[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymorphism C in the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin), member 4 (SLC6A4) gene has been variously associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). To the best of our knowledge, no data were reported regarding a role of SLC6A4 in late-life MDD. The aim of this study was to explore the possible involvement of the SLC6A4 locus in patients with late-life MDD by means of a haplotype-tagged approach.
Older patients attending a geriatric unit.
A total of 218 patients with late-life MDD (61 men and 157 women) age 65 to 92 years (76.29 ± 6.53 years) and 363 depression-free healthy subjects (156 men and 207 women) age 41 to 65 years (48.33 ± 5.94 years).
Genotyping and haplotype estimation of the three markers rs4795541, rs140701, and rs3813034 spanning a 39-kb block the SLC6A4 locus. Diagnoses of late-life MDD, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, and other dementing diseases were made using current clinical criteria.
No significant differences were observed in allele or genotype distribution for the three SLC6A4 markers across the study groups. Because the comparison group could not be matched for age, a sensitivity analysis for the misclassification of controls was performed according to different scenarios. For each simulated scenario, the same nonsignificant result was observed. However, the results are limited to late-life MDD that is specifically not associated with cognitive impairment, and there was limited power for detecting very small effect sizes.
Our findings suggested that the SLC6A4 locus play a minor role, if any, in the pathogenesis of late-life MDD. Also, tempering our conclusions, we were unable to account for population stratification, recurrence or chronicity of depression, nor the influence of coexisting medical, cognitive, and psychosocial stressors.
The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 01/2013; 21(1):67-77. · 3.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are increasingly recognized as common in patients with dementia, both of degenerative (Alzheimer's disease, AD) or vascular origin (vascular dementia, VaD). In this study, 302 demented patients, 166 with AD and 136 with VaD, were evaluated for NPS according to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) score at the Alzheimer's Evaluation Unit of Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital-IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was also performed in all demented patients. The means of NPI scores did not differ in two groups. The overall prevalence of NPS was similar in both groups of patients (69.7% vs. 69.4%). Patients with AD had higher frequency in agitation/aggression and irritability/lability than VaD patients. Logistic analysis demonstrated a significant association between severity of the cognitive impairment and depression and eating disorders in both AD and VaD patients. The association with agitation/aggression, irritability/lability, and aberrant motor activity was found in AD only, and with apathy in VaD patients only. In both AD and VaD patients, there was a significant association between the impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) and the majority of NPI domains. A significant association was also found between the impairment of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and agitation/aggression, anxiety, aberrant motor activity in AD and depression, apathy, irritability/lability, sleep disturbance and eating disorders in both AD and VaD patients. In particular, a causal mediation analysis was performed to better understand whether the relationship of NPS to functional impairment was direct or mediated by severity of cognitive dysfunction, i.e., Clinical dementia rating scale (CDR) score. Only agitation/aggression was mediated by the CDR score in affecting ADL status in VaD patients (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01-1.27). The NPI-Distress scores showed a significantly higher levels of distress in caregivers of AD than VaD. There were significant differences between AD and VaD patients with NPS, and these symptoms varied according to dementia subtype and severity and induced marked disability in ADL and IADL, increasing, prevalently, the distress of the caregivers of AD patients.
Current Alzheimer research 06/2012; 9(6):759-71. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephrologists worldwide are gradually coping with elderly patients. This is because of the burden of chronic disease in the aging population and specifically chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD in the elderly rarely occurs in isolation from other chronic conditions and can often be a marker of these conditions themselves. Geriatricians usually take care of chronic conditions and are trained to perform comprehensive geriatric assessment, a tool to estimate frailty, that is the risk of adverse outcome, disability, and death in the clinical setting of elderly inpatients. Unfortunately, they are not used to a CHD invasive and non-invasive approach and so there is no doubt about the need for a co-managed care model for these patients. However, where and how this model must be realized is still questionable. New hospital care models are patient-centered and encompass the concepts of departments to embrace the differentiated levels of care approach. According to this model the hospital is subdivided into three different standards of care: 1-high; 2 -intermediate; 3- low and this organization avoids inpatients being transferred frequently to different units, receiving specific care easily obtained by moving and changing the medical staff in charge of the patient. The lean care approach integrates the principles of the Toyota Producing System (TPS), a leading system of the industrial world, into intensity-based hospital care, thereby maximizing quality processes and promoting co-managed care as in the nephro-geriatric clinical setting.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulting in particular AD endophenotypes. The common AD genetic risk factor apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been suggested underlying these AD endophenotypes.
APOE genotyping, a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory were performed on 322 consecutive older patients. Patients were divided into three groups: AD with NPS (N = 93), AD without NPS (N = 108), and, as a control group, patients with no cognitive impairment (NoCI: N = 121). Patients with NPS were further sub-divided in four groups according to the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) classification of neuropsychiatric syndromes in AD: hyperactive, psychotic, affective, and apathetic.
AD patients with NPS showed a significantly higher grade of cognitive impairment, more severity stage of dementia, more disability in the activities of daily living (ADL), and the instrumental ADL than AD patients without NPS. As expected, an higher frequency of APOE ε3/ε4 genotype was observed in patients with AD, both with and without NPS, than patients with NoCI. No difference in the distribution of APOE genotypes was found between AD patients with vs. without NPS. However, in AD patients APOE ε4-carriers, there was an increased risk of affective [odds ratio (OR): 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-4.58) and apathetic (OR: 2.24,95%CI: 1.19-4.22) syndromes.
These findings did not suggest a significant association between APOE polymorphism and presence of NPS in AD patients. In AD patients with NPS, however, APOE ε4-carrier status was associated with an increased risk of affective and apathetic syndromes.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 10/2011; 26(10):1062-70. · 2.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At present, the search for preventive strategies for cognitive decline and dementia appears to be of crucial importance, given that the therapeutic options currently available have demonstrated limited efficacy. Cumulative epidemiological evidence suggested that vascular and vascular-related factors may be important for the development of agerelated cognitive decline (ARCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive decline of degenerative (Alzheimer's disease, AD) or vascular origin (vascular dementia, VaD). Among vascular-related factors, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with the increased risk of predementia syndromes (ARCD and MCI), overall dementia, and VaD, but contrasting findings also exist on the possible role of MetS in AD. In the next future, trials could then be undertaken to determine if modifications of these risks including inflammation, another factor probably related to MetS, could lower risk of developing cognitive decline. If MetS is associated with increased risk of developing cognitive impairment, then early identification and treatment of these individuals at risk might offer new avenues for disease course modification. Future research aimed at identifying mechanisms that underlie comorbid associations will not only provide important insights into the causes and interdependencies of predementia and dementia syndromes, but will also inspire novel strategies for treating and preventing these disorders. At present, vascular risk factor management could be decisive in delaying the onset of dementia syndromes or in preventing the progression of predementia syndromes.
Current Alzheimer Research 07/2011; 8(5):492-509. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At present, the search for preventive strategies for cognitive decline and dementia appears to be of crucial importance, given that the therapeutic options currently available have demonstrated limited efficacy. Cumulative epidemiological evidence suggested that vascular and vascular-related factors may be important for the development of age-related cognitive decline (ARCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive decline of degenerative (Alzheimer's disease, AD) or vascular origin (vascular dementia, VaD). Among vascular-related factors, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with the reduced risk of predementia syndromes (ARCD and MCI), overall dementia, and VaD, but contrasting findings also exist on the possible role of MetS in AD. In the next future, trials could then be undertaken to determine if modifications of these risks including inflammation, another factor probably related to MetS, could lower risk of developing cognitive decline. If MetS is associated with increased risk of developing cognitive impairment, then early identification and treatment of these individuals at risk might offer new avenues for disease course modification. Future research aimed at identifying mechanisms that underlie comorbid associations will not only provide important insights into the causes and interdependencies of predementia and dementia syndromes, but will also inspire novel strategies for treating and preventing these disorders. At present, vascular risk factor management could be decisive in delaying the onset of dementia syndromes or in preventing the progression of predementia syndromes.
Current Alzheimer research 05/2011; 8(5):492-509. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have led to the development of putative disease-modifying treatments. The most revolutionary of these approaches consists in the removal of brain β-amyloid (Aβ) via anti-Aβ antibodies. Brain imaging and neuropathological studies have shown the ability of both active and passive anti-Aβ immunotherapies of clearing Aβ deposits from the brain of the AD patients. An active anti-Aβ vaccine preparation, AN1792, has been used in AD patients with some clues of clinical efficacy but causing meningoencephalitis in about 6% of patients and it has been abandoned. Several second-generation active Aβ vaccines and passive Aβ immunotherapies have been developed and are under clinical investigation with the aim of accelerating Aβ clearance from the brain of the AD patients. The most advanced of these immunological approaches is bapineuzumab, composed of humanized anti-Aβ monoclonal antibodies, that has been tested in two Phase II trials, demonstrating to reduce Aβ burden in the brain of AD patients. However, the preliminary cognitive efficacy of bapineuzumab appears uncertain. The occurrence of vasogenic edema, especially in apolipoprotein E 4 carriers, may limit its clinical use and have led to abandon the highest dose of the drug (2 mg/kg). The results of four ongoing large Phase III trials on bapineuzumab will tell us if passive anti-Aβ immunization is able to alter the course if this devastating disease.
Current Alzheimer research 05/2011; 8(8):808-17. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 enzyme is the major responsible for the metabolism of donepezil, an inhibitor of acetyl cholinesterase currently used for the symptomatic treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Functional polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may affect enzyme activity and thus, the metabolism of donepezil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 16 functional polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene on the clinical response to donepezil treatment in patients with mild-to-moderate AD.
In this multicenter prospective cohort study we evaluated 57 unrelated Caucasians clinically diagnosed as AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Work Group criteria. Patients were treated with donepezil (5-10 mg/daily) for 6 months. The response to donepezil treatment was evaluated at 6-month follow-up according to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence requirements. The identification of 16 clinically relevant CYP2D6 gene variants was performed by a high-throughput genetic analysis.
Thirty-eight of 57 patients (67%) were responders and 19 patients (33%) were nonresponders to donepezil treatment. A significantly higher frequency of gene variants conferring decreased or absent enzyme activity was observed in responder than in nonresponder patients (73.68% vs. 36.84%; P=0.005). The presence of gene variants conferring decreased or absent activity of the CYP2D6 enzyme was significantly associated with a clinical response to donepezil treatment (odds ratio=6.286; 95% confidence interval=1.828-21.667).
Functional polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene can influence the clinical efficacy of donepezil. The analysis of CYP2D6 genotypes may be useful in identifying subgroups of AD patients with different clinical response to donepezil treatment.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 04/2011; 21(4):225-30. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies investigating the single cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 allele *2A reported an association with the response to drug treatments. More genetic data can be obtained, however, by high-throughput based-technologies. Aim of this study is the high-throughput analysis of the CYP2D6 polymorphisms to evaluate its effectiveness in the identification of patient responders/non-responders to CYP2D6-metabolized drugs.
An attempt to compare our results with those previously obtained with the standard analysis of CYP2D6 allele *2A was also made. Sixty blood samples from patients treated with CYP2D6-metabolized drugs previously genotyped for the allele CYP2D6*2A, were analyzed for the CYP2D6 polymorphisms with the AutoGenomics INFINITI CYP4502D6-I assay on the AutoGenomics INFINITI analyzer.
A higher frequency of mutated alleles in responder than in non-responder patients (75.38 % vs 43.48 %; p = 0.015) was observed. Thus, the presence of a mutated allele of CYP2D6 was associated with a response to CYP2D6-metabolized drugs (OR = 4.044 (1.348 - 12.154). No difference was observed in the distribution of allele *2A (p = 0.320).
The high-throughput genetic analysis of the CYP2D6 polymorphisms better discriminate responders/non-responders with respect to the standard analysis of the CYP2D6 allele *2A. A high-throughput genetic assay of the CYP2D6 may be useful to identify patients with different clinical responses to CYP2D6-metabolized drugs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genotypes of the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin) member 4 (SLC6A4) have been variously associated with depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, memory impairment, and anxiety. Less clear are data regarding their association with severe dementia, in particular with vascular dementia (VaD).
To evaluate the possible involvement of different SLC6A4 genotypes/haplotypes in VaD.
The analysis of the 3 markers rs3813034, rs140701 and rs4795541 spanning the SLC6A4 locus was made in 541 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed as having VaD (n = 372) or no cognitive impairment (n = 169) attending a geriatric ward. A community-dwelling sample of 353 healthy subjects, as a reference for the genetic frequencies in the recruitment area, was also included in the study. All patients and subjects were free from any symptoms of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety. A complete neuroimaging documentation was available for all patients.
No important differences were observed in genotype distribution across the study groups. Similarly, no important differences were observed in haplotype distribution when a 3-point analysis was made.
Our findings suggest that polymorphism C in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene plays a minor role, if any, in the pathogenesis of VaD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the influence of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1080985 in the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene on the efficacy of donepezil in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD).
This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 127 white patients with AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Work Group criteria. Patients were treated with donepezil 5-10 mg/daily for 6 months. Cognitive and functional statuses were evaluated at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Response to therapy was defined according to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence criteria. Compliance and drug-related adverse events were also evaluated. The analyses identifying the CYP2D6 and APOE polymorphisms were performed in blinded fashion.
At 6-month follow-up, 69 of 115 patients (60%) were responders and 46 patients (40%) were nonresponders to donepezil treatment. A significantly higher frequency of patients with the G allele of rs1080985 was found in nonresponders than in responders (58.7% vs 34.8%, p = 0.013). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, Mini-Mental State Examination score at baseline, and APOE demonstrated that patients with the G allele had a significantly higher risk of poor response to donepezil treatment (odds ratio 3.431, 95% confidence interval 1.490-7.901).
The single nucleotide polymorphism rs1080985 in the CYP2D6 gene may influence the clinical efficacy of donepezil in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD). The analysis of CYP2D6 genotypes may be useful in identifying subgroups of patients with AD who have different clinical responses to donepezil.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) for predicting mortality risk in older patients with dementia. The present was a retrospective study with a year of follow-up that included 262 patients aged 65 years and older with a diagnosis of dementia. A standardized CGA that included information on clinical, cognitive, functional, and nutritional aspects, as well as comorbidity, medications, and social support network, was used to calculate MPI. The predictive value of the MPI for all-cause mortality over 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months of follow-up was evaluated. Higher MPI values were significantly associated with higher mortality at 1 month (MPI-1, low risk = 0%, MPI-2, moderate risk = 5.2%, MPI-3, severe risk = 13.7%; p < 0.002), 6-months (MPI-1 = 2.7%, MPI-2 = 11.2%, MPI-3 = 28.8%; p < 0.001), and 12-months (MPI-1 = 2.7%, MPI-2 = 18.2%, MPI-3 = 35.6%; p < 0.001) of follow-up. The discrimination of the MPI was also good, with areas under the ROC curves of 0.77 (sensitivity = 82.9%, specificity = 66.0%, with a cut off value > 0.16) at 12-months of follow up. In conclusion, the MPI, calculated from information collected in a standardized CGA, accurately stratified hospitalized elderly patients with dementia into groups at varying risk of short- and long-term mortality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) shows a 22-bp tandem repeat polymorphism, indicated as polymorphism C, that has been associated to depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, memory impairment, and anxiety. Less clear are data regarding its association with Alzheimer's disease (AD). No data were reported regarding its association with questionable dementia (QD). In this study we investigate for polymorphism C in the SLC6A4 gene 302 elderly subjects with a clinical diagnosis of AD (n=105), QD (n=88) and no cognitive impairment (n=114) attending a geriatric ward. A community-dwelling sample of 390 healthy subjects was also included in the analysis. A significant higher prevalence of the C16/C16 genotype in AD than in QD was observed (37.14% vs. 3%; p=0.041, OR 2.001, 95%CI 1.018-4.024), while no differences in the C16/C14 and C14/C14 genotypes as well as in the estimated allele frequencies were found. No further differences among the three groups of subjects were found, also when they were compared with the community-dwelling sample. These findings suggest that SLC6A4 gene variation may have only a minor role, if any, in AD or QD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to construct and validate a Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) for 1-year mortality from a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) routinely carried out in elderly patients in a geriatric acute ward. The CGA included clinical, cognitive, functional, nutritional, and social parameters and was carried out using six standardized scales and information on medications and social support network, for a total of 63 items in eight domains. A MPI was developed from CGA data by aggregating the total scores of the eight domains and expressing it as a score from 0 to 1. Three grades of MPI were identified: low risk, 0.0-0.33; moderate risk, 0.34-0.66; and severe risk, 0.67-1.0. Using the proportional hazard models, we studied the predictive value of the MPI for all causes of mortality over a 12-month follow-up period. MPI was then validated in a different cohort of consecutively hospitalized patients. The development cohort included 838 and the validation cohort 857 elderly hospitalized patients. Of the patients in the two cohorts, 53.3 and 54.9% were classified in the low-risk group, respectively (MPI mean value, 0.18 +/- 0.09 and 0.18 +/- 0.09); 31.2 and 30.6% in the moderate-risk group (0.48 +/- 0.09 and 0.49 +/- 0.09); 15.4 and 14.2% in the severe-risk group (0.77 +/- 0.08 and 0.75 +/- 0.07). In both cohorts, higher MPI scores were significantly associated with older age (p = 0.0001), female sex (p = 0.0001), lower educational level (p = 0.0001), and higher mortality (p = 0.0001). In both cohorts, a close agreement was found between the estimated mortality and the observed mortality after both 6 months and 1 year of follow-up. The discrimination of the MPI was also good, with a ROC area of 0.751 (95%CI, 0.70-0.80) at 6 months and 0.751 (95%CI, 0.71-0.80) at 1 year of follow-up. We conclude that this MPI, calculated from information collected in a standardized CGA, accurately stratifies hospitalized elderly patients into groups at varying risk of mortality.
Rejuvenation Research 03/2008; 11(1):151-61. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems play a crucial role in memory formation and information processing. Alterations in this system contribute to the manifestation of symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Glutamate transmits signals via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Aims: The potential involvement of polymorphisms in the GRIN2B gene, encoding subunit 2B of the NMDA receptor, in the risk for AD was evaluated.
We investigated the 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1019385, rs1806201 and rs890, i.e. the G(-200)-->T transversion in the 5'UTR, the A(2664)-->G transition in exon 13 and the G(5072)-->T transition in the 3'UTR of the GRIN2B gene, in 222 Caucasian AD patients and 170 healthy Caucasian age-matched controls.
No differences were found in the overall distribution of the single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes between AD patients and healthy controls, even when the analysis was adjusted for sex, age and APOE. As expected from genotype frequencies, no differences were found in the distribution of the estimated allele and haplotype frequencies between AD patients and healthy controls.
In this study no significant association between polymorphisms in the GRIN2B gene and AD was observed. Further investigations of polymorphisms in the gene encoding the NMDA receptor 2B subunit in AD patients with different genetic setting are needed to clarify their role in the pathogenesis of AD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare efficacy and tolerability of four proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) commonly used in the short-term therapy of esophagitis in elderly patients.
A total of 320 patients over 65 years with endoscopically diagnosed esophagitis were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments for 8 wk: (1) omeprazole 20 mg/d; (2) lansoprazole 30 mg/d; (3) pantoprazole 40 mg/d, or (4) rabeprazole 20 mg/d. Major symptoms, compliance, and adverse events were recorded. After 8 wk, endoscopy and clinical evaluation were repeated.
Per protocol and intention to treat healing rates of esophagitis were: omeprazole = 81.0% and 75.0%, lansoprazole = 90.7% (P = 0.143 vs omeprazole) and 85.0%, pantoprazole = 93.5% (P = 0.04 vs omeprazole) and 90.0% (P = 0.02 vs omeprazole), rabeprazole = 94.6% (P = 0.02 vs omeprazole) and 88.8% (P = 0.04 vs omeprazole). Dividing patients according to the grades of esophagitis, omeprazole was significantly less effective than the three other PPIs in healing grade 1 esophagitis (healing rates: 81.8% vs 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, P = 0.012). Pantoprazole and rabeprazole (100%) were more effective vs omeprazole (89.6%, P = 0.0001) and lansoprazole (82.4%, P = 0.0001) in decreasing heartburn. Pantoprazole and rabeprazole (92.2% and 90.1%, respectively) were also more effective vs lansoprazole (75.0%, P < 0.05) in decreasing acid regurgitation. Finally, pantoprazole and rabeprazole (95.2% and 100%) were also more effective vs lansoprazole (82.6%, P < 0.05) in decreasing epigastric pain.
In elderly patients, pantoprazole and rabeprazole were significantly more effective than omeprazole in healing esophagitis and than omeprazole or lansoprazole in improving symptoms. H pylori infection did not influence the healing rates of esophagitis after a short-term treatment with PPI.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2007; 13(33):4467-72. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymorphism in the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is the major genetic risk factor associated with late-onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, it is still unclear if a relationship exists between the APOE epsilon4 allele and vascular dementia (VaD) in elderly subjects.
To evaluate the prevalence of APOE alleles in elderly patients with VaD compared to AD patients and to control subjects with no cognitive impairment (NoCI).
We evaluated 396 consecutive patients aged > or =65 years with definite or suspected cognitive impairment with a clinical (Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating, Geriatric Depression Scale), functional (Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living), comorbidity (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale) and instrumental (CT scan, NMR) assessment. Diagnosis of dementia was made according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN Work Group and the DSM-IV. APOE genotypes were analyzed by a recently described method resulting in positive/negative chain reaction products for each APOE genotype. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Pearson chi(2), the Kruskal-Wallis test and the ANOVA post hoc comparisons.
A total of 287 elderly patients (males = 138, females = 149, mean age = 77.8 +/- 6.9 years, range = 65-98) with diagnoses of VaD (n = 97), AD (n = 82) or NoCI (n = 108) were included in the study. A significantly higher APOE epsilon4 allele frequency was observed in AD patients compared to VaD and/or NoCI subjects, while no differences were found between VaD patients and subjects with NoCI (AD = 24.3%, VaD = 10.3, NoCI = 8.7, p < 0.05). Furthermore, a significantly lower APOE epsilon3 allele frequency was observed in AD patients compared to VaD and/or NoCI subjects but not between VaD and NoCI patients (AD = 71.3%, VaD = 80.9, NoCI = 83.4, p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the APOE epsilon2 allele (VaD = 8.8%, AD = 4.4, NoCI = 7.9, p = n.s.) among the 3 groups.
In this population, the frequency of the APOE epsilon4 allele is lower in VaD than in AD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare symptoms and other clinical characteristics of reflux esophagitis in patients of different ages.
Observational cross-sectional study of consecutive patients.
Geriatric Unit, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico.
Eight hundred forty patients with endoscopically diagnosed erosive esophagitis divided into four groups according to age (young (<50, mean 36.7, n=114), adult (50-69, mean 59.1, n=126), elderly (70-84, mean 77.3, n=425), and very elderly (>or=85, mean 88.4, n=175)).
Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire. Other symptoms were recorded when present as an indication for endoscopy. Severity of esophagitis, presence of Helicobacter pylori infection, presence and size of hiatus hernia, Barrett's esophagus, antrum or corpus gastric atrophy, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use were also evaluated.
Elderly and very elderly patients had a significantly lower prevalence of typical gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms (heartburn or acid regurgitation (P<.001) and epigastric pain (P<.001)) than young and adult patients. Conversely, the prevalence of other symptoms (anorexia (P<.001), weight loss (P<.007), anemia (P<.001), vomiting (P<.001), and dysphagia (P<.001)) significantly increased with age. The prevalence of severe esophagitis (P<.001), hiatus hernia (P<.005), the size of hiatus hernia (P<.001), antrum and corpus gastric atrophy (P<.05) and NSAID use (P<.005) also significantly increased with age. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that older age (65-84, odds ratio (OR)=2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.38-5.12; >or=85, OR=4.57, 95% CI=2.15-9.71), hiatus hernia larger than 3 cm in diameter (OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.41-4.01), and male sex (OR=2.83, 95% CI=1.72-4.64) are independent risk factors for severe esophagitis, whereas H. pylori infection, gastric atrophy, NSAID use, and the presence of hiatus hernia were not.
Elderly patients with reflux esophagitis had less-typical and more-nonspecific symptoms than young or adult patients. Old age, male sex, and hiatus hernia size greater than 3 cm are significantly associated with severe esophagitis. Clinicians caring for older patients should be aware of the nonspecific presentation and potential severity of reflux esophagitis in this population.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 11/2006; 54(10):1537-42. · 3.98 Impact Factor