Salvador Fuentes-Alexandro

Mexican Institute of Social Security, Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico

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Publications (12)35.92 Total impact

  • Article: Letters.
    Spine 01/2014; 39(1):111. · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Spine 11/2013; · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • S Fuentes-Alexandro, Ro Escarcega, M Garcia-Carrasco, R Cervera
    Lupus 09/2013; · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thalidomide is an immunomodulating agent which reverses many of the cytokine disturbances seen in systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) with inadequate response to other treatments. We report 3 cases of recalcitrant SoJIA which improved dramatically after treatment with thalidomide. Three children aged 9, 8, and 6 years diagnosed with SoJIA treated with conventional therapy including NSAIDs, corticosteroids, methotrexate and etanercept failed to respond fully and their condition worsened. Thalidomide was begun based on two previous reports showing its efficacy in recalcitrant SoJIA. Thalidomide produced successful remission of the disease in all 3 patients according to the preliminary criteria for inactive disease and clinical remission of JIA. Thalidomide may be a viable, alternative corticoid-sparing therapy in patients with recalcitrant, multidrug-resistant SoJIA.
    Joint, bone, spine: revue du rhumatisme 11/2007; 74(5):500-3. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) is associated with circulating antibodies to AChR, modification of the synaptic cleft, and destruction of the postsynaptic neuromuscular membrane. The hallmark is fluctuating muscular weakness and fatigability of muscles on sustained repeated activity. Various drugs and invasive procedures have been used in the treatment of MG including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, etanercept, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange and thymectomy. We review the role of each of these drugs and invasive procedures in MG. Although current treatment is highly successful and mortality is almost nil, further trials are required to identify the most suitable treatments for different subgroups of MG patients. In addition, safer and more potent drugs are required as most current drugs have major side effects due to immunosuppression. Therefore, the goal of novel therapies should be increased specificity of the immune-directed agents.
    Autoimmunity Reviews 07/2007; 6(6):373-8. · 7.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) in 1986, many studies have been conducted showing the link between the NF-kappaB signalling pathway and control of the inflammatory response. Today it is well known that control of the inflammatory response and apoptosis is closely related to the activation of NF-kappaB. Three NF-kappaB activation pathways exist. The first (the classical pathway) is normally triggered in response to microbial and viral infections or exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the tripartite IKK complex, leading to phosphorylation-induced IkappaB degradation and depends mainly on IKKbeta activity. The second (the alternative pathway), leads to selective activation of p52:RelB dimers by inducing the processing of the NF-kappaB2/p100 precursor protein, which mostly occurs as a heterodimer with RelB in the cytoplasm. This pathway is triggered by certain members of the tumour necrosis factor cytokine family, through selective activation of IKKalpha homodimers by the upstream kinase NIK. The third pathway is named CK2 and is IKK independent. NF-kappaB acts through the transcription of anti-apoptotic proteins, leading to increased proliferation of cells and tumour growth. It is also known that some drugs act directly in the inhibition of NF-kappaB, thus producing regulation of apoptosis; some examples are aspirin and corticosteroids. Here we review the role of NF-kappaB in the control of apoptosis, its link to oncogenesis, the evidence of several studies that show that NF-kappaB activation is closely related to different cancers, and finally the potential target of NF-kappaB as cancer therapy.
    Clinical Oncology 04/2007; 19(2):154-61. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose that the pathogenesis of obesity-induced osteoarthritis may be explained by the metabolic changes in the striated muscle induced by the interaction of insulin resistance and systemic inflammation in obese individuals with metabolic syndrome being osteoarthritis the latest consequence by the physiological changes seen in the metabolic syndrome. Increased levels of TH1 cytokines are produced by activated macrophages in the presence of an acute or chronic infectious disease and suppress the sensitivity of insulin receptors on the membrane of muscle cell and adipocytes. Both cells are activated by inflammatory cytokines and contribute to enhance acute inflammation and to maintain a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation in apparently healthy obese individuals. The increased number of macrophage in the adipose tissue of obese individuals acts as an amplifier of inflammation. Patients with osteoarthritis and metabolic syndrome frequently are complaining about hotness and recurrent edema of feet and hands. It is probable that hyperinsulinemia in the presence of insulin resistance and inflammation, induce vasodilation through the TNF mediated-iNOS overexpression. Patients with metabolic syndrome express clinically the consequence of a poor uptake, storage and energy expenditure by the muscle and any other insulin dependent tissue and the consequence of high insulin plasma levels are vasodilation and increased protein synthesis. The fatigue and muscle weakness induced by insulin resistance and inflammation in obese patients with metabolic syndrome increase the frequency and the intensity of traumatic events of peripheral or axial joints that result in stretch and breaking of tenoperiosteal junction and abrasive damage of cartilage and therefore in these patients with metabolic syndrome and pro-inflammatory state the reparative process of cartilage and periarticular tissues would be severely modified by the growth factor activity in presence of high levels of insulin.
    Medical Hypotheses 02/2007; 69(4):860-8. · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • Gonzalo Pérez, Ricardo O Escárcega, Julio Gargantua, Salvador Fuentes-Alexandro
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 01/2007; 203(6):972. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: La thalidomide est un agent imunomodulateur qui améliore la plupart des troubles immunitaires dans les arthrites chroniques juvéniles à début systémique (ACJdS) résistantes aux autres traitements. Nous rapportons ici trois cas d'ACJdS résistantes ayant spectaculairement répondu au traitement par thalidomide. Patients Trois enfants âgés de neuf, huit, et six ans souffrant d'ACJdS, recevant un traitement conventionnel incluant AINS, corticoïdes, méthotrexate et étanercept, ont vu leur état s'aggraver. La thalidomide a été débutée conformément à deux précédentes études montrant son efficacité sur les ACJdS résistantes. Résultats La thalidomide a permis une rémission de la maladie chez les trois patients selon les critères préalablement définis de rémission clinique et d'inactivité d'ACJ. Conclusion La thalidomide pourrait être un traitement, épargnant cortisonique alternatif chez les patients souffrant d'une ACJdS multirésistante à tout traitement.
    Revue Du Rhumatisme - REV RHUM. 01/2007; 74(9):905-908.
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    ABSTRACT: The term Sjögren's syndrome refers to keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia due to lymphocytic infiltrates of lachrymal and salivary glands. The current used criteria for diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome is the American-European consensus. Primary Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphocytic infiltrates and destruction of the salivary and lachrymal glands and systemic production of autoantibodies to the ribonucleoprotein particles SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La. The infiltrating cells (T- and B-cells, dendritic cells) interfere with glandular function at several points: destruction of glandular elements by cell-mediated mechanisms; secretion of cytokines that activate pathways bearing the signature of type 1 and 2 interferons; production of autoantibodies that interfere with muscarinic receptors; and secretion of metalloproteinases (MMPs) that interfere with the interaction of the glandular cell with its extracellular matrix, which is necessary for efficient glandular function. As the process progresses, the mucosal surfaces become sites of chronic inflammation and the start of a vicious circle. Despite extensive study of the underlying cause of Sjögren's syndrome, the pathogenesis remains obscure. In broad terms, pathogenesis is multifactorial; environmental factors are thought to trigger inflammation in individuals with a genetic predisposition to the disorder.
    Archives of Medical Research 12/2006; 37(8):921-32. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association of SLE with atherosclerosis suggests a common pathogenic mechanism. SLE and atherosclerosis are immune complex-mediated diseases. The integration of metabolism and immunity, which under normal conditions is beneficial for the maintenance of good health, can become deteriorative under conditions of metabolic challenge, as exemplified by the immunosuppression characteristic of malnourished or starving individuals. It is now apparent that obesity is associated with a state of chronic inflammation, particularly in white adipose tissue. However, in the absence of obesity, infusion of animals with inflammatory cytokines or lipids can cause insulin resistance. It is possible that the stresses of obesity are similar enough to the stresses of an infection and the body reacts to obesity as it would to an infection. Atherosclerosis can be considered to have a significant chronic inflammatory component. Inflammation also contributes to the typical dyslipidemia associated with SLE that is characterized by elevations of VLDL, LDL and triglycerides as well as reduced HDL. The link between insulin resistance and SLE can be explained by the chronic inflammatory state, and the consequent dyslipoproteinemia.
    Autoimmunity Reviews 12/2006; 6(1):48-53. · 7.98 Impact Factor
  • Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social 45(2):187-8; author reply 189.