John M Embil

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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Publications (134)451.66 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dietary and lifestyle factors may contribute to diabetes and obesity in the Canadian Inuit. We documented dietary patterns, physical activity level, obesity, blood glucose abnormalities and diabetes prevalence in a Canadian Inuit community. There were 250 Inuit residents of Repulse Bay, Nunavut, who had an interview about diet and physical activity, measurement of weight and height, and laboratory studies (194 subjects). Children, adolescents and younger adults (aged < 48 years) consumed significantly less country food and more processed snack foods and sweet drinks than older adults (aged ≥ 48 years). Only 88 of 250 subjects (35%) reported that they went out on the land once or more per week. Of the 85 children and adolescent subjects (aged 7–17 years), 11 (13%) were obese. Average body mass index for adults (aged ≥ 18 years) was 29 ± 6 kg m–2, and 61 adults (37%) were obese (body mass index ≥30 kg m–2). In the 140 adults who had laboratory studies, 18 adults (13%) had a blood glucose abnormality, including 10 adults (7%) with impaired fasting glucose, four adults (3%) with impaired glucose tolerance and six adults (4%) with diabetes (five adults previously undiagnosed). Twelve of the 194 subjects tested (6%) had fasting insulin ≥140 pmol L–1 (mean, 196 ± 87 pmol L–1). In summary, there was a high prevalence of poor dietary choices, limited physical activity, obesity and type 2 diabetes in this Inuit community. Public health programmes are needed to improve the dietary and health status of this community.
    Clinical Obesity. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In 31 patients, Phaeoacremonium parasiticum was recovered from bronchoscopy specimens (biopsies and aspirates). The pseudo-outbreak was caused by contaminated ice used to control hemorrhage during bronchoscopy and was associated with deficiencies in equipment cleaning. The bronchoscopy technique was modified, the ice dispenser was disinfected, bronchoscope reprocessing was improved, and there were no recurrences.
    08/2014; 35(8):1063-1065.
  • Canadian Medical Association Journal 03/2014; · 6.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of foot problems on mental health in diabetic patients and their caregivers. Methods Diabetic patients (47 patients with and 49 patients without foot problems), and 21 caregivers of patients with foot problems, completed outcome surveys. Foot problems included ulcers (41 patients [87%]), osteomyelitis (9 patients [19%]), and Charcot foot (8 patients [17%]). Results In contrast with diabetic patients having no foot problems, diabetic patients with foot problems had, on average, significantly greater symptoms of diabetes (Diabetes Symptom Checklist-2 score), greater depression symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS] - Depression score), worse health-related quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 [SF-36]: Physical Component Summary score and 6 of 8 subscales), greater pain (Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire), and greater suicidal behavior (Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised). There were no significant differences in alcohol use (mean Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test score), anxiety (HADS - Anxiety score), or SF-36 Mental Component Summary score between patients with and without foot problems. Caregivers had marked caregiver burden (average Montgomery Caregiver Burden Assessment score) and frequently had mild to moderate depression and anxiety. Conclusions Foot problems are significantly associated with mental health symptoms in diabetic patients and caregivers. This may affect treatment in the foot clinic, outcome, and quality of life.
    Foot and Ankle Surgery. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria belonging to the Streptococcus anginosus group (Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus) are capable of causing serious pyogenic infections, with a tendency for abscess formation. The present article reports a case of S anginosus group pyomyositis in a 47-year-old man. The pathogen was recovered from one of two blood cultures obtained from the patient, but speciation was initially not performed because the organism was considered to be a contaminant (viridans streptococci group). The diagnosis was ultimately confirmed using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing of purulent fluid obtained from a muscle abscess aspirate. The present case serves to emphasize that finding even a single positive blood culture of an organism belonging to the S anginosus group should prompt careful evaluation of the patient for a pyogenic focus of infection. It also highlights the potential utility of 16S ribosomal DNA amplification and sequencing in direct pathogen detection from aspirated fluid in cases of pyomyositis in which antimicrobial therapy was initiated before specimen collection.
    The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada 01/2014; 25(1):32-4. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus which is potentially life-threatening if central nervous system (CNS) dissemination occurs. Sixteen patients with proven or probable CNS blastomycosis are presented. Median duration of symptoms was 90 days; headache and focal neurologic deficit were the most common presenting symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) consistently demonstrated an abnormality, compared to 58% of computed tomography scans. Tissue culture yielded the pathogen in 71% of histology-confirmed cases. All patients who completed treatment of an amphotericin B formulation and extended azole-based therapy did not relapse. Initial nonspecific symptoms lead to delayed diagnosis of CNS blastomycosis. A high index of suspicion is necessary if there is history of contact with an area where B. dermatitidis is endemic. Diagnostic tests should include MRI followed by biopsy for tissue culture and pathology. Optimal treatment utilizes a lipid-based amphotericin B preparation with an extended course of voriconazole.
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 04/2013; · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) can be associated with serious bacteraemia. The focus of this study was to characterize the molecular epidemiology of VRE from bacteraemia cases that were isolated from 1999 to 2009 as part of Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) surveillance activities. METHODS: From 1999 to 2009, enterococci were collected from across Canada in accordance with the CNISP VRE surveillance protocol. MICs were determined using broth microdilution. PCR was used to identify vanA, B, C, D, E, G and L genes. Genetic relatedness was examined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). RESULTS: A total of 128 cases of bacteraemia were reported to CNISP from 1999 to 2009. In 2007, a significant increase in bacteraemia rates was observed in western and central Canada. Eighty-one of the 128 bacteraemia isolates were received for further characterization and were identified as Enterococcus faecium. The majority of isolates were from western Canada (60.5%), followed by central (37.0%) and eastern (2.5%) Canada. Susceptibilities were as follows: daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and chloramphenicol, 100%; quinupristin/dalfopristin, 96.3%; high-level gentamicin, 71.6%; tetracycline, 50.6%; high-level streptomycin, 44.4%; rifampicin, 21.0%; nitrofurantoin, 11.1%; clindamycin, 8.6%; ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, 1.2%; and ampicillin, 0.0%. vanA contributed to vancomycin resistance in 90.1% of isolates and vanB in 9.9%. A total of 17 sequence types (STs) were observed. Beginning in 2006 there was a shift in ST from ST16, ST17, ST154 and ST80 to ST18, ST412, ST203 and ST584. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in bacteraemia observed since 2007 in western and central Canada appears to coincide with the shift of MLST STs. All VRE isolates remained susceptible to daptomycin, linezolid, chloramphenicol and tigecycline.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 03/2013; · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Foot infections are a common and serious problem in persons with diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) typically begin in a wound, most often a neuropathic ulceration. While all wounds are colonized with microorganisms, the presence of infection is defined by ≥2 classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are then classified into mild (superficial and limited in size and depth), moderate (deeper or more extensive), or severe (accompanied by systemic signs or metabolic perturbations). This classification system, along with a vascular assessment, helps determine which patients should be hospitalized, which may require special imaging procedures or surgical interventions, and which will require amputation. Most DFIs are polymicrobial, with aerobic gram-positive cocci (GPC), and especially staphylococci, the most common causative organisms. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli are frequently copathogens in infections that are chronic or follow antibiotic treatment, and obligate anaerobes may be copathogens in ischemic or necrotic wounds. Wounds without evidence of soft tissue or bone infection do not require antibiotic therapy. For infected wounds, obtain a post-debridement specimen (preferably of tissue) for aerobic and anaerobic culture. Empiric antibiotic therapy can be narrowly targeted at GPC in many acutely infected patients, but those at risk for infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms or with chronic, previously treated, or severe infections usually require broader spectrum regimens. Imaging is helpful in most DFIs; plain radiographs may be sufficient, but magnetic resonance imaging is far more sensitive and specific. Osteomyelitis occurs in many diabetic patients with a foot wound and can be difficult to diagnose (optimally defined by bone culture and histology) and treat (often requiring surgical debridement or resection, and/or prolonged antibiotic therapy). Most DFIs require some surgical intervention, ranging from minor (debridement) to major (resection, amputation). Wounds must also be properly dressed and off-loaded of pressure, and patients need regular follow-up. An ischemic foot may require revascularization, and some nonresponding patients may benefit from selected adjunctive measures. Employing multidisciplinary foot teams improves outcomes. Clinicians and healthcare organizations should attempt to monitor, and thereby improve, their outcomes and processes in caring for DFIs.
    Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 01/2013; 103(1):2-7. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A phase 3, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in subjects with diabetic foot infections without osteomyelitis (primary study), or with osteomyelitis (substudy), to determine the efficacy and safety of parenteral (iv) tigecycline (150 mg once-daily) versus 1 g once-daily iv ertapenem ± vancomycin. Among 944 subjects in the primary study who received ≥1 dose of study drug, >85% had type 2 diabetes, ~90% had PEDIS (Perfusion, Extent, Depth/tissue loss, Infection, and Sensation) infection grade 2 or 3 and ~20% reported prior antibiotic failure. For the clinically evaluable population at test-of-cure, 77.5% of tigecycline- and 82.5% of ertapenem ± vancomycin-treated subjects were cured. Corresponding rates for the clinical modified intent-to-treat population were 71.4% and 77.9%, respectively. Clinical cure rates in the substudy were low (<36%) for a subset of tigecycline-treated subjects with osteomyelitis. Nausea and vomiting occurred significantly more often after tigecycline treatment (P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively), resulting in significantly higher discontinuation rates in the primary study (nausea P = 0.007, vomiting P < 0.001). In the primary study, tigecycline did not meet criteria for non-inferiority compared with ertapenem ± vancomycin in the treatment of subjects with diabetic foot infections.
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 01/2013; · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lower extremity complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and diabetes mellitus. Patient education programs may decrease the risk of diabetic foot complications. A preventive program was instituted, consisting of regular assessments by a foot care nurse with expertise in foot care and wound management and patient education about foot care practices and footwear selection. Medical records were reviewed and patients were examined. A comparison was made with data about patients from a previous study done from this institution prior to development of the foot care program. Diabetic subjects more frequently had weakness of the left tibialis anterior, left tibialis posterior, and left peroneal muscles than non-diabetic subjects. A smaller percentage of diabetic subjects had sensory neuropathy compared with the previous study from 5years earlier, but a greater percentage of diabetic subjects had absent pedal pulses in the current study. The frequency of inadequate or poor quality footwear was less in the current study compared with the previous study. The current data suggest that a foot care program consisting of nursing assessments and patient education may be associated with a decrease in frequency of neuropathy and improved footwear adequacy in diabetic patients with ESRD.
    Foot and Ankle Surgery 12/2012; 18(4):283-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Vascular access catheter-related infections are common. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of differential time to positivity (DTP) comparing 2 blood cultures drawn through different lumens of a multi-lumen central venous catheter (CVC DTP) for the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). Methods: This study was performed at a single institution (Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). Microbiology laboratory blood culture records for the period January to November 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. All adult patients with a positive peripheral blood culture and a minimum of 2 positive central line cultures (same organism) drawn from separate lumens of a multi-lumen CVC, all obtained at the same time on the same day, were included in the study. DTP supporting CRBSI diagnosis was defined as a difference in time to positivity of ≥ 2 h between a peripheral blood culture and a CVC blood culture (peripheral DTP), or between 2 CVC blood cultures from different lumens of a multi-lumen catheter (CVC DTP). Peripheral DTP was used as the reference standard for CRBSI diagnosis. Results: Thirty-five episodes of bacteremia from 33 patients were included in this study. CVC DTP had a sensitivity of 76.5% and a specificity of 88.9% for CRBSI diagnosis, using peripheral DTP as the reference standard. Conclusions: These data suggest that CVC DTP may be of benefit in the diagnosis of CRBSI. Further study is required to better define the patient population/catheter type for which CVC DTP would be of greatest benefit.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 44(10):721-5. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Foot infections are a common and serious problem in persons with diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) typically begin in a wound, most often a neuropathic ulceration. While all wounds are colonized with microorganisms, the presence of infection is defined by ≥2 classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are then classified into mild (superficial and limited in size and depth), moderate (deeper or more extensive), or severe (accompanied by systemic signs or metabolic perturbations). This classification system, along with a vascular assessment, helps determine which patients should be hospitalized, which may require special imaging procedures or surgical interventions, and which will require amputation. Most DFIs are polymicrobial, with aerobic gram-positive cocci (GPC), and especially staphylococci, the most common causative organisms. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli are frequently copathogens in infections that are chronic or follow antibiotic treatment, and obligate anaerobes may be copathogens in ischemic or necrotic wounds. Wounds without evidence of soft tissue or bone infection do not require antibiotic therapy. For infected wounds, obtain a post-debridement specimen (preferably of tissue) for aerobic and anaerobic culture. Empiric antibiotic therapy can be narrowly targeted at GPC in many acutely infected patients, but those at risk for infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms or with chronic, previously treated, or severe infections usually require broader spectrum regimens. Imaging is helpful in most DFIs; plain radiographs may be sufficient, but magnetic resonance imaging is far more sensitive and specific. Osteomyelitis occurs in many diabetic patients with a foot wound and can be difficult to diagnose (optimally defined by bone culture and histology) and treat (often requiring surgical debridement or resection, and/or prolonged antibiotic therapy). Most DFIs require some surgical intervention, ranging from minor (debridement) to major (resection, amputation). Wounds must also be properly dressed and off-loaded of pressure, and patients need regular follow-up. An ischemic foot may require revascularization, and some nonresponding patients may benefit from selected adjunctive measures. Employing multidisciplinary foot teams improves outcomes. Clinicians and healthcare organizations should attempt to monitor, and thereby improve, their outcomes and processes in caring for DFIs.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 54(12):1679-84. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Foot infections are a common and serious problem in persons with diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) typically begin in a wound, most often a neuropathic ulceration. While all wounds are colonized with microorganisms, the presence of infection is defined by ≥2 classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are then classified into mild (superficial and limited in size and depth), moderate (deeper or more extensive), or severe (accompanied by systemic signs or metabolic perturbations). This classification system, along with a vascular assessment, helps determine which patients should be hospitalized, which may require special imaging procedures or surgical interventions, and which will require amputation. Most DFIs are polymicrobial, with aerobic gram-positive cocci (GPC), and especially staphylococci, the most common causative organisms. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli are frequently copathogens in infections that are chronic or follow antibiotic treatment, and obligate anaerobes may be copathogens in ischemic or necrotic wounds. Wounds without evidence of soft tissue or bone infection do not require antibiotic therapy. For infected wounds, obtain a post-debridement specimen (preferably of tissue) for aerobic and anaerobic culture. Empiric antibiotic therapy can be narrowly targeted at GPC in many acutely infected patients, but those at risk for infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms or with chronic, previously treated, or severe infections usually require broader spectrum regimens. Imaging is helpful in most DFIs; plain radiographs may be sufficient, but magnetic resonance imaging is far more sensitive and specific. Osteomyelitis occurs in many diabetic patients with a foot wound and can be difficult to diagnose (optimally defined by bone culture and histology) and treat (often requiring surgical debridement or resection, and/or prolonged antibiotic therapy). Most DFIs require some surgical intervention, ranging from minor (debridement) to major (resection, amputation). Wounds must also be properly dressed and off-loaded of pressure, and patients need regular follow-up. An ischemic foot may require revascularization, and some nonresponding patients may benefit from selected adjunctive measures. Employing multidisciplinary foot teams improves outcomes. Clinicians and healthcare organizations should attempt to monitor, and thereby improve, their outcomes and processes in caring for DFIs.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 54(12):e132-73. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 02/2012; 28 Suppl 1:234-5. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot expert panel on infection conducted a systematic review of the published evidence relating to treatment of foot infection in diabetes. Our search of the literature published prior to August 2010 identified 7517 articles, 29 of which fulfilled predefined criteria for detailed data extraction. Four additional eligible papers were identified from other sources. Of the total of 33 studies, 29 were randomized controlled trials, and four were cohort studies. Among 12 studies comparing different antibiotic regimens in the management of skin and soft-tissue infection, none reported a better response with any particular regimen. Of seven studies that compared antibiotic regimens in patients with infection involving both soft tissue and bone, one reported a better clinical outcome in those treated with cefoxitin compared with ampicillin/sulbactam, but the others reported no differences between treatment regimens. In two health economic analyses, there was a small saving using one regimen versus another. No published data support the superiority of any particular route of delivery of systemic antibiotics or clarify the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy in either soft-tissue infection or osteomyelitis. In one non-randomized cohort study, the outcome of treatment of osteomyelitis was better when the antibiotic choice was based on culture of bone specimens as opposed to wound swabs, but this study was not randomized, and the results may have been affected by confounding factors. Results from two studies suggested that early surgical intervention was associated with a significant reduction in major amputation, but the methodological quality of both was low. In two studies, the use of superoxidized water was associated with a better outcome than soap or povidone iodine, but both had a high risk of bias. Studies using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor reported mixed results. There was no improvement in infection outcomes associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. No benefit has been reported with any other intervention, and, overall, there are currently no trial data to justify the adoption of any particular therapeutic approach in diabetic patients with infection of either soft tissue or bone of the foot.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 02/2012; 28 Suppl 1:142-62. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This update of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot incorporates some information from a related review of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) and a systematic review of the management of infection of the diabetic foot. The pathophysiology of these infections is now well understood, and there is a validated system for classifying the severity of infections based on their clinical findings. Diagnosing osteomyelitis remains difficult, but several recent publications have clarified the role of clinical, laboratory and imaging tests. Magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as the most accurate means of diagnosing bone infection, but bone biopsy for culture and histopathology remains the criterion standard. Determining the organisms responsible for a diabetic foot infection via culture of appropriately collected tissue specimens enables clinicians to make optimal antibiotic choices based on culture and sensitivity results. In addition to culture-directed antibiotic therapy, most infections require some surgical intervention, ranging from minor debridement to major resection, amputation or revascularization. Clinicians must also provide proper wound care to ensure healing of the wound. Various adjunctive therapies may benefit some patients, but the data supporting them are weak. If properly treated, most diabetic foot infections can be cured. Providers practising in developing countries, and their patients, face especially challenging situations.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 02/2012; 28 Suppl 1:163-78. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a life-threatening infectious disease whose incidence has been on the rise. Commonly a consequence of group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus infection, it results in high levels of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is difficult and treatment involves emergent surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. The aim of this study is to examine the incidence of NF in Manitoba with the goal of observing whether there is a geographic variation in incidence and outcomes based on Regional Health Authorities (RHAs). This is a 6-year retrospective chart review of all NF patients who presented to the Health Sciences Center from 2004 to 2009. A total of 130 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 47 ± 16 years. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (33.8%) and hypertension (33.1%). The overall mortality was 13.1% with advanced age being an independent risk factor (P < .05). Lower extremity was the most common location of infection (44.6%) and the most common causative organism was group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (63.9%). The type of infection (mono- vs. polymicrobial) was not found to affect length of stay, amputation rate, or mortality. There was no statistical difference in rate of amputations, length of stay, or mortality based on RHA. Incidence within the province, however, varied significantly based on RHA and ethnicity (P < .05). We determined that regardless of origin before admission, all our patients have equivalent prognosis. Burntwood RHA was found to have substantially higher incidence than the rest of the province, and higher incidence was established among the Aboriginal population.
    Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 12/2011; 33(1):93-100. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality to hospitalized patients. The objective of this point prevalence study was to assess the burden of HAIs in the Canadian pediatric population, updating results reported from a similar study conducted in 2002. A point prevalence survey of pediatric inpatients was conducted in February 2009 in 30 pediatric or combined adult/pediatric hospitals. Data pertaining to one 24-hour period were collected, including information on HAIs, microorganisms isolated, antimicrobials prescribed, and use of additional (transmission based) precautions. The following prevalent infections were included: pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection, surgical site infection, viral respiratory infection, Clostridium difficile infection, viral gastroenteritis, and necrotizing enterocolitis. One hundred eighteen patients had 1 or more HAI, corresponding to a prevalence of 8.7% (n = 118 of 1353, 95% confidence interval: 7.2-10.2). Six patients had 2 infections. Bloodstream infections were the most frequent infection in neonates (3.0%), infants (3.1%), and children (3.5%). Among all patients surveyed, 16.3% were on additional precautions, and 40.1% were on antimicrobial agents, whereas 40.7% of patients with a HAI were on additional precautions, and 89.0% were on antimicrobial agents. Overall prevalence of HAI in 2009 has remained similar to the prevalence reported from 2002. The unchanged prevalence of these infections nonetheless warrants continued vigilance on their prevention and control.
    American journal of infection control 11/2011; 40(6):491-6. · 3.01 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
451.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2014
    • University of Manitoba
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2012
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • VU University Medical Center
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1999–2011
    • Health Sciences Centre Winnipeg
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2010
    • King Saud University
      • Department of Surgery
      Riyadh, Mintaqat ar Riyad, Saudi Arabia
  • 2009
    • Winnipeg Regional Health Authority
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    • McGill University
      • Department of Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Medicine
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Medicine
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2005–2006
    • University of Saskatchewan
      • College of Nursing
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    • University of Alberta
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    • Government of Manitoba, Canada
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2002–2004
    • Dalhousie University
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 2000
    • Hôpital St-Boniface Hospital
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada