Bayard L Powell

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (179)1699.9 Total impact

  • Critical care medicine 11/2015; 43(12 Suppl 1):97-98. DOI:10.1097/01.ccm.0000474212.81676.56 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has been previously suggested as an adverse prognostic marker in patients with acute leukemia. To evaluate the relationship between obesity and clinical outcome, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), including acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), we performed a pooled analysis of four CALGB (Alliance) clinical trials. Our study included 446 patients with APL from CALGB 9710, and 1,648 patients between 18 and 60 years of age with non-APL AML from CALGB 9621, 10503, and 19808. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) . Multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression models were fitted for DFS and OS. Obesity was seen in 50% and 38% of APL and non-APL AML patients, respectively. In APL patients, obesity was associated with worse DFS (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.03-2.27; p=0.04) and OS (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.15-2.58; p=0.01) after adjusting for age, sex, performance status, race, ethnicity, treatment arm and baseline white blood cell count. Obesity was not significantly associated with DFS or OS in the non-APL AML patients. In conclusion, our study indicates that obesity has significant prognostic value for DFS and OS in APL patients, but not for non-APL AML patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    American Journal of Hematology 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ajh.24230 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Our goal was to characterize comorbidities among adults receiving intensive therapy for AML, and investigate their association with outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 277 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed AML treated intensively at the Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University from 2002 to 2009. Pretreatment comorbidities were identified by ICD-9 codes and chart review. Comorbidity burden (modified Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) and specific conditions were analyzed individually. Outcomes were overall survival (OS), remission, and 30-day mortality. Covariates included age, gender, cytogenetic characteristics, hemoglobin, white cell count, lactate dehydrogenase, body mass index, and insurance type. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate OS; logistic regression was used for remission and 30-day mortality. Results: In this series, 144 patients were ≥60years old (median age 70years, median survival 8.7months) and 133 were <60years (median age 47years, median survival 23.1months). Older patients had a higher comorbidity burden (CCI≥1 58% versus 26%, P<0.001). Prevalent comorbid conditions differed by age (diabetes 19.2% versus 7.5%; cardiovascular disease 12.5% versus 4.5%, for older versus younger patients, respectively). The CCI was not independently associated with OS or 30-day mortality in either age group. Among older patients, diabetes was associated with higher 30-day mortality (33.3% vs. 12.0% in diabetic vs. non-diabetic patients, p=0.006). Controlling for age, cytogenetic characteristics and other comorbidities, the presence of diabetes increased the odds of 30-day mortality by 4.9 (CI 1.6-15.2) times. Discussion: Diabetes is adversely associated with 30-day survival in older AML patients receiving intensive therapy.
    Journal of Geriatric Oncology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jgo.2015.10.182 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Safe and effective treatments are urgently needed for patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia. We investigated the efficacy and safety of vosaroxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, plus cytarabine in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia. This phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken at 101 international sites. Eligible patients with acute myeloid leukaemia were aged 18 years of age or older and had refractory disease or were in first relapse after one or two cycles of previous induction chemotherapy, including at least one cycle of anthracycline (or anthracenedione) plus cytarabine. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to vosaroxin (90 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 4 in a first cycle; 70 mg/m(2) in subsequent cycles) plus cytarabine (1 g/m(2) intravenously on days 1-5) or placebo plus cytarabine through a central interactive voice system with a permuted block procedure stratified by disease status, age, and geographical location. All participants were masked to treatment assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint was overall survival and the primary safety endpoint was 30-day and 60-day all-cause mortality. Efficacy analyses were done by intention to treat; safety analyses included all treated patients. This study is registered with, number NCT01191801. Between Dec 17, 2010, and Sept 25, 2013, 711 patients were randomly assigned to vosaroxin plus cytarabine (n=356) or placebo plus cytarabine (n=355). At the final analysis, median overall survival was 7·5 months (95% CI 6·4-8·5) in the vosaroxin plus cytarabine group and 6·1 months (5·2-7·1) in the placebo plus cytarabine group (hazard ratio 0·87, 95% CI 0·73-1·02; unstratified log-rank p=0·061; stratified p=0·024). A higher proportion of patients achieved complete remission in the vosaroxin plus cytarabine group than in the placebo plus cytarabine group (107 [30%] of 356 patients vs 58 [16%] of 355 patients, p<0·0001). Early mortality was similar between treatment groups (30-day: 28 [8%] of 355 patients in the vosaroxin plus cytarabine group vs 23 [7%] of 350 in the placebo plus cytarabine group; 60-day: 70 [20%] vs 68 [19%]). Treatment-related deaths occurred at any time in 20 (6%) of 355 patients given vosaroxin plus cytarabine and in eight (2%) of 350 patients given placebo plus cytarabine. Treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in 116 (33%) and 58 (17%) patients in each group, respectively. Grade 3 or worse adverse events that were more frequent in the vosaroxin plus cytarabine group than in the placebo plus cytarabine group included febrile neutropenia (167 [47%] vs 117 [33%]), neutropenia (66 [19%] vs 49 [14%]), stomatitis (54 [15%] vs 10 [3%]), hypokalaemia (52 [15%] vs 21 [6%]), bacteraemia (43 [12%] vs 16 [5%]), sepsis (42 [12%] vs 18 [5%]), and pneumonia (39 [11%] vs 26 [7%]). Although there was no significant difference in the primary endpoint between groups, the prespecified secondary analysis stratified by randomisation factors suggests that the addition of vosaroxin to cytarabine might be of clinical benefit to some patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia. Sunesis Pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet Oncology 07/2015; 16(9). DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00201-6 · 24.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy that affects older patients. The role of salvage therapy in the elderly is controversial and there is little data on efficacy. Outcomes for 94 relapsed or refractory AML patients who received salvage HAMA therapy were analyzed. Of the 94 patients 66 were ≥60, including 26 patients ≥70, and 28 were <60 years old. Early mortality (30-day) was 14% (4%<60, 18%≥60 years old). Overall, 27% of patients died during hospitalization or were discharged to hospice (11%<60, 33%≥60 years old). CR/CRi was achieved in 41% of patients (61%<60, 33%≥60 years old). Median survival was 6.1 months (15.7<60, 5.2≥60). Patients ≥60 who achieved a CR/CRi had a median survival of 11.7 months. At 12 months 56% of patients <60 were alive versus 24% of patients ≥60. At 24 months these numbers fell to 40% and 2% respectively. In those <60 years old, 50% went on to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) whereas 14% of patients in the ≥60 cohort did so. In conclusion, HAMA salvage therapy results in a 33% response rate in patients ≥60 years old with acceptable toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Leukemia Research 06/2015; 39(9). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2015.05.010 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML), defined as AML arising after a prior myelodysplastic syndrome or after antineoplastic therapy, responds poorly to current therapies. It is often associated with adverse karyotypic abnormalities and overexpression of proteins that mediate drug resistance. We performed a phase III trial to determine whether induction therapy with cytarabine and amonafide L-malate, a DNA intercalator and non-ATP-dependent topoisomerase II inhibitor that evades drug resistance mechanisms, yielded a superior complete remission rate than standard therapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin in sAML. Patients with previously untreated sAML were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to cytarabine 200 mg/m(2) continuous intravenous (IV) infusion once per day on days 1 to 7 plus either amonafide 600 mg/m(2) IV over 4 hours on days 1 to 5 (A + C arm) or daunorubicin 45 mg/m(2) IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1 to 3 (D + C arm). The complete remission (CR) rate was 46% (99 of 216 patients) in A + C arm and 45% (97 of 217 patients) in D + C arm (P = .81). The 30- and 60-day mortality rates were 19% and 28% in A + C arm and 13% and 21% in D + C arm, respectively. Induction treatment with A + C did not improve the CR rate compared with D + C in patients with sAML. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2015; 33(11). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.57.0952 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can develop following an antecedent myeloid malignancy (secondary AML; s-AML), following leukemogenic therapy (therapy-related AML; t-AML), or without an identifiable prodrome or known exposure (de novo AML). The genetic basis of these distinct pathways of AML development has not been determined. We performed targeted mutational analysis of 194 patients with rigorously defined s-AML or t-AML and 105 unselected AML patients. The presence of a mutation in SRSF2, SF3B1, U2AF1, ZRSR2, ASXL1, EZH2, BCOR, or STAG2 was >95% specific for the diagnosis of s-AML. Analysis of serial samples from individual patients revealed that these mutations occur early in leukemogenesis and often persist in clonal remissions. In t-AML and elderly de novo AML populations, these alterations define a distinct genetic subtype that shares clinicopathologic properties with clinically confirmed s-AML and highlights a subset of patients with worse clinical outcomes, including a lower CR rate, more frequent re-induction, and decreased event-free survival. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 12/2014; 125(9). DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-11-610543 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, located within the intergenic stretches or overlapping antisense transcripts of protein coding genes. LncRNAs are involved in numerous biological roles including imprinting, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and cell cycle. To determine whether lncRNAs are associated with clinical features and recurrent mutations in older patients (aged ≥60 y) with cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we evaluated lncRNA expression in 148 untreated older CN-AML cases using a custom microarray platform. An independent set of 71 untreated older patients with CN-AML was used to validate the outcome scores using RNA sequencing. Distinctive lncRNA profiles were found associated with selected mutations, such as internal tandem duplications in the FLT3 gene (FLT3-ITD) and mutations in the NPM1, CEBPA, IDH2, ASXL1, and RUNX1 genes. Using the lncRNAs most associated with event-free survival in a training cohort of 148 older patients with CN-AML, we derived a lncRNA score composed of 48 lncRNAs. Patients with an unfavorable compared with favorable lncRNA score had a lower complete response (CR) rate [P < 0.001, odds ratio = 0.14, 54% vs. 89%], shorter disease-free survival (DFS) [P < 0.001, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.88] and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001, HR = 2.95). The validation set analyses confirmed these results (CR, P = 0.03; DFS, P = 0.009; OS, P = 0.009). Multivariable analyses for CR, DFS, and OS identified the lncRNA score as an independent marker for outcome. In conclusion, lncRNA expression in AML is closely associated with recurrent mutations. A small subset of lncRNAs is correlated strongly with treatment response and survival.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2014; 111(52). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1422050112 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We retrospectively evaluated the prognostic significance of polypharmacy and inappropriate medication use among 150 patients >60 years of age receiving induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). After adjustment for age and comorbidity, increased number of medications at diagnosis (≥4 vs. ≤1) was associated with increased 30-day mortality (OR = 9.98, 95% CI = 1.18-84.13), lower odds of complete remission status (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.06-0.65), and higher overall mortality (HR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.15-3.92). Inappropriate medication use (classified according to Beers criteria) was not significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Polypharmacy warrants further study as a modifiable marker of vulnerability among older adults with AML.
    Leukemia Research 10/2014; 38(10). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2014.06.018 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNMT3B encodes a DNA methyltransferase implicated in aberrant epigenetic changes contributing to leukemogenesis. We tested whether DNMT3B expression, measured by NanoString nCounter assay, associates with outcome, gene- and microRNA-expression and DNA methylation profiles in 210 older (⩾60 years) adults with primary, cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML). Patients were dichotomized into high versus low expressers using median cut. Outcomes were assessed in the context of known CN-AML prognosticators. Gene- and microRNA-expression, and DNA methylation profiles were analyzed using microarrays and MethylCap-sequencing, respectively. High DNMT3B expressers had fewer complete remissions (CR; P=0.002) and shorter disease-free (DFS; P=0.02) and overall (OS; P<0.001) survival. In multivariable analyses, high DNMT3B expression remained an independent predictor of lower CR rates (P=0.04) and shorter DFS (P=0.04) and OS (P=0.001). High DNMT3B expression associated with a gene-expression profile comprising 363 genes involved in differentiation, proliferation and survival pathways, but with only 4 differentially expressed microRNAs (miR-133b, miR-148a, miR-122, miR-409-3p) and no differential DNA methylation regions. We conclude that high DNMT3B expression independently associates with adverse outcome in older CN-AML patients. Gene-expression analyses suggest that DNMT3B is involved in the modulation of several genes, although the regulatory mechanisms remain to be investigated to devise therapeutic approaches specific for these patients.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 10 September 2014. doi:10.1038/leu.2014.267.
    Leukemia 09/2014; 29(3). DOI:10.1038/leu.2014.267 · 10.43 Impact Factor

  • Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia 09/2014; 14:S157. DOI:10.1016/j.clml.2014.06.101 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The lipoate derivative CPI-613 is a first-in-class agent that targets mitochondrial metabolism. This study determined the effects of CPI-613 on mitochondrial function and defined the MTD, pharmacokinetics, and safety in patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies. Experimental design: Human leukemia cell lines were exposed to CPI-613 and mitochondrial function was assayed. A phase I trial was conducted in which CPI-613 was given as a 2-hour infusion on days 1 and 4 for 3 weeks every 28 days. Results: CPI-613 inhibited mitochondrial respiration of human leukemia cells consistent with the proposed mechanism of action. In the phase I trial, 26 patients were enrolled. CPI-613 was well tolerated with no marrow suppression observed. When the infusion time was shortened to 1 hour, renal failure occurred in 2 patients. At 3,780 mg/m(2), there were two dose-limiting toxicities (DLT). At a dose of 2,940 mg/m(2) over 2 hours, no DLTs were observed, establishing this as the MTD. Renal failure occurred in a total of 4 patients and resolved in all but 1, who chose hospice care. CPI-613 has a triphasic elimination with an alpha half-life of approximately 1.34 hours. Of the 21 evaluable, heavily pretreated patients, 4 achieved an objective response and 2 achieved prolonged stabilization of disease for a clinical benefit rate of 29%. Following drug exposure, gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from responders demonstrated immune activation. Conclusion: CPI-613 inhibits mitochondrial function and demonstrates activity in a heavily pretreated cohort of patients.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2014; 20(20). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1019 · 8.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To improve long-term outcomes for Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL) or aggressive lymphomas in adults, we assessed the benefit of adding rituximab and filgrastim support to a dose-dense modified chemotherapy regimen from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9251 trial. One hundred and five patients (aged 19–79 years) were enrolled; 27% were >60 years old; 47% had high or high-intermediate risk by International Prognostic Index (IPI) criteria. Common severe toxicities included stomatitis/upper gastrointestinal toxicity (69%), renal insufficiency (10%), neurological events (25%) and pulmonary events (18%). Seven died from treatment-related causes (one central nervous system bleed, four infections, two respiratory failure); five were >60 years old. Results in this adult population are encouraging as complete response (CR) was observed in 83% and 4-year event-free (EFS) and overall survivals (OS) were 74% and 78%, respectively. Results compare favourably to our prior chemotherapy alone study (CALGB 9251) but despite this, high-risk patients still had worse outcomes. In conclusion, short duration, intensive chemo-immunotherapy is feasible and should be considered in adults with BL as it results in high remission rates and durable remissions.
    British Journal of Haematology 04/2014; 165(1). DOI:10.1111/bjh.12736 · 4.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) induces cellular cytotoxicity against leukemia blasts. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) may harbor minimal residual disease that is susceptible to rIL-2-activated effector cells. In the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 19808 study, patients with AML in first CR were randomly assigned after all planned chemotherapy to receive a 90-day course of subcutaneously administered rIL-2 or no further therapy. The primary objective was to compare disease-free survival (DFS) between the 2 treatment arms. A total of 534 patients achieved a CR, 214 of whom were randomized. Six courses of low-dose daily rIL-2 were given for the expansion of cytotoxic effector cells, each followed by 3-day high-dose boluses given to trigger cytotoxicity against minimal residual disease. On the protocol-specified intention-to-treat analysis, the hazards ratio for DFS was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.09; P = .13); the 5-year DFS rate was 42% in the observation arm and 53% in the rIL-2 treatment arm. The hazards ratio for overall survival (OS) was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.23; P = .34); the 5-year OS rate was 58% for the observation arm and 63% for the rIL-2 treatment arm. Twenty-five of the 107 patients randomized to treatment with rIL-2 either refused or were unable to initiate therapy and 30 patients did not complete their assigned therapy. However, significant toxicities were not commonly observed. The trial design did not anticipate the difficulties patients would encounter with protocol compliance. The efficacy of immunotherapy with rIL-2 administered after intensive postremission treatment was not assessed as planned because of unexpected refusals by patients and/or their physicians to comply with protocol-directed therapy. Neither DFS nor OS was found to be significantly improved. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 04/2014; 120(7). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28516 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemia is one of the leading journals in hematology and oncology. It is published monthly and covers all aspects of the research and treatment of leukemia and allied diseases. Studies of normal hemopoiesis are covered because of their comparative relevance.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 03/2014; 28(8). DOI:10.1038/leu.2014.114 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aa total of 105 patients (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed low or intermediate risk acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) were treated with a standard induction and consolidation regimen including arsenic trioxide (ATO). Sixty-eight patients who were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative for PML-RARA post-consolidation were randomized to either 1 year of maintenance with tretinoin, mercaptopurine and methotrexate, or observation. Enrollment in this non-inferiority trial was stopped prematurely due to slow accrual. With a median follow up of 36·1 months, the overall survival of the 105 patients was 93%, and there have been no relapses in the patients randomized to maintenance or observation. These results demonstrate that cures can be expected in >90% of patients with low and intermediate risk APL and suggest that maintenance therapy may not be needed if patients are treated with an intensive post-remission regimen including ATO. This trial was registered at as #NCT00492856.
    British Journal of Haematology 02/2014; 165(4). DOI:10.1111/bjh.12775 · 4.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular risk stratification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is largely based on genetic markers. However, epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, deregulate gene expression and may also have prognostic impact. We evaluated the clinical relevance of integrating DNA methylation and genetic information in AML. Next-generation sequencing analysis of methylated DNA identified differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with prognostic mutations in older (≥ 60 years) cytogenetically normal (CN) patients with AML (n = 134). Genes with promoter DMRs and expression levels significantly associated with outcome were used to compute a prognostic gene expression weighted summary score that was tested and validated in four independent patient sets (n = 355). In the training set, we identified seven genes (CD34, RHOC, SCRN1, F2RL1, FAM92A1, MIR155HG, and VWA8) with promoter DMRs and expression associated with overall survival (OS; P ≤ .001). Each gene had high DMR methylation and lower expression, which were associated with better outcome. A weighted summary expression score of the seven gene expression levels was computed. A low score was associated with a higher complete remission (CR) rate and longer disease-free survival and OS (P < .001 for all end points). This was validated in multivariable models and in two younger (< 60 years) and two older independent sets of patients with CN-AML. Considering the seven genes individually, the fewer the genes with high expression, the better the outcome. Younger and older patients with no genes or one gene with high expression had the best outcomes (CR rate, 94% and 87%, respectively; 3-year OS, 80% and 42%, respectively). A seven-gene score encompassing epigenetic and genetic prognostic information identifies novel AML subsets that are meaningful for treatment guidance.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2013; 32(6). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2013.50.6337 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging data demonstrate important roles for the TYRO3/AXL/MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase (TAM RTK) family in diverse cancers. We investigated the prognostic relevance of GAS6 expression, encoding the common TAM RTK ligand, in 270 adults (n=71 aged <60 years; n=199 aged 60 years) with de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients expressing GAS6 (GAS6+), especially those aged 60 years, more often failed to achieve a complete remission (CR). In all patients, GAS6+ patients had shorter disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survival than patients without GAS6 expression (GAS6-). After adjusting for other prognostic markers, GAS6+ predicted CR failure (P=0.02), shorter DFS (P=0.004) and OS (P=0.04). To gain further biologic insights, we derived a GAS6-associated gene-expression signature (P<0.001) that in GAS6+ patients included overexpressed BAALC and MN1, known to confer adverse prognosis in CN-AML, and overexpressed CXCL12, encoding stromal cell-derived factor, and its receptor genes, CXCR4 and CXCR7. This study reports for the first time that GAS6 expression is an adverse prognostic marker in CN-AML. Although GAS6 decoy receptors are not yet available in the clinic for GAS6+ CN-AML therapy, potential alternative therapies targeting GAS6+-associated pathways, e.g., CXCR4 antagonists may be considered for GAS6+ patients to sensitize them to chemotherapy.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 11 December 2013. doi:10.1038/leu.2013.371.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 12/2013; 28(6). DOI:10.1038/leu.2013.371 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The addition of arsenic trioxide (ATO) to frontline therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been shown to result in significant improvements in disease-free survival (DFS). FLT3 mutations are frequently observed in APL but its prognostic significance remains unclear. We analyzed 245 newly diagnosed adult patients with APL treated on intergroup trial C9710 and evaluated previously defined biological and prognostic factors and their relationship to FLT3 mutations and to additional karyotypic abnormalities. FLT3 mutations were found in 48% of patients, including 31% with an internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), 14% with a point mutation (FLT3-D835) and 2% with both mutations. The FLT3-ITD mutant level was uniformly low, <0.5. Neither FLT3 mutations had an impact on remission rate, induction death rate, DFS or overall survival (OS). The addition of ATO consolidation improved outcomes regardless of FLT3 mutation type or level, initial white blood cell count, PML-RARA isoform type or transcript level. The presence of a complex karyotype was strongly associated with an inferior OS independently of post-remission treatment. In conclusion, the addition of ATO to frontline therapy overcomes the impact of previously described adverse prognostic factors including FLT3 mutations. However, complex karyotype is strongly associated with an inferior OS despite ATO therapy.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 10/2013; 55(7). DOI:10.3109/10428194.2013.842985 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hypomethylating agents (HAs), azacitidine and decitabine, have emerged as an alternative to initial and salvage therapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Little is known about how AML responds to hypomethylating agents after standard therapy, and the activity of these agents in a real-world setting is not well studied. We retrospectively examined data for 75 consecutive AML patients at Wake Forest from 2002 to 2011 treated with HAs either as first-line (n = 34), salvage (n = 28), or consolidation (n = 13) therapy. We collected data on age, gender, race, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), cytogenetics, type of treatment, complete remission (CR), complete remission with incomplete count recovery (CRi), and survival. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. Frontline response rate (CR + CRi) was 26.5 %, and median overall survival (OS) was 3.4 months (95 % CI 1.3-7.4), with 18 % alive at 1 year. In the salvage cohort, the response rate was significantly lower compared to frontline (3.6 versus 26.5 %, p = 0.017). Despite the reduced response, OS from time of HA treatment was longer than frontline at 8.2 months (CI 4.8-10.3). In the consolidation cohort, OS was 13.8 months (CI 8.0-21.6) with one patient in remission more than 30 months from diagnosis. These data suggest that prior cytotoxic therapy decreases marrow response rates to HAs but not survival. Furthermore, use of hypomethylating agents for consolidation resulted in a median overall survival over 1 year in a cohort of older patients. This suggests that hypomethylating agents have activity in all phases of AML treatment.
    Annals of Hematology 10/2013; 93(1). DOI:10.1007/s00277-013-1940-9 · 2.63 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,699.90 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2002-2014
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • • Section on Hematology and Oncology
      • • Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Cancer Biology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 1987-2014
    • Wake Forest University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Hematology and Oncology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Dermatology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2002-2013
    • The Ohio State University
      • • The James Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2001-2011
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 2010
    • Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1999
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      • Department of Medicine
      Buffalo, New York, United States
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Greenebaum Cancer Center
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 1995
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1993
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1986
    • Winston-Salem State University
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States