Johan Kahlström

Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (3)10.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Caffeine is believed to exert its stimulant effects by blocking A(2A) and A(1) adenosine receptors (A(2A)R and A(1)R). Although a genetic knockout of A(2A)R eliminates effects of caffeine, the phenotype of the knockout animal does not resemble that of caffeine treatment. In this study we explored the possibility that a mere reduction of the number of A(1)Rs and A(2A)Rs, achieved by deleting one of the two copies of the A(1)R and A(2A)R genes, would mimic some aspects of long-term caffeine ingestion. The A(1)R and A(2A)R double heterozygous (A(1)R-A(2A)R dHz) mice indeed had approximately one-half the number of A(1)R and A(2A)R, and there were little compensatory changes in A(2B) or A(3) adenosine receptor (A(2B)R or A(3)R) expression. The ability of a stable adenosine analog to activate receptors was shifted to the right by caffeine and in A(1)R-A(2A)R dHz tissue. Caffeine (0.3 g/l in drinking water for 7-10 days) and A(1)R-A(2A)R dHz genotype increased locomotor activity (LA) and decreased heart rate without significantly influencing body temperature. The acute stimulatory effect of a single injection of caffeine was reduced in A(1)R-A(2A)R dHz mice and in mice treated long term with oral caffeine. Thus at least some aspects of long-term caffeine use can be mimicked by genetic manipulation of the A(1)R and A(2A)R.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 12/2008; 106(2):631-9. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are lingering concerns about caffeine consumption during pregnancy or the early postnatal period, partly because there may be long-lasting behavioral changes after caffeine exposure early in life. We show that pregnant wild type (WT) mice given modest doses of caffeine (0.3 g/l in drinking water) gave birth to offspring that as adults exhibited increased locomotor activity in an open field. The offspring also responded to cocaine challenge with greater locomotor activity than mice not perinatally exposed to caffeine. We performed the same behavioral experiments on mice heterozygous for adenosine A(1) receptor gene (A(1)RHz). In these mice signaling via adenosine A(1) receptors is reduced to about the same degree as after modest consumption of caffeine. A(1)RHz mice had a behavioral profile similar to WT mice perinatally exposed to caffeine. Furthermore, it appeared that the mother's genotype, not offspring's, was critical for behavioral changes in adult offspring. Thus, if the mother partially lacked A(1) receptors the offspring displayed more hyperactivity and responded more strongly to cocaine stimulation as adults than did mice of a WT mother, regardless of their genotype. This indicates that long-term behavioral alterations in the offspring result from the maternal effect of caffeine, and not a direct effect on fetus. WT offspring from WT mother but having a A(1)R Hz grandmother preserved higher locomotor response to cocaine. We suggest that perinatal caffeine, by acting on adenosine A(1) receptors in the mother, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in the offspring that even manifest themselves in the second generation.
    PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(12):e3977. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenosine and its receptors are, as part of the brain stress response, potential targets for neuroprotective drugs. We have investigated if the adenosine receptor system affects the developmental neurotoxicity caused by the fish pollutant methylmercury (MeHg). Behavioral outcomes of low dose perinatal MeHg exposure were studied in mice where the A(1) and A(2A) adenosine receptors were either partially blocked by caffeine treatment or eliminated by genetic modification (A(1)R and A(2A)R knock-out mice). From gestational day 7 to day 7 of lactation dams were administered doses that mimic human intake via normal diet, i.e. 1microM MeHg and/or 0.3g/l caffeine in the drinking water. This exposure to MeHg resulted in a doubling of brain Hg levels in wild type females and males at postnatal day 21 (PND21). Open field analysis was performed at PND21 and 2 months of age. MeHg caused time-dependent behavioral alterations preferentially in male mice. A decreased response to amphetamine in 2-month-old males pointed to disturbances in dopaminergic functions. Maternal caffeine intake induced long-lasting changes in the offspring evidenced by an increased motor activity and a modified response to psychostimulants in adult age, irrespectively of sex. Similar alterations were observed in A(1)R knock-out mice, suggesting that adenosine A(1) receptors are involved in the alterations triggered by caffeine exposure during development. Perinatal caffeine treatment and, to some extent, genetic elimination of adenosine A(1) receptors, attenuated the behavioral consequences of MeHg in males. Importantly, also deletion of the A(2A) adenosine receptor reduced the vulnerability to MeHg, consistent with the neuroprotective effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor inactivation observed in hypoxia and Parkinson's disease. Thus, the consequences of MeHg toxicity during gestation and lactation can be reduced by adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor inactivation, either via their genetic deletion or by treatment with their antagonist caffeine.
    Toxicology 12/2007; 241(3):119-33. · 3.75 Impact Factor