ABSTRACT: Nighttime reflux has been shown to be associated with esophageal mucosal injury, complications, and extra-esophageal manifestations. However, few studies have assessed the impact of gastroesophageal reflux on reported quality of sleep and quality of sleep on gastroesophageal reflux.
The aims of this study were (1) to determine the correlation between the severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and esophageal acid contact time and subjects' perceived quality of sleep; (2) to investigate the correlation between reported quality of sleep of the night prior and severity of GERD symptoms and esophageal acid contact time the following day; and (3) to define in a sleep laboratory the correlation between acid reflux events and sleep architecture.
Subjects with typical GERD symptoms > or =3 times a week underwent upper endoscopy and pH monitoring. These subjects subsequently completed the GERD Symptom Assessment Score (GSAS), and the Sleep Heart Health Study Sleep Habits (SHHS) Questionnaire to assess baseline sleep symptoms and GERD symptoms, including an index of GERD symptom severity (GERD symptom index). Before and after the pH test, the patients completed a different instrument, the Sleep Quality Questionnaire, utilized specifically to assess the quality of each subject's sleep before and after pH testing. Fifteen randomly selected subjects also underwent a polysomnographic study during the pH test.
Forty-eight (33 males/15 females, mean age 48.8 +/- 17.1 y) subjects were prospectively recruited. Using data from the GSAS and SHHS questionnaires, disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep were found to be positively associated with greater severity of the GERD symptom index (r = 0.33, p <0.05). More frequent awakenings also correlated with a higher GERD symptom index (r = 0.4, p <0.01). Correlations between the Sleep Quality Questionnaire on the night before sleep testing and pH monitoring data showed that subjects with poorer sleep quality had longer acid reflux events (r=-0.34, p<0.05). More perceived awakenings also were correlated with the number of supine acid reflux events > 5 min (r=0.31, p<0.05) and the duration of the longest supine acid reflux event (r = 0.28, p = 0.05). Inverse correlations were observed between overall sleep quality on the pH testing night and a higher percentage of time spent with pH<4 supine (r=-0.432, p <0.002), and the duration of the longest acid reflux event during the entire night (r = -0.38, p <0.01) and supine (r=-0.37, p<0.02).
Persons with worse GERD symptoms report poorer subject sleep quality. Poor sleep quality on the night prior to pH testing was associated with more acid exposure the following day. Greater acid exposure at night was related to a worse perception of sleep quality the next day. These findings suggest important interactions between GERD and sleep quality.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 08/2007; 3(5):505-13. · 3.23 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) have the lowest esophageal acid exposure profile compared with the other gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) groups.
To compare lower esophageal acid exposure recordings 1 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) with those 6 cm above the LES as well as to determine the characteristics of esophageal acid exposure along the esophagus among the different GERD groups.
Patients with classic heartburn symptoms were enrolled into the study. Patients were evaluated by a demographics questionnaire and the validated GERD Symptom Checklist. Upper endoscopy was performed to evaluate the presence of esophageal erosions and Barrett's esophagus (BE). Ambulatory pH testing was performed using a commercially available 4-sensor pH probe with sensors located 5 cm apart. The distal sensor was placed 1 cm above the LES.
Sixty-four patients completed the study. Of those, 21 patients had NERD, 20 had erosive esophagitis (EE), and 23 had BE. All patient groups demonstrated greater esophageal acid exposure 1 cm above the LES than 6 cm above the LES. In NERD and EE, this phenomenon was primarily a result of a higher mean percentage of upright time with pH <4. Unlike patients with EE and BE, those with NERD had very little variation in esophageal acid exposure throughout the esophagus (total and supine).
ALL GERD groups demonstrated significant greater esophageal acid exposure at the very distal portion of the esophagus, primarily as a result of short upright reflux events. Unlike erosive esophagitis and BE, NERD patients demonstrate a more homogenous acid distribution along the esophagus.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2006; 101(11):2463-9. · 7.28 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Functional heartburn (FH) patients have a profound impact on the response to anti-reflux therapy of the nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) group as compared to the response of the erosive esophagitis group. Thus far, there is paucity of information about their physiological and clinical characteristics that may separate them from the other NERD patients.
To compare physiological and clinical characteristics of patients with FH to their counterparts within the NERD group (NERD-positive [NERD+]).
Subjects with typical heartburn symptoms, at least twice a week, were evaluated by an upper endoscopy. Only those with normal esophageal mucosa were recruited into the study and underwent pH testing to assess esophageal acid exposure. The patients were divided into those with normal pH test (FH) and those with abnormal pH test (NERD+). The groups were compared for demographics, gastroesophageal reflux disease symptom characteristics, psychological profile, and reported quality of life. Additionally, the two patient groups were compared for stimulus response functions to acid, autonomic function response, and rate of Helicobacter pylori infection.
Fifty-two patients included 30 with FH and the rest with NERD+. There was no statistical difference in demographics, frequency of hiatal hernia and H. pylori infection between the two groups. Patients with FH had a significantly longer history of heartburn and reported more episodes of chest pain than NERD+ patients (M--7.5 yr and M--once a week vs M--3.5 yr and M--once a month, respectively, p < 0.05). Patients with FH scored significantly higher in the somatization domain than patients with NERD+ (M--60 vs 52.5, p < 0.05), but had similar reported quality of life. Patients with NERD+ demonstrated a significantly shorter time to symptom perception and higher intensity rating (p < 0.05). Only patients with FH demonstrated a statistically significant increase in heart rate and skin conductance after acid perfusion, as compared to those with NERD+ (p < 0.05).
Patients with FH demonstrate increased reports of chest pain and somatization, an alteration in autonomic function but lack a uniform increase in chemoreceptor sensitivity to acid as compared to those with NERD+. This suggests that while FH patients harbor clinical traits of a functional bowel disorder, hypersensitivity to acid is not a general phenomenon.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2006; 101(5):1084-91. · 7.28 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) may affect up to 23% of the U.S. population. The clinical approach and referral patterns of primary care physicians (PCPs) when evaluating NCCP subjects are unknown. We aimed to determine the preferences of diagnostic tests, referral patterns, and treatment plans of NCCP patients by PCPs. PCPs were randomly selected from the American Medical Association national membership list. A 24-item questionnaire was mailed, which focused on demographic information, characteristics of practice, preferences of diagnostic tests, referral patterns, and treatment plans. Two hundred five (40%) PCPs returned the questionnaire (mean age, 49; 77% males; practice type--community-based, 40.5%; hospital-based, 10.7%; and combined, 47.3%; physician type--internists, 46.3%; family physicians, 44.4%; general practitioners, 4.9%; and others, 2.9%). The mean number of NCCP patients seen in the past 6 months was 108 (6.4% of total patients) and 79.5% were treated primarily by PCPs. The three most common diagnostic tests used were empirical proton pump inhibitor (PPI) trial (45.6%), chest radiograph (39.9%), and upper endoscopy (18.7%). Most PCPs reported that they are either comfortable (44.6%) or very comfortable (21.2%) in diagnosing NCCP. The three most commonly used therapeutic modalities for NCCP were PPIs (37.8%), lifestyle modification (33.7%), and H2 blockers (12.4%). Of those NCCP patients referred to a subspecialist, most ended up in gastroenterology (75.6%), followed by cardiology (7.8%) and pulmonary (1.6%) clinics. We conclude that most PCP's diagnose and treat NCCP patients without referring them to a gastroenterologist. However, diagnostic and treatment strategies may not follow the current understanding and knowledge of the disorder.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 05/2005; 50(4):656-61. · 2.12 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The current assumption is that noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) patients diagnosed by a cardiologist are commonly referred to a gastroenterologist for further evaluation. Thus far, there are no studies that assess the clinical approach and referral patterns of cardiologists when evaluating subjects with NCCP.
To determine the extent of involvement of cardiologists in the management of NCCP patients.
Cardiologists were randomly selected from the American College of Cardiology national membership list and sent a 20-item questionnaire that included demographic information, characteristics of practice, preferences of diagnostic tests, referral patterns, and treatment plans.
A total of 246 (33%) cardiologists returned the questionnaire. A mean of 12.6% of patients were diagnosed with NCCP and 45.5% were treated by a cardiologist in the past 6 months. Of the NCCP patients that were referred, most ended up in the primary care physician clinic (45.9%) followed by gastroenterologist clinic (29.3%). Most cardiologists are either comfortable (35%) or very comfortable (43.1%) in diagnosing NCCP. Proton pump inhibitors (44.9%), lifestyle modifications (28.7%), and H2 blockers (11.8%) are the three most commonly used therapeutic modalities for NCCP.
Cardiologists manage about half of the diagnosed NCCP patients by themselves. Of those NCCP patients that are referred, cardiologists prefer to send them to a primary care physician rather than a gastroenterologist.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 39(10):858-62. · 3.16 Impact Factor