[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lifespan extension has been demonstrated in dwarfism mouse models relative to their wild-type. The spontaneous dwarf rat (SDR) was isolated from a closed colony of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Growth hormone deficiencies have been indicated to be responsible for dwarfism in SDR. Survival time, the markers of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, and resistance to hyperoxia were compared between SDR and SD rats, to investigate whether SDR, a dwarfism rat model, also extends lifespan and has an enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. SDRs lived 38% longer than SD rats on average. This is the first report to show that dwarf rats exhibit lifespan extensions similar to Ames and Snell mice. Decreased 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) content, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, indicated suppressed oxidative stress in the liver, kidney, and lung of SDRs. Increased glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity was consistent with decreased 8-oxodG content in the same tissues. The heart and brain showed a similar tendency, but this was not significant. However, the catalase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities of SDRs were not different from those of SD rats in any tissue. This was not what the original null hypothesis predicted. SDRs had potent resistance to the toxicity associated with high O2 (85%) exposure. The mean survival time in SDRs was more than 147% that of SD rats with 168hrs O2 exposure. These results suggest that the enhanced resistance to oxidative stress of SDRs associated with enhanced hydrogen peroxide elimination may support its potential role in lifespan extension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apple polyphenols (AP), which contain procyanidins as major components, have been reported to display potent antioxidant activity and several beneficial health effects. To investigate the protective effect of AP intake against murine cardiomyopathy caused by endogenous oxidative stress, we orally administered AP to heart/muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)-deficient (H/M-Sod2-/-) mice [Nojiri et al., 2006]. Dietary AP significantly increased the survival of the mutant mice, extending their mean lifespan by 29%. Dietary AP also suppressed the progression of cardiac dilatation and fibrosis in the H/M-Sod2-/- mice. In vitro experiments revealed that AP treatment strongly suppressed the production of hydrogen peroxide induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C2C12 myoblast cells and endogenous superoxide production in Mn-SOD-deficient cells. Furthermore, dietary AP suppressed ROS production in Mn-SOD-deficient cardiomyocytes and oxidative DNA damage in vivo. These results indicate that dietary AP improved the survival and pathology of short-lived mice with cardiomyopathy by suppressing mitochondrial superoxide production.
International Journal of Life Science and Medical Research. 01/2012; 2(3):46-51.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is closely linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers cause cognitive
impairment and synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the relationship between oligomers, oxidative stress,
and their localization during disease progression is uncertain. Our previous study demonstrated that mice deficient in cytoplasmic
copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, SOD1) have features of drusen formation, a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration
(Imamura, Y., Noda, S., Hashizume, K., Shinoda, K., Yamaguchi, M., Uchiyama, S., Shimizu, T., Mizushima, Y., Shirasawa, T.,
and Tsubota, K. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 11282–11287). Amyloid assembly has been implicated as a common mechanism of plaque and drusen formation. Here, we show
that Sod1 deficiency in an amyloid precursor protein-overexpressing mouse model (AD mouse, Tg2576) accelerated Aβ oligomerization and
memory impairment as compared with control AD mouse and that these phenomena were basically mediated by oxidative damage.
The increased plaque and neuronal inflammation were accompanied by the generation of Nϵ-carboxymethyl lysine in advanced glycation end products, a rapid marker of oxidative damage, induced by Sod1 gene-dependent reduction. The Sod1 deletion also caused Tau phosphorylation and the lower levels of synaptophysin. Furthermore, the levels of SOD1 were significantly
decreased in human AD patients rather than non-AD age-matched individuals, but mitochondrial SOD (Mn-SOD, SOD2) and extracellular
SOD (CuZn-SOD, SOD3) were not. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic superoxide radical plays a critical role in the pathogenesis
of AD. Activation of Sod1 may be a therapeutic strategy for the inhibition of AD progression.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 286(52):44557-44568. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is closely linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers cause cognitive impairment and synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the relationship between oligomers, oxidative stress, and their localization during disease progression is uncertain. Our previous study demonstrated that mice deficient in cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, SOD1) have features of drusen formation, a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (Imamura, Y., Noda, S., Hashizume, K., Shinoda, K., Yamaguchi, M., Uchiyama, S., Shimizu, T., Mizushima, Y., Shirasawa, T., and Tsubota, K. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 11282-11287). Amyloid assembly has been implicated as a common mechanism of plaque and drusen formation. Here, we show that Sod1 deficiency in an amyloid precursor protein-overexpressing mouse model (AD mouse, Tg2576) accelerated Aβ oligomerization and memory impairment as compared with control AD mouse and that these phenomena were basically mediated by oxidative damage. The increased plaque and neuronal inflammation were accompanied by the generation of N(ε)-carboxymethyl lysine in advanced glycation end products, a rapid marker of oxidative damage, induced by Sod1 gene-dependent reduction. The Sod1 deletion also caused Tau phosphorylation and the lower levels of synaptophysin. Furthermore, the levels of SOD1 were significantly decreased in human AD patients rather than non-AD age-matched individuals, but mitochondrial SOD (Mn-SOD, SOD2) and extracellular SOD (CuZn-SOD, SOD3) were not. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic superoxide radical plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of AD. Activation of Sod1 may be a therapeutic strategy for the inhibition of AD progression.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 286(52):44557-68. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels that occurs during intense exercise has been proposed to be one of the major causes of muscle fatigue. In addition, the accumulation of cellular damage due to ROS is widely regarded to be one of the factors triggering age-related pathological conditions in skeletal muscle. To investigate the pathological significance of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, we generated skeletal muscle-specific manganese superoxide dismutase-deficient (muscle-Sod2(-/-)) mice. The mutant mice showed severe disturbances in exercise activity, but no atrophic changes in their skeletal muscles. In histological and histochemical analyses, the mutant mice showed centralized nuclei in their muscle fibers and selective loss of enzymatic activity in mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. In addition, the mutant mice displayed increased oxidative damage and reduced ATP content in their muscle tissue. Furthermore, a single administration of the antioxidant EUK-8 significantly improved exercise activity and increased the cellular ATP level in skeletal muscle. These results imply that the superoxide anions generated in mitochondria play a pivotal role in the progression of exercise intolerance.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 02/2010; 48(9):1252-62. · 5.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since Harman proposed the "free-radical theory of aging", oxidative stress has been postulated to be a major causal factor of senescence. The accumulation of oxidative stress-induced oxidatively modified macromolecules, including protein, DNA and lipid, were found in tissues during the aging process; however, it is not necessarily clear which factor is more critical, an increase in endogenous reactive oxygen and/or a decrease in anti-oxidative defense, to the age-related increase in oxidative damage. To clarify the increasing production of reactive oxygen with age, we examined reactive oxygen-dependent chemiluminescent (CL) signals in ex vivo brain slices prepared from different-aged animal brains during hypoxia-reoxygenation treatment using a novel photonic imaging method. The CL signal was intensified during reoxygenation. The signals in SAMP10 (short-life strain) and SAMR1 (control) brain slices increased with aging. The slope of the increase of CL intensity with age in P10 was steeper than in R1. Age-dependent increase of CL intensity was also observed in C57BL/6 mice, Wistar rats and pigeons; however, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the brain did not change with age. These results suggest that reactive oxygen production itself increased with aging. The rate of age-related increases of CL intensity was inversely related to the maximum lifespan of animals. We speculate that reactive oxygen might be a signaling molecule and its levels in tissue might determine the aging process and lifespan. Decelerating age-related increases of reactive oxygen production are expected to be a potent strategy for anti-aging interventions.
Geriatrics & Gerontology International 01/2010; 10.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dwarf animal models can provide new models for aging research. For the spontaneous dwarf rat (SDR), a dwarf strain derived from the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat, no data relevant to aging research are available. The present study aimed to examine its growth, hormonal background, lifespan and age-related diseases.
Male SDR and SD rats were used for growth comparison and for immunohistochemistry and plasma hormonal analysis. SDR of each sex were maintained until natural death and then inspected pathologically.
SDR showed an apparent dwarfism in their youth. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the development of growth hormone (GH)-positive cells in the pituitary was insufficient in SDR. In SDR, plasma GH levels were lower than in SD rats. Moreover, both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin levels were decreased compared to levels in SD rats. Male and female SDR showed a mean lifespan of 29.3 +/- 3.3 and 26.8 +/- 5.3 months, respectively. The main neoplastic lesions in SDR were pituitary and mammary tumors. Major non-neoplastic lesions were incisor malocclusion, heart disease, chronic nephropathy (male) and cerebral hemorrhage (female). Most cases of chronic nephropathy were mild.
Compared with longevity data and pathological data reported for SD rats, the lifespan in SDR was increased by 20-40% in males and 10-20% in females, and SDR had characteristic decreases in pituitary and mammary tumors as well as in severe chronic nephropathy. The SDR, differing in endocrinology, longevity and pathology from the SD rat, is potentially a new animal model for aging research.
Geriatrics & Gerontology International 01/2010; 10(1):94-101.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caloric and food restriction attenuate oxidative stress. The effect of aging and every-other-day (EOD) feeding on oxygen radical-dependent chemiluminescent intensity was examined in ex vivo brain slices from Fischer rats during oxygenation and hypoxia-reoxygenation with lucigenin, a chemilumigenic probe used for detecting superoxide anion radicals. The chemiluminescent intensity increased during reoxygenation after hypoxic treatment, and the chemiluminescence in the brain slices at the baseline and during reoxygenation increased with age. However, no difference was observed in the superoxide-dependent chemiluminescence between brain slices prepared from the aged rats fed EOD and those fed ad libitum. Our results indicated that age-dependent increases in superoxide production might be associated with enhanced oxidative stress in aged Fischer rat brains. However, the present study newly indicated that decreased superoxide production might not be a major causal factor in caloric and food restriction attenuated oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice lacking manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity exhibit the typical pathology of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In the present study, presymptomatic and symptomatic mutant mice were treated with the SOD/catalase mimetic, EUK-8.
Presymptomatic heart/muscle-specific Mn-SOD-deficient mice (H/M-Sod2(-/-)) were treated with EUK-8 (30 mg x kg(-1) . day(-1)) for 4 weeks, and then cardiac function and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in their heart mitochondria were assessed. EUK-8 treatment suppressed the progression of cardiac dysfunction and diminished ROS production and oxidative damage. Furthermore, EUK-8 treatment effectively reversed the cardiac dilatation and dysfunction observed in symptomatic H/M-Sod2(-/-) mice. Interestingly, EUK-8 treatment repaired a molecular defect in connexin43.
EUK-8 treatment can prevent and cure murine DCM, so SOD/catalase mimetic treatment is proposed as a potential therapy for DCM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An ethyl-labeled phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PC-OOH/Et 2) was synthesized as a molecular probe for naturally occurring PC-OOH 1. Applying the precursor ion scan mode in tandem ESI mass spectrometry at m/z 198, a signal of the PC-OOH/Et 2 alone could be selectively detected even in the presence of a large excess of a complex mixture of phospholipids in the blood. Furthermore, molecular species that formed from PC-OOH/Et 2 by its degradation in the blood were also observed in the same spectrum. Since the molecular probe-and-mass spectrometry-assisted analytical method presented herein requires no separation process by HPLC or TLC and is speedy, requiring less than 1 h, it may be useful in lipid analysis.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 04/2009; 73(3):781-4. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, an imbalance between endogenous levels of oxygen radicals and antioxidative defense, increases with aging. However, it is not clear which of these two factors is the more critical. To clarify the production of oxygen radicals increases with age, we examined oxygen radical-dependent chemiluminescent signals in ex vivo brain slices using a novel photonic imaging method. The chemiluminescent intensity was significantly decreased by the membrane permeable superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimic, but not by Cu,Zn-SOD. Inhibitors for complex I, III, and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain transiently enhanced the chemiluminescent signal. The superoxide-dependent chemiluminescent intensity in senescence accelerated mouse (SAM) brain tissues increases with age. Moreover, the slope of the age-dependent increase was steeper in SAMP10, a strain characterized by a short lifespan and atrophy in the frontal cerebral cortex, than the senescence-resistant strain SAMR1, which has a longer lifespan. An increase in chemiluminescence with age was also observed in C57/BL6 mice, Wistar rats, and pigeons, although levels of chemiluminescence were lower in the pigeons than murines. The rate of age-related increases of superoxide-dependent chemiluminescence was inversely related to the maximum lifespan of the animals. The activity of superoxide dismutase was unchanged during the aging process in the brain. This suggested that superoxide production itself may increase with age. We speculated that reactive oxygen may be a signal to determine the aging process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and its 6-glycoside, esculin, on 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation and carcinogenesis induced by a chemical carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), were examined in the colons of male Fischer 344 rats. Animals were given water containing esculetin or esculin for 7 d before subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg body wt), killed 24 h after DMH treatment, and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-oxodG in the colons were determined. Both esculetin and esculin suppressed significantly the DMH-induced increases in 8-oxodG and TBARS in rat colon mucosa. We further investigated the modifying effect of esculin intake on the development of DMH-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Animals were given DMH once a week for 4 weeks to induce ACF. They then received water containing esculin ad libitum for 5 weeks (initiation phase) or 11 weeks after DMH treatment (post-initiation phase). Animals in the positive control group received tap water throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment (16 weeks), the ingestion of esculin during the initiation phase significantly reduced the incidence of gross tumors, the number of ACF per rat and the mean number of AC per focus, while the esculin treatment during the post-initiation phase significantly decreased only the number of ACF per rat. These results suggest that esculin intake has an inhibitory effect on DMH-induced oxidative DNA damage and carcinogenesis in rat colons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise is often said to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species that are potentially harmful. On the other hand, regular exercise has various health benefits even late in life. The specific aim of this study was to explore effects of regular exercise on oxidative status of DNA in aged animals. We report that 2 months of regular treadmill running of aged rats (21 month old) significantly reduced 8-oxodG content to the level of young adult animals (11 month old) in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of the liver. The mitochondrial DNA showed 10-fold higher content of the oxidative lesion than the nuclear DNA. The levels in old animals were 2- and 1.5-fold higher than that in young adults for the nucleus and mitochondria, respectively. The activity of the repair enzyme OGG1 was upregulated significantly in the nucleus but not in mitochondria by the exercise. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that regular exercise can reduce significantly oxidative damage to both the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We suggest that the apparent beneficial outcomes in reducing the DNA damage by regular exercise can be interpreted in terms of hormetic effect by moderate oxidative stress and potential adaptation to stronger stresses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats lack cholecystokinin-A receptor (CCK-AR) because of a genetic abnormality. We observed that body temperature homeostasis in response to changes in ambient temperature was deteriorated in OLETF rats, while the functions of the signal outputs from the hypothalamus to effectors were not impaired. Deteriorated homeostasis was also seen in CCK-AR deficient (-/-) mice. In the present study, we examined whether the sensory pathway involved in transmitting signals about temperature from the skin to the brain was impaired in OLETF rats. To elucidate the involvement of CCK-AR function, we conducted the same experiment in CCK-AR(-/-) mice. Responses to thermal pain were assessed using the Hargreaves' plantar test apparatus. Shortening of withdrawal latency was observed in OLETF rats compared to control rats, indicating thermal hyperalgesia. Behavioral responses following paw withdrawal were disturbed in OLETF rats. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid contents in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of OLETF rats were significantly higher than in those of the controls. CCK-AR(-/-) mice did not show any differences from wild-type mice. In conclusion, OLETF rats showed thermal hyperalgesia and disturbed responses to thermal pain, and an alteration of 5-HT function might have a role in this disturbance.
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 09/2006; 101(4):280-5. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, including humans, a brain-gut hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK) mediates the satiety effect via CCK-A receptor (R). We generated CCK-AR gene-deficient (-/-) mice and found that the daily food intake, energy expenditure, and gastric emptying of a liquid meal did not change compared with those of wild-type mice. Because CCK-AR(-/-) mice show anxiolytic status, we examined the effects of restraint stress. Seven hours of restraint stress was found to significantly decrease both body weight and food intake during the subsequent 3 days in all tested animals. On the fourth day after restraint stress, the CCK-AR(-/-) mice showed a significantly higher level of daily food intake than prior to stress, and food intake recovered to prestress levels in the wild-type mice. Since peripheral CCK-AR has been known to mediate gastric emptying, both gastric emptying and gastric acid secretion were determined to examine the mechanism of overeating in CCK-AR(-/-) mice. Neither gastric emptying nor gastric acid secretion differed between CCK-AR(-/-) and wild-type mice on the fourth day after stress. In contrast, however, the contents of dopamine and its metabolites in the cerebral cortex of CCK-AR(-/-) mice were increased by stress, but were rather decreased in wild-type mice. Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its metabolite 5HIAA did not differ between the genotypes. In conclusion, CCK-AR(-/-) mice showed overeating after restraint stress, and dopaminergic hyperfunction in the brain of these mice was observed. The present evidence suggests that the CCK-AR function, possibly via altering the dopaminergic function, might be involved in overeating after stress.
The Japanese Journal of Physiology 11/2005; 55(5):285-91. · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have tested the hypothesis that training with moderate- (MT), strenuous- (ST), or over- (OT) load can cause alterations in memory, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA damage, activity of 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in rat brain. Rat memory was assessed by a passive avoidance test and the ST and OT group demonstrated improved memory. The content of BDNF was increased only in the OT group. The oxidative damage of lipids and DNA, as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), did not change significantly with exercise. Similarly, the activity of DNA repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), was not altered with exercise training. On the other hand, the content of reactive carbonyl derivatives (RCDs) decreased in all groups and the decrease reached significance levels in the ST and OT groups. The activity of the proteasome complex increased in the brain of OT. The findings of this study imply that over-training does not induce oxidative stress in the brain and does not cause loss of memory. The improved memory was associated with enhanced BDNF content.
Neurochemistry International 07/2005; 46(8):635-40. · 2.66 Impact Factor