Sharon M Kelly

Friends Research Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

Are you Sharon M Kelly?

Claim your profile

Publications (27)59.9 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The CRAFFT, previously validated against DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, is the most widely used screening instrument for alcohol and other substance misuse in adolescents. The present secondary analysis study sought to compare the CRAFFT with the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria in order to assess the CRAFFT's psychometric properties and determine the optimal cut-point for identifying adolescents in need of further assessment. Methods: Participants were primary care patients ages 12-17 (N = 525) who were recruited while waiting for a medical appointment in an urban federally qualified health center in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Participants were administered the CRAFFT and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, second edition, modified to include the new DSM-5 craving item. We examined the performance of the CRAFFT in identifying any problem use (defined as 1 or more DSM-5 criteria) and any DSM-5 substance use disorder (2 or more DSM-5 criteria) for alcohol or drugs other than tobacco. We examined sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal CRAFFT cut-point(s) for predicting any problem use and any DSM-5 substance use disorder (SUD). Results: Examining the CRAFFT as a continuous measure, AUC values were 0.93 for problem use or higher, and 0.97 for DSM-5 SUD. Consistent with previously recommended cut-points for the CRAFFT, the cut-point of 2 performed optimally for identifying adolescents both exhibiting problem use of alcohol or drugs and meeting DSM-5 SUD criteria for alcohol or other drugs. Conclusions: Despite changes in the DSM substance use diagnostic criteria, the CRAFFT continues to demonstrate excellent sensitivity and specificity at its established cut-point of 2. Additional studies examining the CRAFFT in light of the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria with more diverse populations are warranted.
    Substance abuse : official publication of the Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse. 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism developed an alcohol screening instrument for youth based on epidemiologic data. This study examines the concurrent validity of this instrument, expanded to include tobacco and drugs, among pediatric patients, as well as the acceptability of its self-administration on an iPad. Five hundred and twenty-five patients (54.5% female; 92.8% African American) aged 12 to 17 completed the Brief Screener for Tobacco, Alcohol, and other Drugs (BSTAD) via interviewer-administration or self-administration using an iPad. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition substance use disorders (SUDs) were identified using a modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-2 Substance Abuse Module. Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were obtained to determine optimal cut points on the BSTAD in relation to SUDs. One hundred fifty-nine (30.3%) adolescents reported past-year use of ≥1 substances on the BSTAD: 113 (21.5%) used alcohol, 84 (16.0%) used marijuana, and 50 (9.5%) used tobacco. Optimal cut points for past-year frequency of use items on the BSTAD to identify SUDs were ≥6 days of tobacco use (sensitivity = 0.95; specificity = 0.97); ≥2 days of alcohol use (sensitivity = 0.96; specificity = 0.85); and ≥2 days of marijuana use (sensitivity = 0.80; specificity = 0.93). iPad self-administration was preferred over interviewer administration (z = 5.8; P < .001). The BSTAD is a promising screening tool for identifying problematic tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in pediatric settings. Even low frequency of substance use among adolescents may indicate need for intervention.
    PEDIATRICS 04/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) includes several major revisions to substance use diagnoses. Studies have evaluated the impact of these changes among adult samples but research with adolescent samples is lacking. Methods 525 adolescents (93% African American) awaiting primary care appointments in Baltimore, Maryland were recruited for a study evaluating a substance use screening instrument. Participants were assessed for DSM-5 nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorder, DSM-IV alcohol and cannabis abuse, and DSM-IV dependence for all three substances during the past year using the modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-2, Substance Abuse Module. Contingency tables examining DSM-5 vs. DSM-IV joint frequency distributions were examined for each substance. Results Diagnoses were more prevalent using DSM-5 criteria compared with DSM-IV for nicotine (4.0% vs. 2.7%), alcohol (4.6% vs. 3.8%), and cannabis (10.7% vs. 8.2%). Cohen's κ, Somer's d, and Cramer's V ranged from 0.70-0.99 for all three substances. Of the adolescents categorized as “diagnostic orphans” under DSM-IV, 7/16 (43.8%), 9/29 (31.0%), and 13/36 (36.1%) met criteria for DSM-5 disorder for nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis, respectively. Additionally, 5/17 (29.4%) and 1/21 (4.8%) adolescents who met criteria for DSM-IV abuse did not meet criteria for a DSM-5 diagnosis for alcohol and cannabis, respectively. Conclusions Categorizing adolescents using DSM-5 criteria may result in diagnostic net widening-particularly for cannabis use disorders-by capturing adolescents who were considered diagnostic orphans using DSM-IV criteria. Future research examining the validity of DSM-5 substance use disorders with larger and more diverse adolescent samples is needed.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 01/2014; · 3.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A benefit-cost analysis was conducted as part of a clinical trial in which newly-admitted methadone patients were randomly assigned to interim methadone (IM; methadone without counseling) for the first 4months of 12months of methadone treatment or 12months of methadone with one of two counseling conditions. Health, residential drug treatment, criminal justice costs, and income data in 2010 dollars were obtained at treatment entry, and 4- and 12-month follow-up from 200 participants and program costs were obtained. The net benefits of treatment were greater for the IM condition but controlling for the baseline variables noted above, the difference between conditions in net monetary benefits was not significant. For the combined sample, there was a pre- to post-treatment net benefit of $1470 (95% CI: -$625; $3584) and a benefit-cost ratio of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.8, 2.3), but using our conservative approach to calculating benefits, these values were not significant.
    Journal of substance abuse treatment 10/2013; · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methadone has been the most commonly used pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opioid dependence in U.S. public sector treatment, but availability of buprenorphine as an alternative medication continues to increase. Drawing data from two community-based clinical trials that were conducted nearly contemporaneously, this study examined retention in methadone versus buprenorphine treatment over 6months among urban African Americans receiving treatment in one of four publicly-funded programs (N=478; 178 methadone; 300 buprenorphine). Adjusting for confounds related to medication selection, survival analysis revealed that buprenorphine patients are at substantially higher risk of dropout compared to methadone patients (HR=2.43; p<.001). Buprenorphine's retention disadvantage appears to be concentrated in the earlier phases of treatment (approximately the first 50days), after which risk of subsequent dropout becomes similar for the two medications. These findings confirm a retention disparity between methadone and buprenorphine in this population, and suggest potential avenues for future research to enhance retention in buprenorphine treatment.
    Journal of substance abuse treatment 04/2013; · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: This secondary data analysis examined the association between criminal justice (CJ) status and outcomes over 12 months of methadone maintenance treatment. METHODS:: In the parent study, 230 newly admitted patients were randomly assigned to methadone either with or without counseling for 4 months followed by standard methadone with counseling. Participants completed the ASI and urine drug testing at baseline and 4- and 12-month follow-up and the Treatment Readiness (TR) scale at baseline. The relationship between baseline CJ status (whether participants were on probation or parole), CJ status by study counseling condition, and CJ status by TR with heroin and cocaine use, illegal activity, days in treatment and treatment retention, arrests, and the number of days incarcerated or hospitalized during follow-up was examined. RESULTS:: Compared with participants not on probation/parole, probationers/parolees showed significant reductions in cocaine-positive tests from baseline to 12 months (P < 0.001). Probationers/parolees additionally reported significantly fewer days of illegal activity than nonprobationers/parolees at 12 months (P = 0.02). There was no relationship between CJ status and counseling condition for any outcomes. The relationship between CJ status and TR was significant only for cocaine-positive tests assessed over time (P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS:: Findings suggest that methadone participants on probation/parole showed improvements in outcomes in comparison with participants not on probation/parole, regardless of whether they received counseling during the first 4 months of treatment.
    Journal of Addiction Medicine 02/2013; · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obtaining data on attitudes toward buprenorphine and methadone of opioid-dependent individuals in the United States may help fashion approaches to increase treatment entry and improve patient outcomes. This secondary analysis study compared attitudes toward methadone and buprenorphine of opioid-dependent adults entering short-term buprenorphine treatment (BT) with opioid-dependent adults who are either entering methadone maintenance treatment or not entering treatment. The 417 participants included 132 individuals entering short-term BT, 191 individuals entering methadone maintenance, and 94 individuals not seeking treatment. Participants were administered an Attitudes toward Methadone scale and its companion Attitudes toward Buprenorphine scale. Demographic characteristics for the three groups were compared using χ(2) tests of independence and one-way analysis of variance. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance with planned contrasts was used to compare mean attitude scores among the groups. Participants entering BT had significantly more positive attitudes toward buprenorphine than toward methadone (p < .001) and more positive attitudes toward BT than methadone-treatment (MT) participants and out-of-treatment (OT) participants (p < .001). In addition, BT participants had less positive attitudes toward methadone than participants entering MT (p < .001). Participants had a clear preference for a particular medication. Offering a choice of medications to OT individuals might enhance their likelihood of entering treatment. Treatment programs should offer a choice of medications when possible to new patients, and future comparative effectiveness research should incorporate patient preferences into clinical trials. These data contribute to our understanding of why people seek or do not seek effective pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 01/2012; 38(3):233-8. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Relatively limited empirical evidence exists comparing the impact on HIV sex risk behavior for patients admitted to methadone treatment programs (MTPs) as compared with nontreatment seekers. Methods: This longitudinal cohort study examined HIV sex-risk behavior among 164 out-of-treatment heroin-dependent adults recruited from the street and 351 newly admitted MTP patients. The AIDS Risk Assessment was administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Generalized linear mixed model and generalized estimating equation analyses were used to examine the changes in sex risk behavior over time. Results: The participants mean age was 41.5 years, 74.8% were African-American, 24.3% were White, and 54.4% were men. There were no significant differences between the groups in age, race, or gender. At baseline, the out-of-treatment group compared with the in-treatment group reported more sex partners (p < .001) and higher frequency of sex (p = .001). There was a group x time interaction for three of the sex-risk items and the out-of-treatment group reported having significantly more sex partners at both follow-up time points and having significantly more frequent unprotected sex while high at 6 months (all values of p < .01). Conclusions: Nontreatment seekers are at higher HIV risk than those entering MTPs and should be a focus of sex-risk reduction interventions, even if they are not interested in treatment at that time.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 01/2012; 38(4):328-33. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined outcomes and their predictors among 181 probationers enrolling in opioid agonist maintenance with methadone or levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM). Participants were interviewed at treatment entry and 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Treatment retention and frequency of heroin use, cocaine use, and income-generating criminal activity were examined using survival and longitudinal analyses. Participants reported marked reductions in drug use and crime relative to treatment entry. A number of patient characteristics associated with various outcomes were identified. The findings support engaging probationers in treatment and highlight patient factors that might influence outcomes.
    Substance Abuse 01/2012; 33(1):30-9. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: : Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-risk behaviors were examined at 4- and 12-month follow-up for 230 newly admitted methadone patients randomly assigned to receive either methadone only (n = 99) or methadone with drug abuse counseling (n = 131) in the first 4 months of treatment. : The AIDS Risk Assessment was administered at baseline (treatment entry) and at 4- and 12-month follow-up. Linear mixed model analysis examined changes in HIV drug- and sex-risk behaviors over the 12 months in the total sample, drug-risk behaviors in the subsample that reported injecting drugs at baseline (n = 110), and sex-risk behaviors in the subsample that reported engaging in unprotected sex at baseline (n = 130). : Significant decreases over time were found in the frequencies of injecting, injecting with other injectors, and sharing cooker, cotton, or rinse water in the total sample and the injector subsample (P < 0.05). Decreases were also found in the frequencies of having sex without a condom either with someone who was not a spouse or primary partner or while high (P < 0.05) in the total sample and the frequencies of having sex without a condom and having sex without a condom while high in the unprotected-sex subsample (P < 0.05). No significant treatment group main effects or Treatment Group × Time interaction effects were found in any of the HIV-risk behaviors in the total sample or either subsample (P > 0.05). : During the first 12 months of treatment, providing drug abuse counseling with methadone compared with providing methadone alone was not associated with significant changes in HIV-risk behaviors for methadone maintenance patients.
    Journal of Addiction Medicine 11/2011; 6(2):145-52. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the relative effectiveness of 12 months of interim methadone (IM; supervised methadone with emergency counseling only for the first 4 months of treatment), standard methadone treatment (SM; with routine counseling) and restored methadone treatment (RM: routine counseling with smaller case-loads). A randomized controlled trial was conducted comparing IM, SM and RM treatment. IM lasted for 4 months, after which participants were transferred to SM. The study was conducted in two methadone treatment programs in Baltimore, MD, USA. The study included 230 adult methadone patients newly admitted through waiting-lists. We administered the Addiction Severity Index and a supplemental questionnaire at baseline, 4 and 12 months post- baseline. Measurements included retention in treatment, self-reported days of heroin and cocaine use, criminal behavior and arrests and urine tests for heroin and cocaine metabolites. At 12 months, on an intent-to-treat basis, there were no significant differences in retention in treatment among the IM, SM and RM groups (60.6%, 54.8% and 37.0%, respectively). Positive urine tests for the three groups declined significantly from baseline (Ps < 0.001 and 0.003, for heroin and cocaine metabolites, respectively) but there were no significant group x time interactions for these measures. At least one arrest was reported by 30.6% of the sample during the year, but there were no significant between-group effects. Limited availability of drug counseling services should not be a barrier to providing supervised methadone to adults dependent on heroin--at least for the first 4 months of treatment.
    Addiction 10/2011; 107(5):943-52. · 4.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To expand its public-sector treatment capacity, Baltimore City made buprenorphine treatment accessible to low-income, largely African American residents. This study compares the characteristics of patients entering methadone treatment vs. buprenorphine treatment to determine whether BT was attracting different types of patients. Participants consisted of two samples of adult heroin-dependent African Americans. The first sample was newly admitted to a health center or a mental health center providing buprenorphine (N=200), and the second sample was newly admitted to one of two hospital-based methadone programs (N=178). The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and the Friends Supplemental Questionnaire were administered at treatment entry and data were analyzed with logistic regression. BT participants were more likely to be female (p=.017) and less likely to inject (p=.001). Participants with only prior buprenorphine treatment experience were nearly five time more likely to enter buprenorphine than methadone treatment (p<.001). Those with experience with both treatments were more than twice as likely to enter BT (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.11-6.62; p=.028). In the 30 days prior to treatment entry, BT participants reported more days of medical problems (p=.002) and depression (p=.044), and were more likely to endorse a lifetime history of depression (p<.001). Methadone and buprenorphine treatment provided in the public sector may attract different patient subpopulations. Providing buprenorphine treatment through drug treatment programs co-located with a health and mental health center may have accounted for their higher rates of medical and psychiatric problems and appears to be useful in attracting a diverse group of patients into public-sector funded treatment.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 09/2011; 122(1-2):55-60. · 3.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interim methadone (IM; with emergency counseling only) is an effective but highly restricted alternative to methadone treatment program (MTP) waiting lists. However, it is not known whether IM disadvantages patients as compared with standard methadone treatment (SM). In this clinical trial, conducted in two MTPs, 230 newly admitted patients were randomly assigned to IM, SM, and "restored" methadone treatment (SM with a counselor with a reduced caseload). Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations and generalized linear modeling. There were no significant differences among conditions in days in treatment or of heroin or cocaine use and heroin- or cocaine-positive urine drug tests. The IM as compared to the SM group had significantly fewer self-reported days of criminal activity and lower amounts of money spent on drugs and illegal income. These findings suggest that when SM is unavailable, IM should be more widely used and less restricted.
    Journal of substance abuse treatment 02/2011; 41(1):21-9. · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Longer tenure in methadone treatment has been associated with positive outcomes such as reductions in drug use and crime, HIV seroconversion, and overdose death. Retention in treatment was examined for 351 opioid-dependent individuals who had been newly admitted to one of six methadone programs in Baltimore, Maryland. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to predict number of days retained in treatment to 90 days from baseline ASI Composite scores and Treatment Motivation scales. A second analysis predicted days in treatment to 365 days using the same baseline variables plus 3-month Motivation scales, Patient Satisfaction scales, and methadone dose in the 248 individuals who had remained in treatment at least 3 months. Analyses held constant gender, race, age, whether participants had a history of regularly smoking cocaine, whether participants were on parole/probation, and program site. Retention at 90 days was predicted by female gender, and greater baseline Treatment Readiness (p=.005) but lower Desire for Help (p=.010). Retention at 365 days was predicted by higher baseline ASI Medical Composite scores (p=.037) and lower Legal Composite scores (p=.039), higher 3-month Treatment Satisfaction scores (p=.008), and higher dose (p=.046). Greater satisfaction with treatment at 3 months was a significant predictor of retention at 12 months, indicating the importance of understanding the role satisfaction plays in determining retention. Greater severity of legal problems was associated with shorter retention, suggesting that program efforts to increase services to criminal justice patients (e.g., legal counseling) may constitute a useful addition to treatment.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 02/2011; 117(2-3):170-5. · 3.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The majority of opioid-dependent individuals in the US in need of drug treatment are not receiving it. It would be useful to understand the characteristics of individuals entering and failing to enter methadone treatment. Participants were opioid-dependent adults in Baltimore Maryland recruited from new admissions to one of six methadone treatment programs (n=351) and from the streets from among non-treatment seekers (n=164). At study enrollment, participants were administered the Addiction Severity Index, AIDS Risk Assessment, Community Assessment Inventory, Attitudes toward Methadone Scale, Motivation for Treatment Scale and a urine drug test. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the best model to predict treatment entry. The final logistic regression analysis showed that predictors of treatment entry included: being African-American, being on parole or probation, having lower rates of self-reported cocaine use and criminal activity, higher employment functioning, and greater perceptions of support from family and community for behavioral change. In addition, in-treatment participants were more likely to have a more extensive prior history of drug abuse treatment, greater desire to seek help in coping with their drug problem, and more positive view of methadone. The distinctions between those entering and those not pursuing MTP entry have significance for the structure of outreach programs and reaffirm the need to supplement the current practices of voluntary and coerced treatment entry with one of encouraged treatment entry through outreach.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 11/2010; 115(1-2):23-9. · 3.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patient satisfaction surveys, widely used in health care delivery systems, may provide useful data for improving patient retention and outcomes. This study examined the relationship between methadone patients' treatment satisfaction at three months post-admission and their 3-month treatment outcomes and 12-month treatment retention. New methadone treatment admissions (N = 283) were assessed at 3 months post-admission for satisfaction with their counselors and programs. Correlations examined the relationship between 3-month satisfaction and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores. Regression analysis assessed the relationship between satisfaction and drug testing at 3 months and was used to predict whether participants were retained in treatment at 12 months. Participants who were more satisfied with their counselors and programs had lower Drug and Legal ASI composite scores at 3 months. Participants who were more satisfied with their programs remained in treatment for at least 12 months. Treatment programs should consider administering the CEF to their patients at 3 months post-admission to identify patients with low satisfaction scores who may be at risk for prematurely leaving treatment. Measuring patient satisfaction during treatment may help programs meet patients' needs and improve retention.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 05/2010; 36(3):150-4. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the uses of diverted methadone and buprenorphine among opiate-addicted individuals recruited from new admissions to methadone programs and from out-of-treatment individuals recruited from the streets. Self-report data regarding diversion were obtained from surveys and semi-structured qualitative interviews. Approximately 16% (n = 84) of the total sample (N = 515) reported using diverted (street) methadone two-three times per week for six months or more, and for an average of 7.8 days (SD = 10.3) within the past month. The group reporting lifetime use of diverted methadone as compared to the group that did not report such use was less likely to use heroin and cocaine in the 30 days prior to admission (ps <.01) and had lower ASI Drug Composite scores (p <.05). Participants in our qualitative sub-sample (n = 22) indicated that street methadone was more widely used than street buprenorphine and that both drugs were largely used as self-medication for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms. Participants reported using low dosages and no injection of either medication was reported.
    American Journal on Addictions 02/2010; 18(5):346-55. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of a measure of social support, the Community Assessment Inventory (CAI), and to examine the role of social support in recovery. The CAI and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) were administered to 196 opioid-dependent adults in (n = 135) or out of (n = 61) methadone treatment in Baltimore, Maryland, between 2004 and 2006. Baseline CAI scale scores indicated a generally high level of internal consistency (alpha scores). Pearson correlations showed that the scales were stable and had good discriminant validity with the ASI composite scores. One-way analysis of variance indicated that in-treatment participants reported significantly more support at baseline than out-of-treatment participants. This study's findings indicate the CAI may be a useful measure of social support and that such support is an important factor in treatment entry.
    Substance Abuse 01/2010; 31(1):43-52. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Longer retention in drug abuse treatment is associated with better patient outcomes, and research indicates the first 12 months of methadone treatment are critical to patient success. Nevertheless, large-scale multisite longitudinal studies over the past three decades indicate that the majority of patients drop out during the first year of methadone treatment. Through an examination of 42 qualitative interviews with patients prematurely discharged from six methadone treatment programs in Baltimore, this study highlights factors patients describe as contributing to their reasons for being discharged within the first 12 months of the treatment. The two most consistent themes are program-related factors and incarceration. The former factors are richly described through patients' words and underscore the ways in which patients' perceptions of control exerted by the program and by the medication and misunderstandings of program structure can lead to premature discharge. Patients' reasons for discharge were compared to counselors' reasons as indicated in discharge summary forms. An analysis of the patterns of agreement and disagreement are presented. Patient-centered program and policy implications are discussed.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 09/2009; 41(3):285-96. · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Attitudes and beliefs about drug abuse treatment have long been known to shape response to that treatment. Two major pharmacological alternatives are available for opioid dependence: methadone, which has been available for the past 40 years, and buprenorphine, a recently introduced medication. This mixed-methods study examined the attitudes of opioid-dependent individuals toward methadone and buprenorphine. A total of 195 participants (n = 140 who were enrolling in one of six Baltimore area methadone programs and n = 55 who were out-of-treatment) were administered the Attitudes toward Methadone and toward Buprenorphine Scales, and a subset (n = 46) received an ethnographic interview. The in-treatment group had significantly more positive attitudes toward methadone than did the out-of-treatment group (p < .001), while they did not differ in their attitudes toward buprenorphine. Both groups had significantly more positive attitudes toward buprenorphine than methadone. Addressing these attitudes may increase treatment entry and retention.
    American Journal on Addictions 07/2009; 17(5):396-401. · 1.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

221 Citations
59.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Friends Research Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore County
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Greater Baltimore Medical Center
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Psychology
      Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • VHA National Center for Organization Development (NCOD)
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States