Ramakrishnan Lakshmy

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Dilli, NCT, India

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Publications (76)329.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims: This study estimated the levels of glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes in urban and rural areas of four regions in India. Research Design and Methods: Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) Study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Jharkhand) and one Union Territory (Chandigarh) and covering a population of 213 million people. Using a stratified multistage sampling design, individuals ≥20 years of age were recruited. Glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes was assessed by measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), estimated by the Variant™ II Turbo method (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Results: Among the 14,277 participants in Phase I of INDIAB, there were 480 subjects with self-reported diabetes (254 urban and 226 rural). The mean HbA1c levels were highest in Chandigarh (9.1±2.3%), followed by Tamil Nadu (8.2±2.0%), Jharkhand (8.2±2.4%), and Maharashtra (8.0±2.1%). Good glycemic control (HbA1c <7%) was observed only in 31.1% of urban and 30.8% of rural subjects. Only 22.4% of urban and 15.4% of rural subjects had reported having checked their HbA1c in the past year. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed younger age, duration of diabetes, insulin use, and high triglyceride levels to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusions: The level of glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes in India is poor. Urgent action is needed to remedy the situation.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 08/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphism and epistasis play a role in etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). In this case-control study, a total of 241 patients were included in the study to see the effect of paraoxonase 1 (PON1; rs662 and rs85460) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genes in altering the odds of having AD and VaD along with serum PON and lipid profile. The presence of at least 1 variant allele of rs662, but not rs85460, increased the risk of having AD by 1.8-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-3.40) and VaD by 3.09-fold (95% CI: 1.4-6.9). The interaction between PON1 genes (rs662 and rs85460) and ApoE genes showed synergistic epistasis in altering the odds of significantly having both AD and VaD. On the other hand, low serum level of high-density lipoprotein and low level of serum PON activity were found associated significantly (P ≤ .001 in both cases) only in patients with VaD as compared to healthy control.
    American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Low level of vitamin B12 and folic acid has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were assayed in 80 AD and 50 VaD cases and in 120 healthy controls. The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) gene, rs1051266, which encodes the RFC 1, protein was analyzed for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. It was observed that the patients having folic acid <8.45 ng/mL had 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.5) times higher odds of having AD and 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-4.2) times higher odds of having VaD than patients having folic acid ≥8.45 ng/mL. Serum vitamin B12 level did not show any such statistically significant effect in altering the odds. No direct association was found between variant (G) allele or genotype of rs1051266 with AD and VaD cases. On serum folate level no association was observed with gene polymorphism.
    American Journal of Alzheimer s Disease and Other Dementias 02/2014; 29(1):38-44. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken in view of the paucity of data regarding the profile of prothrombotic factors in children with ischemic stroke. Sixty-four children with ischemic stroke were prospectively evaluated for presence of prothrombotic factors over a 2 year period. The blood samples were analyzed for protein C (PC), protein S (PS), activated protein C resistance (APCR), factor V Leiden (FVL), anti-thrombin-III (AT-III), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], lupus anticoagulant (LA), anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG, homocysteine, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) at least 3 months after the onset of stroke. At least one prothrombotic factor was identified in 45.3% children (29/64). These included hyperhomocysteinemia (11/64), PC deficiency (9/64), aCL (8/64), PS deficiency (5/64), APCR (3/64), AT-III deficiency (2/64) and LA (1/64). Multiple factors were coexistent in 17.2% (11/64). The prevalence of PC deficiency, PS deficiency and co-existence of multiple abnormalities observed were similar to the published literature. Elevated Lp(a) and APCR were less prevalent. FVL and MTHFR were not seen in any of the study children. Forty-five percent of children had at least one prothrombotic abnormality. Hyperhomocysteinemia, PC deficiency, aCL and PS deficiency were the most frequent prothrombotic abnormalities.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 01/2014; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The decreased number and senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are considered markers of vascular senescence associated with aging, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease (CAD) in elderly. In this study, we explore the role of vascular senescence in premature CAD (PCAD) in a developing country by comparing the numerical status and senescence of circulating EPCs in PCAD patients to controls. EPCs were measured by flow cytometry in 57 patients with angiographically documented CAD, and 57 controls without evidence of CAD, recruited from random patients <= 50 years of age at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. EPC senescence as determined by telomere length (EPC-TL) and telomerase activity (EPC-TA) was studied by real time polymerase chain reaction (q PCR) and PCR-- ELISA respectively.Result: The number of EPCs (0.18% Vs. 0.039% of total WBCs, p < 0.0001), and EPC-TL (3.83 Vs. 5.10 kb/genome, p = 0.009) were markedly lower in PCAD patients compared to controls. These differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking and medications. EPC-TA was reduced in PCAD patients, but was statistically significant only after adjustment for confounding factors (1.81 Vs. 2.20 IU/cell, unadjusted p = 0.057, adjusted p = 0.044). We observed an association between increased vascular cell senescence with PCAD in a sample of young patients from India. This suggests that early accelerated vascular cell senescence may play an important mechanistic role in CAD epidemic in developing countries like India where PCAD burden is markedly higher compared to developed countries.
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 11/2013; 13(1):104. · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • New England Journal of Medicine 10/2013; 369(18):1770. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) versus epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery. A prospective randomized study. A tertiary care center. The study was conducted on 64 consecutive adult patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Group EACA received a bolus of 50 mg/kg of EACA after induction of anesthesia over 20 minutes followed by maintenance infusion of 25 mg/kg/h until chest closure. Group TXA received a bolus of 10 mg/kg of TXA after induction of anesthesia over 20 minutes followed by maintenance infusion of 1 mg/kg/h until chest closure. Cumulated mean blood loss, total packed red blood cells, and blood product requirement up to 24 h postoperatively were comparable between groups. A significant renal injury (EACA 40% v TXA 16%; p = 0.04) and increased tendency for renal failure (EACA 10% v TXA 0%, p = 0.11; relative risk 2.15) were observed with EACA compared to TXA. There was increased tendency of seizure with TXA (EACA v TXA: 3.3% v 10%; p>0.05, relative risk 1.53). There was significant increase in the D-dimer from preoperative to postoperative values in Group EACA. (p< 0.01). Both EACA and TXA were equally effective in reducing the perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirement in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery. While significant renal injury was observed with EACA, there was a tendency for higher incidence of seizure with TXA. Prospective placebo-controlled trials recruiting larger sample size using sensitive biomarkers are required before any recommendations.
    Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 09/2013; · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • Ramakrishnan Lakshmy
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    ABSTRACT: Development of metabolic syndrome is attributed to genes, dietary intake, physical activity and environmental factors. Fetal programming due to maternal nutrition is also an important factor especially in developing countries where intrauterine growth retardation followed by excess nutrition postnatally is causing mismatch predisposing individuals to development of metabolic syndrome and its components. Several epidemiological and animal studies have provided evidence for the link between intrauterine growth retardation and adult metabolic diseases. Deficiency of macronutrients, protein and carbohydrates, during pregnancy and gestation results in lower infant birth weight, a surrogate marker of fetal growth and subsequently insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and adiposity in adulthood. The role of micronutrients is less extensively studied but however gaining attention with several recent studies focusing on this aspect. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the developmental origin of adult diseases important among them being alteration of hypothalamic pituitary axis, epigenetic regulation of gene expression and oxidative stress. All of these mechanisms may be acting at different time during gestation and contributing to development of metabolic syndrome in adulthood.
    Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 09/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare: (i) prevalences of thinness in school-children by four body mass index references in common use [Centre for Disease Control (CDC); Cole; Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP); World Health Organization (WHO)]; and (ii) relationship of thinness with absence of cardio-metabolic risk factors in these BMI references. Cross-sectional. Schools in Delhi. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured in 16,245 school children aged 5 to 18 years. Fasting lipids and blood sugar were estimated in 2796 subjects. Age and sex-specific prevalences of thinness and predictive ability of reference cut-off for detecting any cardio-metabolic risk factor were compared. Prevalences of thinness varied with reference employed more so for boys. Overall prevalence of thinness was least with IAP reference and highest with CDC cutoffs (6.6% to 16.9% in boys, 6.5% to 10.3% in girls). Children identified as thin by any reference had comparable, significantly lower risks (ORs 0.59 to 0.73) of associated cardiometabolic aberrations. In subjects with any cardiometabolic or blood pressure aberration, the prevalence of thinness was highest with CDC and least with IAP definition. Prevalences of thinness vary considerably with the reference employed. Thin children, identified by any reference, have a lower risk of associated cardio-metabolic aberrations; however, thinness is a poor diagnostic test for this purpose. In populations undergoing nutrition transition, there is a need to link cardio-metabolic risk factors with recommended anthropometric criteria to define undernutrition.
    Indian pediatrics 06/2013; · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to use dry blood spots (DBSs) on filter paper for the analysis of urea levels could be an important diagnostic tool for areas that have limited access to laboratory facilities. We developed a method for the extraction and quantification of urea from DBSs that were stored on 3M Whatman filter paper and investigated the effect of long-term storage on the level of urea in DBSs. DBSs of 4.5 mm in diameter were used for our assay, and we determined the urea levels in blood using a commercially available enzymatic kit (UV GLDH-method; Randox laboratories Ltd., UK). The DBSs on filter discs were stored at 4℃ or at 37℃ for 120 days. The mean intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variance for our method of urea extraction from dried blood was 4.2% and 6.3%, respectively. We collected 75 fresh blood samples and compared the urea content of each fresh sample with the urea content of DBSs taken from corresponding fresh blood samples. Regression analysis reported a regression coefficient (r) value of 0.97 and a recovery of urea from dried spots was 102.2%. Urea concentrations in DBSs were stable for up to 120 and 90 days when stored at 4℃ and 37℃, respectively. Our results show that urea can be stored and quantitatively recovered from small volumes of blood that was collected on filter paper.
    Annals of Laboratory Medicine 05/2013; 33(3):190-2. · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Anju Sarupria, Neeti Makhija, Ramakrishnan Lakshmy, Usha Kiran
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different doses of ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and assess their relative efficacy and safety in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: A tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty children undergoing corrective surgery for TOF using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). INTERVENTIONS: Group 1 received 100 mg/kg of EACA after induction, upon initiation of CPB, and after protamine. Group 2 received 75 mg/kg of EACA after induction, followed by a maintenance infusion of 75 mg/kg/h until chest closure, and an additional 75 mg/kg upon initiation of CPB. Group 3 did not receive any antifibrinolytic agent or placebo. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Cumulative mean blood loss, total packed red blood cells, and fresh frozen plasma requirements were significantly less in group 2 (p ≤ 0.01). There were no significant differences in the total platelet concentrate transfused, re-exploration rate, incidence of renal failure, arrhythmias, neurologic complications, mortality, or length of intensive care unit stay among the 3 groups. The incidences of perioperative ST/T changes and chest closure time were significantly less in group 1 and group 2 (p ≤ 0.01). The duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in group 2 (p ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: EACA was effective in reducing the postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in children undergoing corrective cardiac surgery on CPB for TOF. The dose regimen of 75 mg/kg after induction, followed by a maintenance infusion of 75 mg/kg/h until chest closure, and an additional 75 mg/kg upon initiation of CPB were more effective.
    Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 09/2012; · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context:Randomized control trials (RCT) of the effect of vitamin D/calcium supplementation on skeletal muscle strength have not shown promising effect in the elderly.Objective:Our objective was to assess the effect of vitamin D and/or calcium on muscle strength in young adults with vitamin D deficiency.Design and Setting:We conducted a RCT using a factorial design at a tertiary-care center from September 2010 to April 2011.Subjects:A total of 173 healthy females with mean age, body mass index, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] of 21.7 ± 4.4 yr, 20.8 ± 2.96 kg/m(2), and 9.3 ± 3.37 ng/ml, respectively, were block randomized to 1) double placebo, 2) calcium/placebo, 3) cholecalciferol/placebo, and 4) cholecalciferol/calcium for 6 months. Cholecalciferol was given at 60,000 IU/wk for 8 wk followed by 60,000 IU/fortnight. Elemental calcium was given in doses of 500 mg twice per day for 6 months.Methods:Assessment included hand grip (primary outcome) and pinch grip strength, distance walked in 6 min, dyspnea score, quality of life by Short Form (36) Health Survey (SP-36), serum 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and intact PTH.Results:The serum 25(OH)D increased significantly to 29.9 ± 8.35 and 27.0 ± 9.54 ng/ml in two groups on cholecalciferol. The mean hand grip strength (19.4 ± 3.92, 21.1 ± 3.31, 20.6 ± 3.92, and 20.1 ± 4.00 kg) and its increase from baseline (0.3 ± 2.25, 0.3 ± 2.64, -0.3 ± 2.41, and 0.6 ± 2.30 kg) were comparable in four groups at 6 months. Quality of life, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, and adverse effects were also comparable in groups.Conclusion:Oral cholecalciferol/calcium supplementation in the dose/schedule used is effective and safe in increasing and maintaining serum 25(OH)D. However, this does not lead to improved skeletal muscle strength in young females.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2012; · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid plaques represent preclinical markers of atherosclerosis. We sought to describe predictors of CIMT and carotid plaques, including early life growth, in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: In 2006-2009, we performed B-mode carotid ultrasound on 600 participants (mean [SD] age 36 [1.1] years; 45% women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort to evaluate CIMT and carotid plaques (>1mm). Height and weight were recorded at birth, 2 and 11years of age. Data on CVD risk factors, anthropometry, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected in 1998-2002. RESULTS: Mean (SD) CIMT for men and women was 0.91 (0.12) and 0.86 (0.13) mm, respectively. Carotid plaque was present in 33% of men and 26% of women. Waist circumference in 1998-2002 was positively associated with CIMT (β coefficient 0.26mm [0.17, 0.36] per SD) and carotid plaque (OR 1.27 [1.06,1.52] per SD) in 2006-2009. Higher triglycerides, PAI-1, insulin resistance, and diastolic blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, and lower HDL-cholesterol and physical activity predicted higher CIMT and/or plaque (p<0.05). Longer length at 2years was associated with higher CIMT (p<0.05). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for adult waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first prospective data from India showing that early life growth, adult socio-demographics, and CVD risk factors predict future CIMT and/or carotid plaque. These relationships appear primarily mediated through central adiposity, highlighting the importance of maintaining a healthy weight in early adulthood to prevent CVD.
    International journal of cardiology 04/2012; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dried blood spotted on to filter paper has been found suitable for a large number of studies. In tropical countries with varying temperature conditions the use of dried blood needs to be validated. We carried out this study to assess the use of blood spotted filter paper as a transport system to study genotyping of Apo E gene. Fifty five patients visiting Cardiothoracic Neuroscience Centre (CNC) OPD at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, and referred for lipid investigations to Cardiac Biochemistry Laboratory were selected at random. Blood was spotted on to Whatman 3 MM filter paper, dried and stored at room temperature. Genomic DNA was extracted and genotyping was carried out at the end of 0, 3 and 12 months. The study was further validated using samples collected on to filter paper from four centres and stored for eight years at room temperature. The temperature and humidity conditions of the centre varied widely. Fifty five samples collected on to filter paper showed exact match of the genotyping when compared to fresh blood. In dried blood samples collected and stored for 1 yr at room temperature DNA extraction and apo E genotyping was done successfully. The present results showed the feasibility of using dried blood samples on filter paper for apo E genotyping in tropical temperature. The findings need to be validated on a large sample before being recommended for use.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 03/2012; 135:318-21. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among administrative employees working at a tertiary hospital (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi) and their families. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a total of 453 individuals aged 30 years and above. The mean age of the study group was 43.3 ± 9.5 years. There was a high prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors - current smoking 58 (12.8%), tobacco consumption 26 (5.7%), family history of coronary artery disease 79 (17.4%), diabetes mellitus 25 (5.8%), hypertension 94 (20.7%), hypercholesterolemia 110 (25.7%), hypertriglyceridemia 148 (34.5%), physical inactivity 180 (39.7%), body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2) 350 (77.3%), central obesity 201 (80.1%) of males and 163 (80.7%) of females, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption 387 (85.4%), heavy drinking 12 (2.6%), and stress 58 (12.7%). This indicates an urgent need to initiate a comprehensive health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention programme at workplace and community level.
    Indian heart journal 01/2012; 64(4):356-63.
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    ABSTRACT: Independent and combined effects of 2 g/d long chain omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) from fish oil (capsules) and 2 g/d plant sterol (yogurt drink) on LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels in Indian subjects were compared. Following a 2-week run-in period, 200 mildly hypercholesterolemic (total cholesterol 5.0–8.0 mmol/l) adults (35–55 years) were randomized into one of four groups [(1) both placebo (2) active omega-3 (3) active plant sterol (4) both active] of a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Blood samples were obtained before and after the 4-week intervention (n = 178). Lipid levelswere analyzed using ANCOVA models with relevant baseline measurements as covariates; adjusted means were compared across groups. While plant sterols significantly lowered LDL-C (-4.5%; P = 0.017) and non-HDL-C (-7.9%; P = 0.0019) levels, omega-3 did not demonstrate any such impact. The combination resulted in 4.2% and 3.9% reduction (non-significant), respectively. Thus, the beneficial effects of the omega-3-PS combination on lipid levels demonstrated earlier (lowered triacylglycerols by 15%, increased HDL-C by 5.4%) in addition to the present findings could make this combination a useful alternative for lowering coronary heart disease risk in Indian adults.
    Journal of Functional Foods 01/2012; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are heterogeneous in terms of size, density, chemical composition and electric charge with certain particle of LDL being more atherogenic than the others. The present study aimed to look at the LDL particle heterogeneity, particle size and association with other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in young Indian industrial population. 600 employees of an industry of Delhi, aged 20-39 years were selected for the study. Data on demographics, individual characteristics associated with major risk factors of CVD, past medical history, clinical and anthropometric profile was collected. Fasting glucose, lipid profile, apolipoprotein (A1, B, and E), lipoprotein (a), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and insulin were estimated. LDL particle size was determined in ethylenediamminetetraacetate (EDTA) plasma by 3% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We found a prevalence of small dense LDL phenotype (LDL size ≤ 26.3) in 27.4% of males and 24.0% of females. The mean waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides (TAG), cholesterol, hsCRP, apolipoprotein (A1, B and E) and insulin were higher in males whereas mean high density lipoprotein was higher in females. Females also had a significantly higher mean LDL particle diameter as compared to males. TAG, physical activity and lipoprotein (a) correlated with small dense LDL in this young Indian population.
    Heart Asia. 01/2012; 4(1):141-145.
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    ABSTRACT: Dried blood may be a convenient method of sample collection in epidemiological studies; however, the method needs evaluation in a field settings. In the present study, feasibility of using dried blood for measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides was evaluated in multicenter surveillance study for noncommunicable disease (NCD). Samples were collected in a cross-sectional study for NCD risk factor surveillance conducted in six centers in India. For every tenth subject recruited, a blood sample was also collected on filter paper. These 10% serum samples and dried blood spots were analyzed for cholesterol and triglycerides. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for cholesterol was less than 10% between dried blood and serum in five of the six participating centers. Only one center showed a high CV of 14%. Similarly, the mean bias was less than 10% in five centers. The intraclass correlation between cholesterol values in dried blood and serum were greater than 0.638 in all centers, which suggests a good homogeneity of results. The mean CV for triglycerides ranged from 0.36% to 17.97%. The intraclass correlation between triglyceride values in dried blood and serum ranged from 0.756 to 0.880 in the six centers. In conclusion, dried blood would be a good method for collection of blood for measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides for population health surveys. However, the benefits of blood spot analysis should be weighed against potential sources of errors attributable to sampling and other factors, such as temperature and humidity, in a country like India.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 01/2012; 6(1):33-41. · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Journal of diabetes science and technology 01/2012; 6(4):988-9.
  • Circulation 01/2012; 125(19):e317. · 15.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
329.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Cardiac Biochemistry
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Cardiology
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2009–2012
    • AIIMS Bhopal All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
    • Centre for Chronic Disease Control
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2008
    • University of Southampton
      • MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
    • Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2005
    • Sunder Lal Jain Hospital
      Old Delhi, NCT, India
  • 1997
    • National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology
      Bengalūru, Karnātaka, India