. The hematoma location was lobar in 36.6%, deep cerebral in 45.5%, cerebellar in 9.7%, and brain stem in 8.2%. The incidence of ICH in the southernmost region in Norway is in the midrange in Europe and lower than in previous Scandinavian studies. Men are at higher risk than women. The proportion with warfarin-associated ICH is higher than previously reported from Scandinavia.
    European Neurology 03/2012; 67(4):240-5. DOI:10.1159/000336299 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    Titto Idicula, Lars Thomassen
    Acute Ischemic Stroke, 01/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-983-7

Publication Stats

940 Citations
250.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • BioMed Central
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2014
    • Haukeland University Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2002–2014
    • University of Bergen
      • • Department of Clinical Medicine
      • • Institute of Medicine
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway