[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Hop2–Mnd1 complex functions with the DMC1 recombinase in meiotic recombination. Hop2–Mnd1 stabilizes the DMC1-single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) filament and promotes the capture of the double-stranded DNA partner by the recombinase filament to assemble the synaptic complex. Herein, we define the action mechanism of Hop2–Mnd1 in DMC1-mediated recombination. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis and electron microscopy reveal that the heterodimeric Hop2–Mnd1 is a V-shaped molecule. We show that the protein complex harbors three distinct DNA binding sites, and deter-mine their functional relevance. Specifically, the N-terminal double-stranded DNA binding functions of Hop2 and Mnd1 co-operate to mediate synaptic complex assembly, whereas ssDNA binding by the Hop2 C-terminus helps stabilize the DMC1-ssDNA filament. A model of the Hop2-Mnd1-DMC1-ssDNA ensemble is proposed to explain how it mediates homologous DNA pairing in meiotic recombination.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Hop2-Mnd1 complex functions with the DMC1 recombinase in meiotic recombination. Hop2-Mnd1 stabilizes the DMC1-single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) filament and promotes the capture of the double-stranded DNA partner by the recombinase filament to assemble the synaptic complex. Herein, we define the action mechanism of Hop2-Mnd1 in DMC1-mediated recombination. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis and electron microscopy reveal that the heterodimeric Hop2-Mnd1 is a V-shaped molecule. We show that the protein complex harbors three distinct DNA binding sites, and determine their functional relevance. Specifically, the N-terminal double-stranded DNA binding functions of Hop2 and Mnd1 co-operate to mediate synaptic complex assembly, whereas ssDNA binding by the Hop2 C-terminus helps stabilize the DMC1-ssDNA filament. A model of the Hop2-Mnd1-DMC1-ssDNA ensemble is proposed to explain how it mediates homologous DNA pairing in meiotic recombination.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR), DNA synthesis copies information from a template DNA molecule. Multiple DNA polymerases have been implicated in repair-specific DNA synthesis, but it has remained unclear whether a DNA helicase is involved in this reaction. A good candidate DNA helicase is Pif1, an evolutionarily conserved helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae important for break-induced replication (BIR) as well as HR-dependent telomere maintenance in the absence of telomerase found in 10-15% of all cancers. Pif1 has a role in DNA synthesis across hard-to-replicate sites and in lagging-strand synthesis with polymerase δ (Polδ). Here we provide evidence that Pif1 stimulates DNA synthesis during BIR and crossover recombination. The initial steps of BIR occur normally in Pif1-deficient cells, but Polδ recruitment and DNA synthesis are decreased, resulting in premature resolution of DNA intermediates into half-crossovers. Purified Pif1 protein strongly stimulates Polδ-mediated DNA synthesis from a D-loop made by the Rad51 recombinase. Notably, Pif1 liberates the newly synthesized strand to prevent the accumulation of topological constraint and to facilitate extensive DNA synthesis via the establishment of a migrating D-loop structure. Our results uncover a novel function of Pif1 and provide insights into the mechanism of HR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rdh54 protein is a member of the Swi2/Snf2 family of DNA translocases required for meiotic and mitotic recombination and DNA repair. Rdh54 interacts with the general recombinases Rad51 and Dmc1, and promotes D-loop formation with either recombinase. Rdh54 also mediates the removal of Rad51 from undamaged chromatin in mitotic cells, which prevents formation of nonrecombinogenic complexes that can otherwise become toxic for cell growth. In order to determine which of the mitotic roles of Rdh54 are dependent on Rad51 complex formation, we finely mapped the Rad51 interaction domain in Rdh54, generated N-terminal truncation variants, and characterized their attributes biochemically and in cells. Here we provide evidence suggesting that the N-terminal region of Rdh54 is not necessary for the response to the DNA damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). However, truncation variants missing 75 to 200 residues at the N terminus are sensitive to Rad51 overexpression. Interestingly, a hybrid protein containing the N-terminal region of Rad54, responsible for Rad51 interaction, fused to the Swi2/Snf2 core of Rdh54 is able to effectively complement the sensitivity to both MMS and excess Rad51 in rdh54 null cells. Altogether, these results reveal a distinction between damage sensitivity and Rad51 removal as regards to Rdh54 interaction with Rad51.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of Dmc1 as a meiosis-specific general recombinase was first demonstrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Progress in understanding the biochemical mechanism of ScDmc1 has been hampered by its tendency to form inactive aggregates. We have found that the inclusion of ATP during protein purification prevents Dmc1 aggregation. ScDmc1 so prepared is capable of forming D-loops and responsive to its accessory factors Rad54 and Rdh54. Negative staining electron microscopy and iterative helical real-space reconstruction revealed that the ScDmc1-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament harbors 6.5 protomers per turn with a pitch of ~106Å. The ScDmc1 purification procedure and companion molecular analyses should facilitate future studies on this recombinase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity. The first step in DSB repair by homologous recombination is the processing of the ends by one of two resection pathways, executed by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Exo1 and Sgs1-Dna2 machineries. Here we report in vitro and in vivo studies that characterize the impact of chromatin on each resection pathway. We find that efficient resection by the Sgs1-Dna2-dependent machinery requires a nucleosome-free gap adjacent to the DSB. Resection by Exo1 is blocked by nucleosomes, and processing activity can be partially restored by removal of the H2A-H2B dimers. Our study also supports a role for the dynamic incorporation of the H2A.Z histone variant in Exo1 processing, and it further suggests that the two resection pathways require distinct chromatin remodeling events to navigate chromatin structure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conserved BTR complex, composed of the BLM helicase, topoisomerase IIIα, RMI1, and RMI2, regulates homologous recombination in favor of non-crossover formation via the dissolution of the double Holliday Junction (dHJ). Here, we show enhancement of the BTR-mediated dHJ dissolution reaction by the heterotrimeric single-strand DNA binding protein RPA. Our results suggest that RPA acts by sequestering a ssDNA intermediate during dHJ dissolution. We provide evidence that RPA physically interacts with RMI1. The RPA interaction domain in RMI1 has been mapped and RMI1 mutants impaired for RPA interaction have been generated. Examination of these mutants ascertains the significance of the RMI1-RPA interaction in dHJ dissolution. Our results thus implicate RPA as a cofactor of the BTR complex in dHJ dissolution.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New findings on the RIF1 protein by four research groups, including Chapman et al. (2013) and Escribano-Díaz et al. (2013) in this issue, provide insights into DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice in mammalian cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad1/Rad10 complex is a multifunctional, structure-specific endonuclease that processes UV-induced DNA lesions, recombination intermediates, and inter-strand DNA crosslinks. However, we do not know how Rad1/Rad10 recognizes these structurally distinct target molecules or how it is incorporated into the protein complexes capable of incising divergent substrates. Here, we have determined the order and hierarchy of assembly of the Rad1/Rad10 complex, Saw1, Slx4, and Msh2/Msh3 complex at a 3' tailed recombination intermediate. We found that Saw1 is a structure-specific DNA binding protein with high affinity for splayed arm and 3'-flap DNAs. By physical interaction, Saw1 facilitates targeting of Rad1 at 3' tailed substrates in vivo and in vitro, and enhances 3' tail cleavage by Rad1/Rad10 in a purified system in vitro. Our results allow us to formulate a model of Rad1/Rad10/Saw1 nuclease complex assembly and 3' tail removal in recombination.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination (HR) is an evolutionarily conserved process that eliminates DNA double-strand breaks from chromosomes, repairs injured DNA replication forks, and helps orchestrate meiotic chromosome segregation. Recent studies have shown that DNA helicases play multifaceted roles in HR mediation and regulation. In particular, the S. cerevisiae Sgs1 helicase and its human ortholog BLM helicase are involved in not only the resection of the primary lesion to generate single-stranded DNA to prompt the assembly of the HR machinery, but they also function in somatic cells to suppress the formation of chromosome arm crossovers during HR. On the other hand, the S. cerevisiae Mph1 and Srs2 helicases, and their respective functional equivalents in other eukaryotes, suppress spurious HR events and favor the formation of noncrossovers via distinct mechanisms. Thus, the functional integrity of the HR process and HR outcomes are dependent upon these helicase enzymes. Since mutations in some of these helicases lead to cancer predisposition in humans and mice, studies on them have clear relevance to human health and disease.
Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2013; 767:185-202. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interstrand cross-links (ICLs) covalently link complementary DNA strands, block DNA replication, and transcription and must be removed to allow cell survival. Several pathways, including the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, can faithfully repair ICLs and maintain genomic integrity; however, the precise mechanisms of most ICL repair processes remain enigmatic. In this study we genetically characterized a conserved yeast ICL repair pathway composed of the yeast homologs (Mph1, Chl1, Mhf1, Mhf2) of four FA proteins (FANCM, FANCJ, MHF1, MHF2). This pathway is epistatic with Rad5-mediated DNA damage bypass and distinct from the ICL repair pathways mediated by Rad18 and Pso2. In addition, consistent with the FANCM role in stabilizing ICL-stalled replication forks, we present evidence that Mph1 prevents ICL-stalled replication forks from collapsing into double-strand breaks. This unique repair function of Mph1 is specific for ICL damage and does not extend to other types of damage. These studies reveal the functional conservation of the FA pathway and validate the yeast model for future studies to further elucidate the mechanism of the FA pathway.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2012; 287(32):26563-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BRC repeat is a structural motif in the tumor suppressor BRCA2 (breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein), which promotes homologous recombination (HR) by regulating RAD51 recombinase activity. To date, the BRC repeat has not been observed in other proteins, so that its role in HR is inferred only in the context of BRCA2. Here, we identified a BRC repeat variant, named BRCv, in the RECQL5 helicase, which possesses anti-recombinase activity in vitro and suppresses HR and promotes cellular resistance to camptothecin-induced replication stress in vivo. RECQL5-BRCv interacted with RAD51 through two conserved motifs similar to those in the BRCA2-BRC repeat. Mutations of either motif compromised functions of RECQL5, including association with RAD51, inhibition of RAD51-mediated D-loop formation, suppression of sister chromatid exchange, and resistance to camptothecin-induced replication stress. Potential BRCvs were also found in other HR regulatory proteins, including Srs2 and Sgs1, which possess anti-recombinase activities similar to that of RECQL5. A point mutation in the predicted Srs2-BRCv disrupted the ability of the protein to bind RAD51 and to inhibit D-loop formation. Thus, BRC is a common RAD51 interaction module that can be utilized by different proteins to either promote HR, as in the case of BRCA2, or to suppress HR, as in RECQL5.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2012; 287(28):23808-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination (HR) represents a major error-free pathway to eliminate pre-carcinogenic chromosomal lesions. The DNA strand invasion reaction in HR is mediated by a helical filament of the Rad51 recombinase assembled on single-stranded DNA that is derived from the nucleolytic processing of the primary lesion. Recent studies have found that the human and mouse Swi5 and Sfr1 proteins form a complex that influences Rad51-mediated HR in cells. Here, we provide biophysical evidence that the mouse Swi5-Sfr1 complex has a 1:1 stoichiometry. Importantly, the Swi5-Sfr1 complex, but neither Swi5 nor Sfr1 alone, physically interacts with Rad51 and stimulates Rad51-mediated homologous DNA pairing. This stimulatory effect stems from the stabilization of the Rad51-ssDNA presynaptic filament. Moreover, we provide evidence that the RSfp (rodent Sfr1 proline rich) motif in Sfr1 serves as a negative regulatory element. These results thus reveal an evolutionarily conserved function in the Swi5-Sfr1 complex and furnish valuable information as to the regulatory role of the RSfp motif that is specific to the mammalian Sfr1 orthologs.
Nucleic Acids Research 04/2012; 40(14):6558-69. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination catalyzed by the RAD51 recombinase is essential for maintaining genome integrity upon the induction of DNA double strand breaks and other DNA lesions. By enhancing the recombinase activity of RAD51, RAD51AP1 (RAD51-associated protein 1) serves a key role in homologous recombination-mediated chromosome damage repair. We show here that RAD51AP1 harbors two distinct DNA binding domains that are both needed for maximal protein activity under physiological conditions. We have finely mapped the two DNA binding domains in RAD51AP1 and generated mutant variants that are impaired in either or both of the DNA binding domains. Examination of these mutants reveals that both domains are indispensable for RAD51AP1 function in cells. These and other results illuminate the mechanistic basis of RAD51AP1 action in homologous DNA repair.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(15):12343-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA sequences that form secondary structures or bind protein complexes are known barriers to replication and potential inducers of genome instability. In order to determine which helicases facilitate DNA replication across these barriers, we analyzed fork progression through them in wild-type and mutant yeast cells, using 2-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis of the replication intermediates. We show that the Srs2 protein facilitates replication of hairpin-forming CGG/CCG repeats and prevents chromosome fragility at the repeat, whereas it does not affect replication of G-quadruplex forming sequences or a protein-bound repeat. Srs2 helicase activity is required for hairpin unwinding and fork progression. Also, the PCNA binding domain of Srs2 is required for its in vivo role of replication through hairpins. In contrast, the absence of Sgs1 or Pif1 helicases did not inhibit replication through structural barriers, though Pif1 did facilitate replication of a telomeric protein barrier. Interestingly, replication through a protein barrier but not a DNA structure barrier was modulated by nucleotide pool levels, illuminating a different mechanism by which cells can regulate fork progression through protein-mediated stall sites. Our analyses reveal fundamental differences in the replication of DNA structural versus protein barriers, with Srs2 helicase activity exclusively required for fork progression through hairpin structures.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2012; 40(3):1091-105. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During meiosis, recombination events that occur between homologous chromosomes help prepare the chromosome pairs for proper disjunction in meiosis I. The concurrent action of the Rad51 and Dmc1 recombinases is necessary for an interhomolog bias. Notably, the activity of Rad51 is tightly controlled, so as to minimize the use of the sister chromatid as recombination partner. We demonstrated recently that Hed1, a meiosis-specific protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, restricts the access of the recombinase accessory factor Rad54 to presynaptic filaments of Rad51. We now show that Hed1 undergoes self-association in a Rad51-dependent manner and binds ssDNA. We also find a strong stabilizing effect of Hed1 on the Rad51 presynaptic filament. Biochemical and genetic analyses of mutants indicate that these Hed1 attributes are germane for its recombination regulatory and Rad51 presynaptic filament stabilization functions. Our results shed light on the mechanism of action of Hed1 in meiotic recombination control.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 287(2):1566-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination (HR) reactions mediated by the RAD51 recombinase are essential for DNA and replication fork repair, genome stability, and tumor suppression. RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1) is an important HR factor that associates with and stimulates the recombinase activity of RAD51. We have recently shown that RAD51AP1 also partners with the meiotic recombinase DMC1, displaying isoform-specific interactions with DMC1. Here, we have characterized the DMC1 interaction site in RAD51AP1 by a series of truncations and point mutations to uncover a highly conserved WVPP motif critical for DMC1 interaction but dispensable for RAD51 association. This RAD51AP1 motif is reminiscent of the FVPP motif in the tumor suppressor protein BRCA2 that mediates DMC1 interaction. These results further implicate RAD51AP1 in meiotic HR via RAD51 and DMC1.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2011; 286(43):37328-34. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) influences diverse functions in the DNA damage response. The complex comprises the globular DNA-binding domain and the Rad50 hook domain, which are linked by a long and extended Rad50 coiled-coil domain. In this study, we constructed rad50 alleles encoding truncations of the coiled-coil domain to determine which Mre11 complex functions required the full length of the coils. These mutations abolished telomere maintenance and meiotic double-strand break (DSB) formation, and severely impaired homologous recombination, indicating a requirement for long-range action. Nonhomologous end joining, which is probably mediated by the globular domain of the Mre11 complex, was also severely impaired by alteration of the coiled-coil and hook domains, providing the first evidence of their influence on this process. These data show that functions of Mre11 complex are integrated by the coiled coils of Rad50.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The budding yeast Mph1 protein, the putative ortholog of human FANCM, possesses a 3' to 5' DNA helicase activity and is capable of disrupting the D-loop structure to suppress chromosome arm crossovers in mitotic homologous recombination. Similar to FANCM, genetic studies have implicated Mph1 in DNA replication fork repair. Consistent with this genetic finding, we show here that Mph1 is able to mediate replication fork reversal, and to process the Holliday junction via DNA branch migration. Moreover, Mph1 unwinds 3' and 5' DNA Flap structures that bear key features of the D-loop. These biochemical results not only provide validation for a role of Mph1 in the repair of damaged replication forks, but they also offer mechanistic insights as to its ability to efficiently disrupt the D-loop intermediate.
DNA repair 08/2011; 10(10):1034-43. · 4.20 Impact Factor