[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Various kinds of transmembrane and secreted proteins play pivotal roles in development through cell-cell communication. We previously reported that Obif (Osteoblast induction factor, Tmem119), encoding a single transmembrane protein, is expressed in differentiating osteoblasts, and that Obif-/- mice exhibit significantly reduced bone volume in the femur. In the current study, we characterized the Obif protein and further investigated the biological phenotypes of a variety of tissues in Obif-/- mice.
First, we found that O-glycosylation of the Obif protein occurs at serine residue 36 in the Obif extracellular domain. Next, we observed that Obif-/- mice exhibit bone dysplasia in association with significantly increased osteoid volume per osteoid surface (OV/OS) and osteoid maturation time (Omt), and significantly decreased mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate per bone surface (BFR/BS). In addition, we observed that Obif-/- mice show a significant decrease in testis weight as well as in sperm number. By histological analysis, we found that Obif is expressed in spermatocytes and spermatids in the developing testis and that spermatogenesis is halted at the round spermatid stage in the Obif-/- testis that lacks sperm. However, the number of litters fathered by male mice was slightly reduced in Obif-/- mice compared with wild-type mice, although this was not statistically significant.
Our results, taken together with previous observations, indicate that Obif is a type Ia transmembrane protein whose N-terminal region is O-glycosylated. In addition, we found that Obif is required for normal bone mineralization and late testicular differentiation in vivo. These findings suggest that Obif plays essential roles in the development of multiple tissues.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0133704. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0133704 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary cilia are sensory organelles that harbor various receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We analyzed subcellular localization of 138 non-odorant GPCRs. We transfected GPCR expression vectors into NIH3T3 cells, induced ciliogenesis by serum starvation, and observed subcellular localization of GPCRs by immunofluorescent staining. We found that several GPCRs whose ligands are involved in feeding behavior, including prolactin-releasing hormone receptor (PRLHR), neuropeptide FF receptor 1 (NPFFR1), and neuromedin U receptor 1 (NMUR1), localized to the primary cilia. In addition, we found that a short form of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2S) is efficiently transported to the primary cilia, while a long form of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2L) is rarely transported to the primary cilia. Using an anti-Prlhr antibody, we found that Prlhr localized to the cilia on the surface of the third ventricle in the vicinity of the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus. We generated the Npy2r-Cre transgenic mouse line in which Cre-recombinase is expressed under the control of the promoter of Npy2r encoding a ciliary GPCR. By mating Npy2r-Cre mice with Ift80 flox mice, we generated Ift80 conditional knockout (CKO) mice in which Npy2r-positive cilia were diminished in number. We found that Ift80 CKO mice exhibited a body weight increase. Our results suggest that Npy2r-positive cilia are important for body weight control.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0128422. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128422 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cilia and flagella are formed and maintained by intraflagellar transport (IFT) and play important roles in sensing and moving across species. At the distal tip of the cilia/flagella, IFT complexes turn around to switch from anterograde to retrograde transport; however, the underlying regulatory mechanism is unclear. Here, we identified ICK localization at the tip of cilia as a regulator of ciliary transport. In ICK-deficient mice, we found ciliary defects in neuronal progenitor cells with Hedgehog signal defects. ICK-deficient cells formed cilia with mislocalized Hedgehog signaling components. Loss of ICK caused the accumulation of IFT-A, IFT-B, and BBSome components at the ciliary tips. In contrast, overexpression of ICK induced the strong accumulation of IFT-B, but not IFT-A or BBSome components at ciliary tips. In addition, ICK directly phosphorylated Kif3a, while inhibition of this Kif3a phosphorylation affected ciliary formation. Our results suggest that ICK is a Kif3a kinase and essential for proper ciliogenesis in development by regulating ciliary transport at the tip of cilia.
The EMBO Journal 06/2014; 33(11). DOI:10.1002/embj.201488175 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of Filamin genes, which encode actin-binding proteins, cause a wide range of congenital developmental malformations in humans, mainly skeletal abnormalities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Filamin functions in skeletal system formation remain elusive. In our screen to identify skeletal development molecules, we found that Cfm (Fam101) genes, Cfm1 (Fam101b) and Cfm2 (Fam101a), are predominantly co-expressed in developing cartilage and intervertebral discs (IVDs). To investigate the functional role of Cfm genes in skeletal development, we generated single knockout mice for Cfm1 and Cfm2, as well as Cfm1/Cfm2 double-knockout (Cfm DKO) mice, by targeted gene disruption. Mice with loss of a single Cfm gene displayed no overt phenotype, whereas Cfm DKO mice showed skeletal malformations including spinal curvatures, vertebral fusions, and impairment of bone growth, showing that the phenotypes of Cfm DKO mice resemble those of Filamin B (Flnb)-deficient mice. The number of cartilaginous cells in IVDs is remarkably reduced, and chondrocytes are moderately reduced in Cfm DKO mice. We observed increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation in Cfm DKO cartilaginous cells. In addition to direct interaction between Cfm and Filamin proteins in developing chondrocytes, we showed that Cfm is required for the interaction between Flnb and Smad3, which was reported to regulate Runx2 expression. Furthermore, we found that Cfm DKO primary chondrocytes showed decreased cellular size and fewer actin bundles compared to those of wild-type chondrocytes. These results suggest that Cfms are essential partner molecules of Flnb in regulating differentiation and proliferation of chondryocytes and actin dynamics.
Human Molecular Genetics 01/2014; 23(11). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu007 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Magnesium is an essential element for living organisms. Its absorption occurs at the intestine through the barrier comprised of epithelial cells. In this process, transcellular Mg2+ transport across epithelia, involving both entry from one side and extrusion from the other side, is important. Previous studies have revealed the role of Mg2+-permeable channel protein in Mg2+ entry into the epithelial cells. However, the identity of proteins involved in Mg2+ extrusion to the inner parts of body has remained unknown. Mice genetically engineered not to express CNNM4, which localizes to the epithelial membrane facing to the inner parts of body, show hypomagnesemia due to the defect in magnesium absorption. Functional analyses using culture cells directly reveal that CNNM4 can extrude intracellular Mg2+ to the outside of cells. These results indicate that CNNM4 mediates transcellular Mg2+ transport across the intestinal epithelia. Furthermore, we also show that these CNNM4-lacking mice also have a defect in amelogenesis, which is consistent with the disease symptoms of Jalili syndrome that is known to be caused by mutations in the CNNM4 gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dystroglycan (DG) is a key component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) at the neuromuscular junction postsynapse. In the mouse retina, the DGC is localized at the presynapse of photoreceptor cells, however, the function of presynaptic DGC is poorly understood. Here, we developed and analyzed retinal photoreceptor-specific DG conditional knock-out (DG CKO) mice. We found that the DG CKO retina showed a reduced amplitude and a prolonged implicit time of the ERG b-wave. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that bipolar dendrite invagination into the photoreceptor terminus is perturbed in the DG CKO retina. In the DG CKO retina, pikachurin, a DG ligand in the retina, is markedly decreased at photoreceptor synapses. Interestingly, in the Pikachurin(-/-) retina, the DG signal at the ribbon synaptic terminus was severely reduced, suggesting that pikachurin is required for the presynaptic accumulation of DG at the photoreceptor synaptic terminus, and conversely DG is required for pikachurin accumulation. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of pikachurin induces formation and clustering of a DG-pikachurin complex on the cell surface. The Laminin G repeats of pikachurin, which are critical for its oligomerization and interaction with DG, were essential for the clustering of the DG-pikachurin complex as well. These results suggest that oligomerization of pikachurin and its interaction with DG causes DG assembly on the synapse surface of the photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Our results reveal that the presynaptic interaction of pikachurin with DG at photoreceptor terminals is essential for both the formation of proper photoreceptor ribbon synaptic structures and normal retinal electrophysiology.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 05/2012; 32(18):6126-37. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0322-12.2012 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vertebrate bone formation, the functional mechanisms of transcription factors in osteoblastic differentiation have been relatively well elucidated; however, the exact roles of cell-extrinsic molecules are less clear. We previously identified human and mouse Obif, an osteoblast induction factor, also known as Tmem119, which encodes a single transmembrane protein. OBIF is predominantly expressed in osteoblasts in mouse. While exogenous Obif expression stimulated osteoblastic differentiation, knockdown of Obif inhibits the osteoblastic differentiation of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. In order to investigate an in vivo role of OBIF in bone formation, we generated Obif-deficient mice by targeted gene disruption. Analyses of micro-computed tomography (mCT) revealed that Obif(-/-) mice exhibit significantly reduced cortical thickness in the mid-shaft of the femur at postnatal day 14 (P14). Furthermore, progressive bone hypoplasia is observed after 8 weeks. The expression levels of osteoblast marker genes, Collagen 1a1, Osteopontin, Runx2, and Osterix, in the calvaria were decreased in Obif(-/-) mice at P4. These data indicate that Obif plays an essential role in bone formation through regulating osteoblastogenesis.
Development Growth and Regeneration 03/2012; 54(4):474-80. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-169X.2012.01333.x · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The differentiation of cilia is mediated by kinesin-driven transport. As the function of kinesins in vertebrate ciliogenesis is poorly characterized, we decided to determine the role of kinesin-2 family motors--heterotrimeric kinesin-II and the homodimeric Kif17 kinesin--in zebrafish cilia. We report that kif17 is largely dispensable for ciliogenesis; kif17 homozygous mutant animals are viable and display subtle morphological defects of olfactory cilia only. In contrast to that, the kif3b gene, encoding a heterotrimeric kinesin subunit, is necessary for cilia differentiation in most tissues, although exceptions exist, and include photoreceptors and a subset of hair cells. Cilia of these cell types persist even in kif3b/kif17 double mutants. Although we have not observed a functional redundancy of kif3b and kif17, kif17 is able to substitute for kif3b in some cilia. In contrast to kif3b/kif17 double mutants, simultaneous interference with kif3b and kif3c leads to the complete loss of photoreceptor and hair cell cilia, revealing redundancy of function. This is in agreement with the idea that Kif3b and Kif3c motor subunits form complexes with Kif3a, but not with each other. Interestingly, kif3b mutant photoreceptor cilia differentiate with a delay, suggesting that kif3c, although redundant with kif3b at later stages of differentiation, is not active early in photoreceptor ciliogenesis. Consistent with that, the overexpression of kif3c in kif3b mutants rescues early photoreceptor cilia defects. These data reveal unexpected diversity of functional relationships between vertebrate ciliary kinesins, and show that the repertoire of kinesin motors changes in some cilia during their differentiation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2012; 109(7):2388-93. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1116035109 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the vertebrate retina, the Otx2 transcription factor plays a crucial role in the cell fate determination of both rod and cone photoreceptors. We previously reported that Otx2 conditional knockout (CKO) mice exhibited a total absence of rods and cones in the retina due to their cell fate conversion to amacrine-like cells. In order to investigate the entire transcriptome of the Otx2 CKO retina, we compared expression profile of Otx2 CKO and wild-type retinas at P1 and P12 using microarray. We observed that expression of 101- and 1049-probe sets significantly decreased in the Otx2 CKO retina at P1 and P12, respectively, whereas, expression of 3- and 4149-probe sets increased at P1 and P12, respectively. We found that expression of genes encoding transcription factors involved in photoreceptor development, including Crx, Nrl, Nr2e3, Esrrb, and NeuroD, was markedly down-regulated in the Otx2 CKO at both P1 and P12. Furthermore, we identified three human retinal disease loci mapped in close proximity to certain down-regulated genes in the Otx2 CKO retina including Ccdc126, Tnfsf13 and Pitpnm1, suggesting that these genes are possibly responsible for these diseases. These transcriptome data sets of the Otx2 CKO retina provide a resource on developing rods and cones to further understand the molecular mechanisms underlying photoreceptor development, function and disease.
PLoS ONE 05/2011; 6(5):e19685. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0019685 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cilia function as cell sensors in many organs, and their disorders are referred to as "ciliopathies." Although ciliary components and transport machinery have been well studied, regulatory mechanisms of ciliary formation and maintenance are poorly understood. Here we show that male germ cell-associated kinase (Mak) regulates retinal photoreceptor ciliary length and subcompartmentalization. Mak was localized both in the connecting cilia and outer-segment axonemes of photoreceptor cells. In the Mak-null retina, photoreceptors exhibit elongated cilia and progressive degeneration. We observed accumulation of intraflagellar transport 88 (IFT88) and IFT57, expansion of kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a), and acetylated α-tubulin signals in the Mak-null photoreceptor cilia. We found abnormal rhodopsin accumulation in the Mak-null photoreceptor cell bodies at postnatal day 14. In addition, overexpression of retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1), a microtubule-associated protein localized in outer-segment axonemes, induced ciliary elongation, and Mak coexpression rescued excessive ciliary elongation by RP1. The RP1 N-terminal portion induces ciliary elongation and increased intensity of acetylated α-tubulin labeling in the cells and is phosphorylated by Mak. These results suggest that Mak is essential for the regulation of ciliary length and is required for the long-term survival of photoreceptors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2010; 107(52):22671-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1009437108 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pikachurin, the most recently identified ligand of dystroglycan, plays a crucial role in the formation of the photoreceptor ribbon synapse. It is known that glycosylation of dystroglycan is necessary for its ligand binding activity, and hypoglycosylation is associated with a group of muscular dystrophies that often involve eye abnormalities. Because little is known about the interaction between pikachurin and dystroglycan and its impact on molecular pathogenesis, here we characterize the interaction using deletion constructs and mouse models of muscular dystrophies with glycosylation defects (Large(myd) and POMGnT1-deficient mice). Pikachurin-dystroglycan binding is calcium-dependent and relatively less sensitive to inhibition by heparin and high NaCl concentration, as compared with other dystroglycan ligand proteins. Using deletion constructs of the laminin globular domains in the pikachurin C terminus, we show that a certain steric structure formed by the second and the third laminin globular domains is necessary for the pikachurin-dystroglycan interaction. Binding assays using dystroglycan deletion constructs and tissue samples from Large-deficient (Large(myd)) mice show that Large-dependent modification of dystroglycan is necessary for pikachurin binding. In addition, the ability of pikachurin to bind to dystroglycan prepared from POMGnT1-deficient mice is severely reduced, suggesting that modification of the GlcNAc-β1,2-branch on O-mannose is also necessary for the interaction. Immunofluorescence analysis reveals a disruption of pikachurin localization in the photoreceptor ribbon synapse of these model animals. Together, our data demonstrate that post-translational modification on O-mannose, which is mediated by Large and POMGnT1, is essential for pikachurin binding and proper localization, and suggest that their disruption underlies the molecular pathogenesis of eye abnormalities in a group of muscular dystrophies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pikachurin, the most recently identified ligand of dystroglycan, plays a crucial role in the formation of the photoreceptor
ribbon synapse. It is known that glycosylation of dystroglycan is necessary for its ligand binding activity, and hypoglycosylation
is associated with a group of muscular dystrophies that often involve eye abnormalities. Because little is known about the
interaction between pikachurin and dystroglycan and its impact on molecular pathogenesis, here we characterize the interaction
using deletion constructs and mouse models of muscular dystrophies with glycosylation defects (Largemyd and POMGnT1-deficient mice). Pikachurin-dystroglycan binding is calcium-dependent and relatively less sensitive to inhibition by heparin
and high NaCl concentration, as compared with other dystroglycan ligand proteins. Using deletion constructs of the laminin
globular domains in the pikachurin C terminus, we show that a certain steric structure formed by the second and the third
laminin globular domains is necessary for the pikachurin-dystroglycan interaction. Binding assays using dystroglycan deletion
constructs and tissue samples from Large-deficient (Largemyd) mice show that Large-dependent modification of dystroglycan is necessary for pikachurin binding. In addition, the ability
of pikachurin to bind to dystroglycan prepared from POMGnT1-deficient mice is severely reduced, suggesting that modification of the GlcNAc-β1,2-branch on O-mannose is also necessary for the interaction. Immunofluorescence analysis reveals a disruption of pikachurin localization
in the photoreceptor ribbon synapse of these model animals. Together, our data demonstrate that post-translational modification
on O-mannose, which is mediated by Large and POMGnT1, is essential for pikachurin binding and proper localization, and suggest
that their disruption underlies the molecular pathogenesis of eye abnormalities in a group of muscular dystrophies.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(41):31208-31216. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The zinc finger transcription factor Blimp1 plays fundamentally important roles in many cell lineages and in the early development of several cell types, including B and T lymphocytes and germ cells. Although Blimp1 expression in developing retinal photoreceptor cells has been reported, its function remains unclear. We identified Blimp1 as a downstream factor of Otx2, which plays an essential role in photoreceptor cell fate determination. To investigate Blimp1 function in the mouse retina, we ablated Blimp1 in the developing retina by conditional gene targeting. In the Blimp1 conditional knockout (CKO) retina, the number of photoreceptor cells was markedly reduced in the differentiated retina. We found that the numbers of both bipolar-like cells and proliferating retinal cells increased noticeably, with ectopic localizations in the postnatal developing retina. In contrast, a reduction of the number of photoreceptor precursors was observed during development. Forced expression of Blimp1 by in vivo electroporation suppressed bipolar cell genesis in the developing retina. Multiple genes involved in bipolar development, including Chx10, were upregulated in the Blimp1 CKO retina. Furthermore, we showed that Blimp1 can bind to the Chx10 enhancer and repress Chx10 enhancer activity. These results suggest that Blimp1 plays a crucial role in photoreceptor development by repressing genes involved in bipolar cell fate specification and retinal cell proliferation in differentiating photoreceptor precursors.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 05/2010; 30(19):6515-26. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0771-10.2010 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal gene transcription is regulated by both transcriptional activators and repressors. While the roles of transactivators in retinal photoreceptor development have been well characterized, the roles of repressors have been poorly understood. We isolated Panky/Ankrd33, a gene encoding an ankyrin repeat-containing protein. Panky-A was specifically expressed in retinal photoreceptors and the pineal gland, and its expression was directly up-regulated by the CRX transcription factor. Subcellular localization of PANKY-A was observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Additionally, transactivation analysis suggested that PANKY-A is a transcriptional cofactor that suppresses CRX-activated photoreceptor genes. Furthermore, we found by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay that PANKY inhibited the DNA-binding activity of CRX.