Yoshihiro Omori

Tufts University, Georgia, United States

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Publications (24)131.78 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations of Filamin genes, which encode actin-binding proteins, cause a wide range of congenital developmental malformations in humans, mainly skeletal abnormalities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Filamin functions in skeletal system formation remain elusive. In our screen to identify skeletal development molecules, we found that Cfm (Fam101) genes, Cfm1 (Fam101b) and Cfm2 (Fam101a), are predominantly co-expressed in developing cartilage and intervertebral discs (IVDs). To investigate the functional role of Cfm genes in skeletal development, we generated single knockout mice for Cfm1 and Cfm2, as well as Cfm1/Cfm2 double-knockout (Cfm DKO) mice, by targeted gene disruption. Mice with loss of a single Cfm gene displayed no overt phenotype, whereas Cfm DKO mice showed skeletal malformations including spinal curvatures, vertebral fusions, and impairment of bone growth, showing that the phenotypes of Cfm DKO mice resemble those of Filamin B (Flnb)-deficient mice. The number of cartilaginous cells in IVDs is remarkably reduced, and chondrocytes are moderately reduced in Cfm DKO mice. We observed increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation in Cfm DKO cartilaginous cells. In addition to direct interaction between Cfm and Filamin proteins in developing chondrocytes, we showed that Cfm is required for the interaction between Flnb and Smad3, which was reported to regulate Runx2 expression. Furthermore, we found that Cfm DKO primary chondrocytes showed decreased cellular size and fewer actin bundles compared to those of wild-type chondrocytes. These results suggest that Cfms are essential partner molecules of Flnb in regulating differentiation and proliferation of chondryocytes and actin dynamics.
    Human Molecular Genetics 01/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcellular Mg(2+) transport across epithelia, involving both apical entry and basolateral extrusion, is essential for magnesium homeostasis, but molecules involved in basolateral extrusion have not yet been identified. Here, we show that CNNM4 is the basolaterally located Mg(2+) extrusion molecule. CNNM4 is strongly expressed in intestinal epithelia and localizes to their basolateral membrane. CNNM4-knockout mice showed hypomagnesemia due to the intestinal malabsorption of magnesium, suggesting its role in Mg(2+) extrusion to the inner parts of body. Imaging analyses revealed that CNNM4 can extrude Mg(2+) by exchanging intracellular Mg(2+) with extracellular Na(+). Furthermore, CNNM4 mutations cause Jalili syndrome, characterized by recessive amelogenesis imperfecta with cone-rod dystrophy. CNNM4-knockout mice showed defective amelogenesis, and CNNM4 again localizes to the basolateral membrane of ameloblasts, the enamel-forming epithelial cells. Missense point mutations associated with the disease abolish the Mg(2+) extrusion activity. These results demonstrate the crucial importance of Mg(2+) extrusion by CNNM4 in organismal and topical regulation of magnesium.
    PLoS Genetics 12/2013; 9(12):e1003983. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    Y Omori, T Chaya, T Furukawa
    Cilia. 11/2012; 1(1).
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    Cilia. 11/2012; 1(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Dystroglycan (DG) is a key component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) at the neuromuscular junction postsynapse. In the mouse retina, the DGC is localized at the presynapse of photoreceptor cells, however, the function of presynaptic DGC is poorly understood. Here, we developed and analyzed retinal photoreceptor-specific DG conditional knock-out (DG CKO) mice. We found that the DG CKO retina showed a reduced amplitude and a prolonged implicit time of the ERG b-wave. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that bipolar dendrite invagination into the photoreceptor terminus is perturbed in the DG CKO retina. In the DG CKO retina, pikachurin, a DG ligand in the retina, is markedly decreased at photoreceptor synapses. Interestingly, in the Pikachurin(-/-) retina, the DG signal at the ribbon synaptic terminus was severely reduced, suggesting that pikachurin is required for the presynaptic accumulation of DG at the photoreceptor synaptic terminus, and conversely DG is required for pikachurin accumulation. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of pikachurin induces formation and clustering of a DG-pikachurin complex on the cell surface. The Laminin G repeats of pikachurin, which are critical for its oligomerization and interaction with DG, were essential for the clustering of the DG-pikachurin complex as well. These results suggest that oligomerization of pikachurin and its interaction with DG causes DG assembly on the synapse surface of the photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Our results reveal that the presynaptic interaction of pikachurin with DG at photoreceptor terminals is essential for both the formation of proper photoreceptor ribbon synaptic structures and normal retinal electrophysiology.
    Journal of Neuroscience 05/2012; 32(18):6126-37. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vertebrate bone formation, the functional mechanisms of transcription factors in osteoblastic differentiation have been relatively well elucidated; however, the exact roles of cell-extrinsic molecules are less clear. We previously identified human and mouse Obif, an osteoblast induction factor, also known as Tmem119, which encodes a single transmembrane protein. OBIF is predominantly expressed in osteoblasts in mouse. While exogenous Obif expression stimulated osteoblastic differentiation, knockdown of Obif inhibits the osteoblastic differentiation of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. In order to investigate an in vivo role of OBIF in bone formation, we generated Obif-deficient mice by targeted gene disruption. Analyses of micro-computed tomography (mCT) revealed that Obif(-/-) mice exhibit significantly reduced cortical thickness in the mid-shaft of the femur at postnatal day 14 (P14). Furthermore, progressive bone hypoplasia is observed after 8 weeks. The expression levels of osteoblast marker genes, Collagen 1a1, Osteopontin, Runx2, and Osterix, in the calvaria were decreased in Obif(-/-) mice at P4. These data indicate that Obif plays an essential role in bone formation through regulating osteoblastogenesis.
    Embryologia 03/2012; 54(4):474-80. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The differentiation of cilia is mediated by kinesin-driven transport. As the function of kinesins in vertebrate ciliogenesis is poorly characterized, we decided to determine the role of kinesin-2 family motors--heterotrimeric kinesin-II and the homodimeric Kif17 kinesin--in zebrafish cilia. We report that kif17 is largely dispensable for ciliogenesis; kif17 homozygous mutant animals are viable and display subtle morphological defects of olfactory cilia only. In contrast to that, the kif3b gene, encoding a heterotrimeric kinesin subunit, is necessary for cilia differentiation in most tissues, although exceptions exist, and include photoreceptors and a subset of hair cells. Cilia of these cell types persist even in kif3b/kif17 double mutants. Although we have not observed a functional redundancy of kif3b and kif17, kif17 is able to substitute for kif3b in some cilia. In contrast to kif3b/kif17 double mutants, simultaneous interference with kif3b and kif3c leads to the complete loss of photoreceptor and hair cell cilia, revealing redundancy of function. This is in agreement with the idea that Kif3b and Kif3c motor subunits form complexes with Kif3a, but not with each other. Interestingly, kif3b mutant photoreceptor cilia differentiate with a delay, suggesting that kif3c, although redundant with kif3b at later stages of differentiation, is not active early in photoreceptor ciliogenesis. Consistent with that, the overexpression of kif3c in kif3b mutants rescues early photoreceptor cilia defects. These data reveal unexpected diversity of functional relationships between vertebrate ciliary kinesins, and show that the repertoire of kinesin motors changes in some cilia during their differentiation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2012; 109(7):2388-93. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the vertebrate retina, the Otx2 transcription factor plays a crucial role in the cell fate determination of both rod and cone photoreceptors. We previously reported that Otx2 conditional knockout (CKO) mice exhibited a total absence of rods and cones in the retina due to their cell fate conversion to amacrine-like cells. In order to investigate the entire transcriptome of the Otx2 CKO retina, we compared expression profile of Otx2 CKO and wild-type retinas at P1 and P12 using microarray. We observed that expression of 101- and 1049-probe sets significantly decreased in the Otx2 CKO retina at P1 and P12, respectively, whereas, expression of 3- and 4149-probe sets increased at P1 and P12, respectively. We found that expression of genes encoding transcription factors involved in photoreceptor development, including Crx, Nrl, Nr2e3, Esrrb, and NeuroD, was markedly down-regulated in the Otx2 CKO at both P1 and P12. Furthermore, we identified three human retinal disease loci mapped in close proximity to certain down-regulated genes in the Otx2 CKO retina including Ccdc126, Tnfsf13 and Pitpnm1, suggesting that these genes are possibly responsible for these diseases. These transcriptome data sets of the Otx2 CKO retina provide a resource on developing rods and cones to further understand the molecular mechanisms underlying photoreceptor development, function and disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19685. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Neuroscience Research - NEUROSCI RES. 01/2011; 71.
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    ABSTRACT: Cilia function as cell sensors in many organs, and their disorders are referred to as "ciliopathies." Although ciliary components and transport machinery have been well studied, regulatory mechanisms of ciliary formation and maintenance are poorly understood. Here we show that male germ cell-associated kinase (Mak) regulates retinal photoreceptor ciliary length and subcompartmentalization. Mak was localized both in the connecting cilia and outer-segment axonemes of photoreceptor cells. In the Mak-null retina, photoreceptors exhibit elongated cilia and progressive degeneration. We observed accumulation of intraflagellar transport 88 (IFT88) and IFT57, expansion of kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a), and acetylated α-tubulin signals in the Mak-null photoreceptor cilia. We found abnormal rhodopsin accumulation in the Mak-null photoreceptor cell bodies at postnatal day 14. In addition, overexpression of retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1), a microtubule-associated protein localized in outer-segment axonemes, induced ciliary elongation, and Mak coexpression rescued excessive ciliary elongation by RP1. The RP1 N-terminal portion induces ciliary elongation and increased intensity of acetylated α-tubulin labeling in the cells and is phosphorylated by Mak. These results suggest that Mak is essential for the regulation of ciliary length and is required for the long-term survival of photoreceptors.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2010; 107(52):22671-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pikachurin, the most recently identified ligand of dystroglycan, plays a crucial role in the formation of the photoreceptor ribbon synapse. It is known that glycosylation of dystroglycan is necessary for its ligand binding activity, and hypoglycosylation is associated with a group of muscular dystrophies that often involve eye abnormalities. Because little is known about the interaction between pikachurin and dystroglycan and its impact on molecular pathogenesis, here we characterize the interaction using deletion constructs and mouse models of muscular dystrophies with glycosylation defects (Large(myd) and POMGnT1-deficient mice). Pikachurin-dystroglycan binding is calcium-dependent and relatively less sensitive to inhibition by heparin and high NaCl concentration, as compared with other dystroglycan ligand proteins. Using deletion constructs of the laminin globular domains in the pikachurin C terminus, we show that a certain steric structure formed by the second and the third laminin globular domains is necessary for the pikachurin-dystroglycan interaction. Binding assays using dystroglycan deletion constructs and tissue samples from Large-deficient (Large(myd)) mice show that Large-dependent modification of dystroglycan is necessary for pikachurin binding. In addition, the ability of pikachurin to bind to dystroglycan prepared from POMGnT1-deficient mice is severely reduced, suggesting that modification of the GlcNAc-β1,2-branch on O-mannose is also necessary for the interaction. Immunofluorescence analysis reveals a disruption of pikachurin localization in the photoreceptor ribbon synapse of these model animals. Together, our data demonstrate that post-translational modification on O-mannose, which is mediated by Large and POMGnT1, is essential for pikachurin binding and proper localization, and suggest that their disruption underlies the molecular pathogenesis of eye abnormalities in a group of muscular dystrophies.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(41):31208-16. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pikachurin, the most recently identified ligand of dystroglycan, plays a crucial role in the formation of the photoreceptor ribbon synapse. It is known that glycosylation of dystroglycan is necessary for its ligand binding activity, and hypoglycosylation is associated with a group of muscular dystrophies that often involve eye abnormalities. Because little is known about the interaction between pikachurin and dystroglycan and its impact on molecular pathogenesis, here we characterize the interaction using deletion constructs and mouse models of muscular dystrophies with glycosylation defects (Largemyd and POMGnT1-deficient mice). Pikachurin-dystroglycan binding is calcium-dependent and relatively less sensitive to inhibition by heparin and high NaCl concentration, as compared with other dystroglycan ligand proteins. Using deletion constructs of the laminin globular domains in the pikachurin C terminus, we show that a certain steric structure formed by the second and the third laminin globular domains is necessary for the pikachurin-dystroglycan interaction. Binding assays using dystroglycan deletion constructs and tissue samples from Large-deficient (Largemyd) mice show that Large-dependent modification of dystroglycan is necessary for pikachurin binding. In addition, the ability of pikachurin to bind to dystroglycan prepared from POMGnT1-deficient mice is severely reduced, suggesting that modification of the GlcNAc-β1,2-branch on O-mannose is also necessary for the interaction. Immunofluorescence analysis reveals a disruption of pikachurin localization in the photoreceptor ribbon synapse of these model animals. Together, our data demonstrate that post-translational modification on O-mannose, which is mediated by Large and POMGnT1, is essential for pikachurin binding and proper localization, and suggest that their disruption underlies the molecular pathogenesis of eye abnormalities in a group of muscular dystrophies.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(41):31208-31216. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The zinc finger transcription factor Blimp1 plays fundamentally important roles in many cell lineages and in the early development of several cell types, including B and T lymphocytes and germ cells. Although Blimp1 expression in developing retinal photoreceptor cells has been reported, its function remains unclear. We identified Blimp1 as a downstream factor of Otx2, which plays an essential role in photoreceptor cell fate determination. To investigate Blimp1 function in the mouse retina, we ablated Blimp1 in the developing retina by conditional gene targeting. In the Blimp1 conditional knockout (CKO) retina, the number of photoreceptor cells was markedly reduced in the differentiated retina. We found that the numbers of both bipolar-like cells and proliferating retinal cells increased noticeably, with ectopic localizations in the postnatal developing retina. In contrast, a reduction of the number of photoreceptor precursors was observed during development. Forced expression of Blimp1 by in vivo electroporation suppressed bipolar cell genesis in the developing retina. Multiple genes involved in bipolar development, including Chx10, were upregulated in the Blimp1 CKO retina. Furthermore, we showed that Blimp1 can bind to the Chx10 enhancer and repress Chx10 enhancer activity. These results suggest that Blimp1 plays a crucial role in photoreceptor development by repressing genes involved in bipolar cell fate specification and retinal cell proliferation in differentiating photoreceptor precursors.
    Journal of Neuroscience 05/2010; 30(19):6515-26. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Neuromuscular Disorders - NEUROMUSCULAR DISORD. 01/2010; 20(9):600-600.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal gene transcription is regulated by both transcriptional activators and repressors. While the roles of transactivators in retinal photoreceptor development have been well characterized, the roles of repressors have been poorly understood. We isolated Panky/Ankrd33, a gene encoding an ankyrin repeat-containing protein. Panky-A was specifically expressed in retinal photoreceptors and the pineal gland, and its expression was directly up-regulated by the CRX transcription factor. Subcellular localization of PANKY-A was observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Additionally, transactivation analysis suggested that PANKY-A is a transcriptional cofactor that suppresses CRX-activated photoreceptor genes. Furthermore, we found by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay that PANKY inhibited the DNA-binding activity of CRX.
    FEBS letters 12/2009; 584(4):753-8. · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Kimiko Katoh, Yoshihiro Omori, Takahisa Furukawa
    Tanpakushitsu kakusan koso. Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme 08/2009; 54(9):1166-72.
  • Mechanisms of Development - MECH DEVELOP. 01/2009; 126.
  • Neuroscience Research - NEUROSCI RES. 01/2009; 65.
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    ABSTRACT: The centriole is the core structure of centrosome and cilium. Failure to restrict centriole duplication to once per cell cycle has serious consequences and is commonly observed in cancer. Despite its medical importance, the mechanism of centriole formation is poorly understood. Asl was previously reported to be a centrosomal protein essential for centrosome function. Here we identify mecD, a severe loss-of-function allele of the asl gene, and demonstrate that it is required for centriole and cilia formation. Similarly, Cep152, the Asl ortholog in vertebrates, is essential for cilia formation and its function can be partially rescued by the Drosophila Asl. The study of Asl localization suggests that it is closely associated with the centriole wall, but is not part of the centriole structure. By analyzing the biogenesis of centrosomes in cells depleted of Asl, we found that, while pericentriolar material (PCM) function is mildly affected, Asl is essential for daughter centriole formation. The clear absence of several centriolar markers in mecD mutants suggests that Asl is critical early in centriole duplication.
    Genetics 11/2008; 180(4):2081-94. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exquisitely precise synapse formation is crucial for the mammalian CNS to function correctly. Retinal photoreceptors transfer information to bipolar and horizontal cells at a specialized synapse, the ribbon synapse. We identified pikachurin, an extracellular matrix-like retinal protein, and observed that it localized to the synaptic cleft in the photoreceptor ribbon synapse. Pikachurin null-mutant mice showed improper apposition of the bipolar cell dendritic tips to the photoreceptor ribbon synapses, resulting in alterations in synaptic signal transmission and visual function. Pikachurin colocalized with both dystrophin and dystroglycan at the ribbon synapses. Furthermore, we observed direct biochemical interactions between pikachurin and dystroglycan. Together, our results identify pikachurin as a dystroglycan-interacting protein and demonstrate that it has an essential role in the precise interactions between the photoreceptor ribbon synapse and the bipolar dendrites. This may also advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the retinal electrophysiological abnormalities observed in muscular dystrophy patients.
    Nature Neuroscience 08/2008; 11(8):923-31. · 15.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

398 Citations
129 Downloads
2k Views
131.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Tufts University
      Georgia, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Osaka Bioscience Institute
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2006–2008
    • Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States