[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of broad T-cell immune responses is regarded as critical for vaccines against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) which exhibit high diversity and, therefore, focus has been on inducing cytotoxic CD8 T-cell responses against the more conserved parts of the virus, such as the Gag protein. Herein, we have used the p24 protein which contains a range of conserved T-cell epitopes. We demonstrate that a vaccine of HIV-1 subtype B consensus group-specific antigen (Gag) p24 protein with the CD8-inducing liposomal cationic adjuvant formulation (CAF) 05, induces both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in CB6F1 mice. The adjuvanted vaccine also induced functional antigen-specific cytotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, we found that when fragmenting the Gag p24 protein into overlapping Gag p24 peptides, a broader T-cell epitope specificity was induced in the humanized human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2/DR-transgenic mouse model. Thus, combining overlapping Gag p24 peptides with CAF05 appears to be a promising and simple strategy for inducing broader T-cell responses to multiple conserved epitopes which will be relevant for both prophylactic and therapeutic HIV-1 vaccines.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63575. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adjuvants are often composed of different constituents that can be divided into two groups based on their primary activity: the delivery system which carries and presents the vaccine antigen to antigen-presenting cells, and the immunostimulator that activates and modulates the ensuing immune response. Herein, we have investigated the importance of the delivery system and in particular its physical characteristics by comparing the delivery properties of two lipids which differ only in the degree of saturation of the acyl chains, rendering the liposomes either rigid (DDA, dimethyldioctadecylammonium) or highly fluid (DODA, dimethyldioleoylammonium) at physiological temperature. We show that these delivery systems are remarkably different in their ability to prime a Th1-directed immune response with the rigid DDA-based liposomes inducing a response more than 100 times higher compared to that obtained with the fluid DODA-based liposomes. Upon injection with a vaccine antigen, DDA-based liposomes form a vaccine depot that results in a continuous attraction of antigen-presenting cells that engulf a high amount of adjuvant and are subsequently efficiently activated as measured by an elevated expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86. In contrast, the fluid DODA-based liposomes are more rapidly removed from the site of injection resulting in a lower up-regulation of co-stimulatory CD40 and CD86 molecules on adjuvant-positive antigen-presenting cells. Additionally, the vaccine antigen is readily dissociated from the DODA-based liposomes leading to a population of antigen-presenting cells that are antigen-positive but adjuvant-negative and consequently are not activated. These studies demonstrate the importance of studying in vivo characteristics of the vaccine components and furthermore show that physicochemical properties of the delivery system have a major impact on the vaccine-induced immune response.
Journal of Controlled Release 06/2012; 160(3):468-76. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cationic liposome formulations can function as efficient vaccine adjuvants. However, due to the highly diverse nature of lipids, cationic liposomes have different physical-chemical characteristics that influence their adjuvant mechanisms and their relevance for use in different vaccines. These characteristics can be further manipulated by incorporation of additional lipids or stabilizers, and inclusion of carefully selected immunostimulators is a feasible strategy when tailoring cationic liposomal adjuvants for specific disease targets. Thus, cationic liposomes present a plasticity, which makes them promising adjuvants for future vaccines. This versatility has also led to a vast amount of literature on different experimental liposomal formulations in combination with a wide range of immunostimulators. Here, we have compiled information about the animal challenge models and administration routes that have been used to study vaccine adjuvants based on cationic liposomes and provide an overview of the applicability, progress and clinical status of cationic liposomal vaccine adjuvants.
Expert Review of Vaccines 05/2012; 11(5):561-77. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of cationic liposomes as vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants has been investigated extensively over the last few decades. However, cationic liposomes are, in general, not sufficiently immunostimulatory, which is why the combination of liposomes with immunostimulating ligands has arisen as a strategy in the development of novel adjuvant systems. Within the last 5 years, two novel adjuvant systems based on cationic liposomes incorporating Toll-like receptor or non-Toll-like receptor immunostimulating ligands have progressed from preclinical testing in smaller animal species to clinical testing in humans. The immune responses that these clinical candidates induce are primarily of the Th1 type for which there is a profound unmet need. Furthermore, a number of new cationic liposome-forming surfactants with notable immunostimulatory properties have been discovered. In this article we review the recent progress on the application of cationic liposomes as vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants.
Expert Review of Vaccines 04/2011; 10(4):513-21. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Liposomes remain at the forefront of drug and vaccine design owing to their well-documented abilities to act as delivery vehicles. Nevertheless, the concept of liposomes as delivery vehicles is not a new one, with most works focusing on their use for the delivery of genes and drugs. However, in the last 10 years a significant amount of research has focused on using liposomes as vaccine adjuvants, not only as an antigen delivery vehicle but also as a tool to increase the immunogenicity of peptide and protein antigens. AREAS COVERED: This paper reviews liposomal adjuvants now in vaccine development, with particular emphasis on their adjuvant mechanism and how specific physicochemical characteristics of liposomes affect the immune response. The inclusion of immunomodulators is also discussed, with prominence given to Toll-like receptor ligands. EXPERT OPINION: The use of liposomes as vaccine delivery systems is evolving rapidly owing to the combined increase in technological advances and understanding of the immune system. Liposomes that contain and deliver immunostimulators and antigens are now being developed to target diseases that require stimulation of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The CAF liposomal system, described in detail in this review, is one liposomal model that shows such flexibility.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2011; 8(4):505-19. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, adjuvant research has moved from empirical trial and error to a more rational approach engaging the multidisciplinary fields of immunology, biochemistry, pharmacy and physical chemistry. At the Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation meeting held in Cannes, France in October 2010, scientists from this broad field met to discuss recent progress in adjuvant research and development. The focus of the meeting was on formulation and as a result clinically and pharmaceutically relevant aspects of how to design and optimize vaccines and adjuvants were also addressed.
Expert Review of Vaccines 01/2011; 10(1):45-8. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of delivery systems such as cationic liposomes and immunopotentiating molecules is a promising approach for the rational design of vaccine adjuvants. In this study, a synthetic analogue of the mycobacterial lipid monomycoloyl glycerol (MMG), referred to as MMG-1, was synthesized and combined with the cationic surfactant dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA). The purpose of the study was to provide a thorough pharmaceutical characterization of the resulting DDA/MMG-1 binary system and to evaluate how incorporation of MMG-1 affected the adjuvant activity of DDA liposomes. Thermal analyses demonstrated that MMG-1 was incorporated into the DDA lipid bilayers, and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that liposomes were formed. The particles had a polydisperse size distribution and an average diameter of approximately 400 nm. Evaluation of the colloidal stability indicated that at least 18 mol% MMG-1 was required to stabilize the DDA liposomes as the average particle size remained constant during storage for 6 months. The improved colloidal stability is most likely caused by increased hydration of the lipid bilayer. This was demonstrated by studying Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of DDA and MMG-1 which revealed an increased surface pressure in the presence of high concentrations of MMG-1 when the DDA/MMG-1 monolayers were fully compressed, indicating an increased interaction with water due to enhanced hydration of the lipid head groups. Finally, immunization of mice with the tuberculosis fusion antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6 and DDA/MMG-1 liposomes induced a strong cell-mediated immune response characterized by a mixed Th1/Th17 profile and secretion of IgG1 and IgG2c antibodies. The Th1/Th17-biased immunostimulatory effect was increased in an MMG-1 concentration-dependent manner with maximal observed effect at 31 mol% MMG-1. Thus, incorporation of 31 mol% MMG-1 into DDA liposomes results in an adjuvant system with favorable physical as well as immunological properties.
European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 10/2010; 77(1):89-98. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccine adjuvants activate the innate immune system and thus influence subsequent adaptive T-cell responses. However, little is known about the initial immune mechanisms preceding the adjuvant-induced differentiation of T-helper (Th) cells. The effect of a T-helper 1 (Th1) adjuvant, dimethyldioctadecylammonium liposomes with monophosphoryl lipid-A (DDA/MPL), and a T-helper 2 adjuvant, aluminium hydroxide [Al(OH)(3)], on early, innate chemotactic signals and inflammatory cell influx at the site of injection was therefore investigated. Injection of the adjuvants into the peritoneal cavity of mice demonstrated distinct differences in the magnitude, quality and kinetics of the response. The inflammatory response to DDA/MPL was prominent, inducing high local levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and a pronounced inflammatory exudate consisting of neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages and activated natural killer cells. This was in contrast to the response induced by Al(OH)(3), which, although sharing some of the early chemokine signals, was more moderate and consisted almost exclusively of neutrophils and eosinophils. Notably, Al(OH)(3) specifically induced the release of a significant amount of interleukin (IL)-5, whereas DDA/MPL induced high amounts of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-6. Finally, a microarray analysis confirmed that the effect of DDA/MPL was broader with more than five times as many genes being specifically up-regulated after injection of DDA/MPL compared with Al(OH)(3). Thus, the adjuvants induced qualitatively distinct local inflammatory signals early after injection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improved vaccines capable of promoting long-term cellular immunity are urgently required for a number of diseases that remain global health problems. In the present study, we demonstrate that a tuberculosis subunit vaccine, Ag85B-ESAT-6/CAF01 (where ESAT-6 is early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa and CAF01 is cationic adjuvant formulation 01), induces very robust memory CD4 T cell responses that are maintained at high levels for >1 year postvaccination. This long-term, vaccine-induced memory response protects against a challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis at levels that are comparable to or better than those of bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Characterization of the CD4 memory T cells by multicolor flow cytometry demonstrated that the long-lived memory population consisted almost exclusively of TNF-alpha(+)IL-2(+) and IFN-gamma(+)TNF-alpha(+)IL-2(+) multifunctional T cells. In addition, memory cells isolated >1 year postvaccination maintained a strong, vaccine-specific proliferative potential. Long-term memory induced by the BCG vaccine contained fewer multifunctional T cells and was biased toward effector cells mainly of the TNF-alpha(+)IFN-gamma(+)-coexpressing subset. Ag85B-ESAT-6/CAF01 vaccination very efficiently sustained multifunctional CD4 T cells that accumulated at the site of infection after M. tuberculosis challenge, whereas the response in unvaccinated animals was characterized by CD4 effector T cells. Our data demonstrate that adjuvanted subunit vaccines can promote long-term protective immune responses characterized by high levels of persisting multifunctional T cells and that the quality and profile of this response is sustained postinfection.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2009; 182(12):8047-55. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viability, cell cycle effects, genotoxicity, reactive oxygen species production, and mutagenicity of C(60) fullerenes (C(60)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were assessed in the FE1-Mutatrade markMouse lung epithelial cell line. None of these particles induced cell death within 24 hr at doses between 0 and 200 microg/ml or during long-term subculture exposure (576 hr) at 100 microg/ml, as determined by two different assays. However, cell proliferation was slower with SWCNT exposure and a larger fraction of the cells were in the G1 phase. Exposure to carbon black resulted in the greatest reactive oxygen species generation followed by SWCNT and C(60) in both cellular and cell-free particle suspensions. C(60) and SWCNT did not increase the level of strand breaks, but significantly increased the level of FPG sensitive sites/oxidized purines (22 and 56%, respectively) determined by the comet assay. The mutant frequency in the cII gene was unaffected by 576 hr of exposure to either 100 microg/ml C(60) or SWCNT when compared with control incubations, whereas we have previously reported that carbon black and diesel exhaust particles induce mutations using an identical exposure scenario. These results indicate that SWCNT and C(60) are less genotoxic in vitro than carbon black and diesel exhaust particles.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 08/2008; 49(6):476-87. · 3.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that protection against tuberculosis is mediated primarily by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells but the influence of the Th1/Th2 balance of a vaccination response on the subsequent protection and pathology during infection has not been studied in detail. We designed a panel of Ag85B-ESAT-6 subunit vaccines based on adjuvants with different Th1/Th2-promoting activities and studied cellular responses, bacterial replication and pathology in the lungs of mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All vaccines induced cell-mediated and humoral responses but with markedly different interferon-gamma : interleukin-5 (IFN-gamma : IL-5) and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) : IgG2 ratios. The vaccines promoted different levels of control of bacterial replication with the most efficient protection being exerted by cationic liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A and low to completely absent immunity with conventional aluminium. The level of protection correlated with the amount of IFN-gamma produced in response to the vaccine whereas there was no inverse correlation with the level of IL-5. Characterizing a protective response was an accelerated recruitment of IL-17 and IFN-gamma-producing lymphocytes resulting in the early formation of granulomas containing clustered inducible nitric oxide synthase-activated macrophages. In comparison, non-protected mice exhibited a different inflammatory infiltrate rich in neutrophil granulocytes. This study indicates that the adjuvant component of a tuberculosis vaccine may be crucial in determining the kinetics by which effective granulomas, pivotal in controlling bacterial growth, are formed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cationic liposomes are lipid-bilayer vesicles with a positive surface charge that have re-emerged as a promising new adjuvant technology. Although there is some evidence that cationic liposomes themselves can improve the immune response against coadministered vaccine antigens, their main functions are to protect the antigens from clearance in the body and deliver the antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells. In addition, cationic liposomes can be used to introduce immunomodulators to enhance and modulate the immune response in a desirable direction and, thereby, represent an efficient tool when designing tailor-made adjuvants for specific disease targets. In this article we review the recent progress on cationic liposomes as vehicles, enhancing the effect of immunomodulators and the presentation of vaccine antigens.
Expert Review of Vaccines 11/2007; 6(5):785-96. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cationic liposomes are being used increasingly as efficient adjuvants for subunit vaccines but their precise mechanism of action is still unknown. Here, we investigated the adjuvant mechanism of cationic liposomes based on the synthetic amphiphile dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA). The liposomes did not have an effect on the maturation of murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) related to the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, CD40, CD80 and CD86. We found that ovalbumin (OVA) readily associated with the liposomes (> 90%) when mixed in equal concentrations. This efficient adsorption onto the liposomes led to an enhanced uptake of OVA by BM-DCs as assessed by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence laser-scanning microscopy. This was an active process, which was arrested at 4 degrees and by an inhibitor of actin-dependent endocytosis, cytochalasin D. In vivo studies confirmed the observed effect because adsorption of OVA onto DDA liposomes enhanced the uptake of the antigen by peritoneal exudate cells after intraperitoneal injection. The liposomes targeted antigen preferentially to antigen-presenting cells because we only observed a minimal uptake by T cells in mixed splenocyte cultures. The adsorption of antigen onto the liposomes increased the efficiency of antigen presentation more than 100 times in a responder assay with MHC class II-restricted OVA-specific T-cell receptor transgenic DO11.10 T cells. Our data therefore suggest that the primary adjuvant mechanism of cationic DDA liposomes is to target the cell membrane of antigen-presenting cells, which subsequently leads to enhanced uptake and presentation of antigen.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the potential of a novel synthetic adjuvant designated IC31 for the ability to augment the immune response and protective efficacy of the well-known mycobacterial vaccine antigen, Ag85B-ESAT-6. The IC31 adjuvant, consisting of a vehicle based on the cationic peptide KLKL(5)KLK and the immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide ODN1a signalling through the TLR9 receptor, was found to promote highly efficient Th1 responses. The combination of Ag85B-ESAT-6 and IC31 exhibited significant levels of protection in the mouse aerosol challenge model of tuberculosis and a detailed analysis of the immune response generated revealed the induction of CD4 T cells giving rise to high levels of IFN-gamma secretion. Furthermore, the combination of Ag85B-ESAT-6/IC31 was found to confer efficient protection in the guinea pig aerosol model of tuberculosis infection and is at present moving towards clinical testing.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunostimulation provided by the mycobacterial cell wall has been exploited for many decades, e.g., in Freund's complete adjuvant. Recently, the underlying mechanism behind this adjuvant activity, including Toll receptor signaling, has begun to be unraveled, confirming the potential of mycobacterial constituents to act as adjuvants. In this study, the immunostimulatory properties of a Mycobacterium bovis BCG lipid extract were tested for their adjuvant activity. Administration of the lipids in dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide-based cationic liposomes induced a powerful Th1 response characterized by markedly elevated antigen-specific immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) isotype antibodies and substantial production of gamma interferon. The adjuvant formulation (designated mycosomes) elicited high levels of gamma interferon both in C57BL/6 as well as in Th2-prone BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the mycosomes induced immune responses to protein antigens from several sources including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia muridarum, and tetanus toxoid. In a tuberculosis challenge model, the mycosomes combined with the Ag85B-ESAT-6 fusion protein were demonstrated to have a unique ability to maintain sustained immunological memory at a level superior to live BCG.
Infection and Immunity 10/2005; 73(9):5817-26. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant, immunodominant antigens derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be used to effectively vaccinate against subsequent infection. However, the efficacy of these recombinant proteins is dependent on the adjuvant used for their delivery. This problem affects many potential vaccines, not just those for tuberculosis, so the discovery of adjuvants that can promote the development of cell-mediated immunity is of great interest. We have previously shown that the combination of the cationic surfactant dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide and the immunomodulator modified lipid A synergistically potentiates Th1 T-cell responses. Here we report a screening program for other adjuvants with reported Th1-promoting activity and identify a second novel adjuvant formulation that drives the development of Th1 responses with an extremely high efficacy. The combination of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide and the synthetic cord factor trehalose dibehenate promotes strong protective immune responses, without overt toxicity, against M. tuberculosis infection in a vaccination model and thus appears to be a very promising candidate for the development of human vaccines.
Infection and Immunity 04/2004; 72(3):1608-17. · 4.07 Impact Factor