Sang Cheon Lee

Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (83)348.55 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol, are biologically active molecules. Specific oxysterols have potent osteogenic properties that act on osteoprogenitor cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these osteoinductive effects on embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are unknown. This study investigated the effect of an oxysterol combination of 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol (SS) on osteogenic differentiation of ESCs and the alterations to mitochondrial activity during differentiation. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, matrix mineralization, mRNA expression of osteogenic factors, runt-related transcription factor 2, osterix, and osteocalcin, and protein levels of collagen type IA (COLIA) and osteopontin (OPN). Treatment of cells with SS increased osteoinductive activity compared to the control group. Intracellular reactive oxygen species production, intracellular ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivators 1α and β, transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, were significantly increased during osteogenesis, indicating upregulation of mitochondrial activity. Oxysterol combinations also increased protein levels of mitochondrial respiratory complexes I-V. We also found that SS treatment increased hedgehog signaling target genes, Smo and Gli1 expression. Inhibition of Hh signaling by cyclopamine suppressed mitochondrial biogenesis and ESC osteogenesis. Subsequently, oxysterol-induced Wnt/β-catenin pathways were inhibited by repression of Hh signaling and mitochondrial biogenesis. Transfection of β-catenin specific siRNA decreased the protein levels of COLIA and OPN, as well as ALP activity. Collectively, these data suggest that lipid-based oxysterols enhance differentiation of ESCs toward the osteogenic lineage by regulating mitochondrial activity, canonical Hh/Gli, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 12/2014; · 4.81 Impact Factor
  • Gi Hyun Choi, Hong Jae Lee, Sang Cheon Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Front Cover: Resistance to corrosion, excellent biocompatibility, and superb mechanical strength make titanium (Ti) one of most suitable metals to build many medical devices. On page 496, a catechol-functionalized polymer nanoparticle that can spontaneously adhere to Ti surface is developed. The nanoparticle has three domains: i) a hydrophobic biodegradable polymer core, ii) an anionic hyaluronic acid shell that can load positively charged dual osteogenic proteins, and iii) surface-exposed catechol groups. Sang Cheon Lee and colleagues show how this nanoparticle can be adopted for various applications as a good model of surface controlled releasing systems.
    Macromolecular Bioscience 04/2014; 14(4):451. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on pH-responsive core-shell polymer micelles with catechol-Fe(3+) coordinated core cross-links, which provide robustness to drug-loaded polymer micelles and allow the facilitated intracellular release of loaded anticancer drugs in response to an endosomal acidic pH.
    Chemical Communications 03/2014; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The surface of a polymeric nanoparticle (NP) is often functionalized with cell-interactive ligands and/or additional polymeric layers to control NP interaction with cells and proteins. However, such modification is not always straightforward when the surface is not chemically reactive. For this reason, most NP functionalization processes employ reactive linkers or coupling agents or involve pre-functionalization of the polymer, which are complicated and inefficient. Moreover, pre-functionalized polymers can lose the ability to encapsulate and retain a drug if the added ligands change chemical properties of the polymer. To overcome this challenge, we use dopamine polymerization as a way of functionalizing NP surfaces. This method includes brief incubation of the pre-formed NPs in a weak alkaline solution of dopamine, followed by secondary incubation with desired ligands. Using this method, we have functionalized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs with three representative surface modifiers: a small molecule (folate), a peptide (Arg-Gly-Asp), and a polymer [poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate)]. We confirmed that the modified NPs showed the expected cellular interactions with no cytotoxicity or residual bioactivity of dopamine. The dopamine polymerization method is a simple and versatile surface modification method, applicable to a variety of NP drug carriers irrespective of their chemical reactivity and the types of ligands.
    ACS Nano 03/2014; · 12.03 Impact Factor
  • Gi Hyun Choi, Hong Jae Lee, Sang Cheon Lee
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    ABSTRACT: A titanium (Ti)-adhesive nanoparticle is developed as a surface-releasing system for dual osteogenic growth factors. The Ti-adhesive nanoparticle is prepared by self-assembly of a poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-grafted hyaluronic acid (HA) copolymer, followed by conjugation of catechol groups on nanoparticle surfaces. The nanoparticles consist of Ti-adhesive peripheral catechol groups, anionic HA shells, and hydrophobic PLGA inner cores. The immobilization of the nanoparticles onto Ti substrates is successfully verified using various analytical tools including field-emission scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM), contact angle measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Positively charged dual growth factors, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are readily loaded onto the negatively charged HA shells of surface-immobilized nanoparticles, which is confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The Ti substrates with dual growth factor-loaded nanoparticle-immobilized nanoparticles remarkably promote the attachment, proliferation, spreading, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs).
    Macromolecular Bioscience 11/2013; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enhanced drug-loading and therapeutic efficacies are highly essential properties for nanoparticles as tumor-targeting drug carriers. Herein, we developed the glycol chitosan nanoparticles with hydrotropic oligomers (HO-CNPs) as a new tumor targeting drug delivery system. For enhancing drug-loading efficiency of paclitaxel in drug carriers, hydrotropic 2-(4-(vinylbenzyloxy)-N,N-diethylnicotinamide) (VBODENA-COOH) oligomers, that were used for enhancing the aqueous solubility of paclitaxel, were directly conjugated to glycol chitosan polymers. The amphiphilic conjugates readily formed nanoparticle structure (average size=302 ± 22nm) in aqueous condition. Water-insoluble paclitaxel (PTX) was readily encapsulated into HO-CNPs with a high drug-loading amount up to 24.2wt% (2.4 fold higher than other polymeric nanoparticles) by a simple dialysis method. The PTX encapsulated HO-CNPs (PTX-HO-CNPs; average size=343 ± 12nm) was very stable in aqueous media up to 50days. Also, PTX-HO-CNPs presented rapid cellular uptake and lower cytotoxicity in cell culture system, compared to Cremophor EL/ethanol formulation of PTX. In tumor-bearing mice, the extravasation and accumulation of PTX-HO-CNPs in tumor tissue was precisely observed by intravital fluorescence imaging techniques. Furthermore, PTX-HO-CNPs showed the higher therapeutic efficacy, compared to Abraxane®, a commercialized PTX-formulation. These overall results demonstrate its potential as a new nano-sized PTX carrier for cancer treatment.
    Journal of Controlled Release 09/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium phosphate-reinforced photosensitizer-loaded polymer nanoparticles have been developed for photodynamic therapy. Chlorin e6 (Ce6)-loaded core-shell-corona polymer micelles of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-aspartic acid)-b-poly(L-phenylalanine) (PEG-PAsp-PPhe) were employed as template nanoparticles for mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP). CaP deposition was performed by the electrostatic localization of calcium ions at the anionic PAsp middle shells and the subsequent addition of phosphate anions. CaP-reinforced nanoparticles exhibited enhanced stability. The CaP mineral layer effectively inhibited Ce6 release from the Ce6-loaded mineralized nanoparticles (Ce6-NP-CaP) at physiological pH value. At an acidic endosomal pH value of 5.0, Ce6 release was enhanced, owing to rapid dissolution of the CaP minerals. Upon irradiation of Ce6-NP-CaP-treated MCF-7 breast-tumor cells, the cell viability dramatically decreased with increasing irradiation time. The phototoxicity of Ce6-NP-CaP was much higher than that of free Ce6. Non-invasive optical-imaging results indicated that Ce6-NP-CaP exhibited enhanced tumor specificity compared with free Ce6 and Ce6-loaded non-mineralized polymer nanoparticles (Ce6-NP).
    Chemistry - An Asian Journal 09/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a novel surface functionalization approach to equip the titanium (Ti) surfaces with osteogenic properties. A key feature of the approach is the treatment of the Ti surfaces with Ti-adhesive nanoparticles that can stably load and controllably release bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Ti-adhesive nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembly of a catechol-functionalized poly(amino acid) diblock copolymer, catechol-poly(L-aspartic acid)-b-poly(L-phenylalanine) (Cat-PAsp-PPhe). The nanoparticles consist of Ti-adhesive peripheral catechol groups, anionic PAsp shells, and PPhe inner cores. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) images showed that the Ti-adhesive nanoparticles could be uniformly immobilized on Ti surfaces. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the successful anchoring of nanoparticles onto Ti surfaces. After surface immobilization of the nanoparticles, the static water contact angle of the Ti substrate decreased from 75.3° to 50.0° or 36.4°, depending on the surface nanoparticle. Fluorescence microscopic analysis showed that BMP-2 could be effectively incorporated onto the Ti surface with adhesive nanoparticles. BMP-2 was controllably released for up to 40 days. The Ti substrate functionalized with BMP-2-incorporated nanoparticles significantly promoted attachment, proliferation, spreading, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC). The catechol-functionalized adhesive nanoparticles may be applied to various medical devices to create surfaces for improved performance.
    Journal of Controlled Release 05/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Dong Jin Park, Sang Jin Lee, Sang Cheon Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Mucoadhesive property is the major function as an adhesive for medical devices, and therefore, these days many researches have conducted to develop polymers having this property. Recently, biomimetic technology has been used for developing mucoadhesive polymers. Among many technologies, mussel-inspired approaches have received noticeable attention because of its thread's strong adhesive characteristics. In this study, we synthesized mucoadhesive biomimetic polymers employing catechol structures which are abundant in mussel adhesive proteins, and their structures and molecular weights were characterized by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. To evaluate in vitro mucoadhesive strength, the sheet type of the small intestinal porcine submucosa was prepared. Compared to commercial fibrin glue adhesives, catechol-containing mucoadhesive polymers showed enhanced adhesive strength. The study of adhesive strength with considering diverse factors, such as temperature, pressure, and oxidant amount indicated that mussel-inspired mucoadhesive polymer could be a promising candidate for an adhesive in various biomedical applications.
    Polymer Korea 01/2013; 37(5). · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    Sang Cheon Lee, Il Keun Kwon, Kinam Park
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    ABSTRACT: Since 1960 when the history of modern hydrogels began significant progress has been made in the field of controlled drug delivery. In particular, recent advances in the so-called smart hydrogels have made it possible to design highly sophisticated formulations, e.g., self-regulated drug delivery systems. Despite intensive efforts, clinical applications of smart hydrogels have been limited. Smart hydrogels need to be even smarter to execute functions necessary for achieving desired clinical functions. It is necessary to develop novel hydrogels that meet the requirements of the intended, specific applications, rather than finding applications of newly developed hydrogels. Furthermore, developing smarter hydrogels that can mimic natural systems is necessary, but the fundamental differences between natural and synthetic systems need to be understood. Such understanding will allow us to develop novel hydrogels with the new, multiple functions that we are looking for.
    Advanced drug delivery reviews 08/2012; · 11.96 Impact Factor
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    Il Keun Kwon, Sang Cheon Lee, Bumsoo Han, Kinam Park
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    ABSTRACT: Targeted drug delivery to tumor sites is one of the ultimate goals in drug delivery. Recent progress in nanoparticle engineering has certainly improved drug targeting, but the results are not as good as expected. This is largely due to the fact that nanoparticles, regardless of how advanced they are, find the target as a result of blood circulation, like the conventional drug delivery systems do. Currently, the nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the target tumor tissues is based on wrong assumptions that most of the nanoparticles, either PEGylated or not, reach the target by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Studies have shown that so-called targeting moieties, i.e., antibodies or ligands, on the nanoparticle surface do not really improve delivery to target tumors. Targeted drug delivery to tumor sites is associated with highly complex biological, mechanical, chemical and transport phenomena, of which characteristics vary spatiotemporally. Yet, most of the efforts have been focused on design and surface manipulation of the drug carrying nanoparticles with relatively little attention to other aspects. This article examines the current misunderstandings and the main difficulties in targeted drug delivery.
    Journal of Controlled Release 07/2012; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A mineral (calcium phosphate, CaP)-reinforced core-shell-corona micelle was evaluated as a nanocarrier of doxorubicin (DOX) for cancer therapy. The polymer micelles of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-aspartic acid)-b-poly(L-phenylalanine) (PEG-PAsp-PPhe) in the aqueous phase provided the three distinct functional domains: the hydrated PEG outer corona for prolonged circulation, the anionic PAsp middle shell for CaP mineralization, and the hydrophobic PPhe inner core for DOX loading. CaP mineralization was performed by initial electrostatic localization of calcium ions at anionic PAsp shells, and the consequent addition of phosphate anions to trigger the growth of CaP. The mineralization did not affect the micelle size or the spherical morphology. The CaP-mineralized micelles exhibited enhanced serum stability. The DOX release from the DOX-loaded mineralized micelles (DOX-CaP-PM) at physiological pH was efficiently inhibited, whereas at an endosomal pH (pH 4.5), DOX release was facilitated due to the rapid dissolution of the CaP mineral layers in the middle shell domains. The in vivo tissue distribution and tumor accumulation of the DOX-CaP-PM that were labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye, Cy5.5, were monitored in MDA-MB231 tumor-bearing mice. Non-invasive real-time optical imaging results indicated that the DOX-CaP-PM exhibited enhanced tumor specificity due to the prolonged stable circulation in the blood and an enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect compared with the DOX-loaded nonmineralized polymer micelles (DOX-NPM). The DOX-CaP-PM exhibited enhanced therapeutic efficacy in tumor-bearing mice compared with free DOX and DOX-NPM. The CaP mineralization on assembled nanoparticles may serve as a useful guide for enhancing the antitumor therapeutic efficacy of various polymer micelles and nano-aggregates.
    Biomaterials 05/2012; 33(23):5788-97. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoscale wear particles would generate from orthopedic implants with nanoscale surface topography because of residual stress. In this study, the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on articular cartilage was investigated by intra-articular injection ...
    Journal of Nanomaterials 01/2012; 2012. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe in this study whether the gold nanoparticle (AuNP) surface-functionalized with PEG, biotin, paclitaxel (PTX) and rhodamine B linked beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (AuNP-5') can be useful as a theranostic agent for cancer therapy without the cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Prior to surface-functionalizing AuNPs, the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was evaluated, followed by their cytocompatibility. PTX, an anti-cancer agent, formed inclusion complexations with β-CD conjugated AuNPs, and effectively released from the AuNP-2' surface-functionalized with PEG, beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and paclitaxel (PTX) using the intracellular glutathione (GSH) level (10 mm). Two types of AuNP-4 surface-functionalized with PEG and rhodamine B linked β-CD and AuNP-5 surface-functionalized PEG, biotin and rhodamine B linked β-CD were used for evaluating their specific interaction on cancer cells such as HeLa, A549 and MG63. These were also tested against normal NIH3T3 cell, determining that the AuNP-5 was more effectively involved with the cancer cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) and cell viability analyses showed that the AuNP-5' plays a significant role in the diagnosis and therapy of the cancer cells, and may be used in theranostic agents.
    Biomaterials 01/2012; 33(3):856-66. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify the optimal micro- and submicroscale topographies of titanium (Ti) substrata that would most significantly influence adhesion, proliferation, and other activities of these cells. Truncated V-shaped microgrooves in 60 μm-wide and 10 μm-deep cross-sections with 0°, 30°, 60°, or 90° angles between the microgrooves and ridge-top submicroscale texture were created on the Ti substrata (designated NE60/10-0°, NE60/10-30°, NE60/10-60° and NE60/10-90°, respectively). Ground titanium with submicroscale texture but with no microgrooves was used as the control substratum, NE0. Scanning electron microscopic observation and the assays determining the cell adhesion, cell proliferation and osteoblast differentiation were performed. Cells more actively migrated into the microgrooves on NE60/10-30° than into the microgrooves on any other substrata tested, suggesting that the cells utilise the increased surface area of the substrata at the microscale level. NE60/10-0° and NE60/10-30° substrata generally enhanced adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteoblast differentiation of human primary cells when compared to other Ti substrata, and significant correlations were observed between these cellular activities. Here, we show that the contact guidance of human primary cells grown on Ti substrata can be controlled more by specific submicroscale textures on ridge tops than by the dimensions of surface microgrooves only. Also, the degree of angles created between the submicroscale textures and microgrooves on Ti substrata significantly affect cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation in human primary cells.
    Archives of oral biology 12/2011; 57(7):898-905. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A robust core-shell-corona micelle bearing redox-responsive shell-specific cross-links was evaluated as a carrier of docetaxel (DTX) for cancer therapy. The polymer micelles of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine)-b-poly(L-phenylalanine) (PEG-PLys-PPhe) in the aqueous phase provided the three distinct functional domains: the PEG outer corona for prolonged circulation, the PLys middle shell for disulfide cross-linking, and the PPhe inner core for DTX loading. The shell cross-linking was performed by the reaction of disulfide-containing cross-linkers with Lys moieties in the middle shells. The shell cross-linking did not change the micelle size or the spherical morphology. The shell cross-linked micelles exhibited enhanced serum stability. The DTX release from the DTX-loaded disulfide cross-linked micelles (DTX-SSCLM) was facilitated by increasing the concentration of glutathione (GSH). At an intracellular GSH level, DTX release was facilitated due to the reductive cleavage of the disulfide cross-links in the shell domains. The in vivo tissue distribution and tumor accumulation of the DTX-SSCLM that were labeled with a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye, Cy5.5, were monitored in MDA-MB231 tumor-bearing mice. Non-invasive real-time optical imaging results indicated that the DTX-SSCLM exhibited enhanced tumor specificity due to the prolonged stable circulation in blood and the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect compared with the DTX-loaded non-cross-linked micelles (DTX-NCLM). The DTX-SSCLM exhibited enhanced therapeutic efficacy in tumor-bearing mice compared with free DTX and DTX-NCLM. The domain-specific shell cross-linking that is described in this work may serve as a useful guidance for enhancing the antitumor therapeutic efficacy of various polymer micelles and nano-aggregates.
    Biomaterials 11/2011; 33(5):1489-99. · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition 08/2011; 50(38):8853-7. · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyaluronic acidnanoparticles (HA-NPs), mineralized by calcium phosphate, were synthesized as a robust carrier of the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). The HA-NPs were readily mineralized in the presence of calcium nitrate and ammonium phosphate, which was confirmed by various instruments such as FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mineralization reduced the particle size of the HA-NPs in PBS (pH 7.4) from 263 nm to 142 nm, indicating the formation of compact nanoparticles. Mineralized HA-NPs were highly stable at pH 7.4, whereas their particle size rapidly increased in a mildly acidic solution, which was due to the dissolution of calcium phosphate. When DOX-loaded bare HA-NPs were exposed to buffer solutions of various pH, most of the DOX (>80%) was released within 48 h, and the release behavior was not dependent upon the pH of the solution. Notably, the mineralized HA-NPs released DOX in a sustained manner at pH 7.4, whereas a rapid release of DOX was observed in the acidic solution. The release rate of DOX from the mineralized HA-NPs was higher in the solution with a lower pH. These results indicate that mineralized HA-NPs have potential as robust nanoparticles that can release DOX at specific sites under mildly acidic conditions, such as in the extracellular matrix of tumor tissue and in intracellular compartments (e.g., endosome and lysosome) of the cell.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry 05/2011; 21(22):7996-8001. · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A biocompatible, robust polymer micelle bearing pH-hydrolyzable shell cross-links was developed for efficient intracellular delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). The rationally designed triblock copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-aspartic acid)-poly(L-phenylalanine) (PEG-PAsp-PPhe) self-assembled to form polymer micelles with three distinct domains of the PEG outer corona, the PAsp middle shell, and the PPhe inner core. Shell cross-linking was performed by the reaction of ketal-containing cross-linkers with Asp moieties in the middle shells. The shell cross-linking did not change the micelle size and the spherical morphology. Fluorescence quenching experiments confirmed the formation of shell cross-linked diffusion barrier, as judged by the reduced Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K(SV)). Dynamic light scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that shell cross-linking improved the micellar physical stability even in the presence of micelle disrupting surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The hydrolysis kinetics study showed that the hydrolysis half-life (t(1/2)) of ketal cross-links was estimated to be 52 h at pH 7.4, whereas 0.7 h at pH 5.0, indicating the 74-fold faster hydrolysis at endosomal pH. Ketal cross-linked micelles showed the rapid DOX release at endosomal pH, compared to physiological pH. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that ketal cross-linked micelles were taken up by the MCF-7 breast cancer cells via endocytosis and transferred into endosomes to hydrolyze the cross-links by lowered pH and finally facilitate the DOX release to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells. This ketal cross-linked polymer micelle is promising for enhanced intracellular delivery efficiency of many hydrophobic anticancer drugs.
    Biomacromolecules 02/2011; 12(4):1224-33. · 5.37 Impact Factor
  • Ahn Na Koo, Sang Cheon Lee
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    ABSTRACT: We report on bone-regenerative porous microspheres surface-decorated with polyphosphate-functionalized nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) that can controllably release bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). n-HAp was immobilized onto the pore surface of microspheres and could control the loading and the release of BMP-2.
    01/2011;

Publication Stats

1k Citations
348.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Kyung Hee University
      • • Department of Dentistry
      • • Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Science
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2009
    • Korean Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Eulji University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chungnam National University
      • Department of Polymer Science and Engineering
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2003–2008
    • Purdue University
      • Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering
      West Lafayette, Indiana, United States
  • 2007
    • Gyeongsang National University
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2000–2007
    • Inha University
      • Department of Polymer Science and Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea