Hideaki Suda

Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (170)275.43 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to guide and identify pulp exposure using an erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Background data: The Er:YAG laser has been proven to be effective in ablating dental hard tissue and offers advantages, as there is none of the vibration and noise you get with conventional methods, but it has limitations in relation to the tactile feedback that would aid in identification of entry into the pulp chamber. Based on depth-resolved optical reflectivity, OCT technology has been developed to provide high-resolution, cross-sectional images of the internal structure of biological tissues. Materials and methods: The pulp chambers of 20 human mandibular incisors were examined, and the average thickness of hard tissue covering the pulp chamber was assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images. An Er:YAG laser was used to gradually penetrate the hard tissue over the pulp chamber under microscopic guidance. The preparation was constantly imaged using a swept-source OCT at 10 sec intervals until a pulp chamber exposure was identified using the technology. The pulp exposure was re-examined under the microscope and compared with micro-CT images for verification. Results: The pulp exposures of 20 incisors were all verified microscopically and with micro-CT images. The thickness of hard tissue penetrated by the laser ranged from 0.44 to 1.69 mm. Conclusions: Swept-source OCT is a useful tool for identifying pulp exposure during access opening with the Er: YAG laser.
    Photomedicine and laser surgery. 06/2014; 32(6):356-359.
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    ABSTRACT: The dental pulp tissue is encased in hard tissue and surrounded by hard tissue-forming cells, but remains in a non-mineralized state itself, suggesting the presence of regulatory mechanisms precluding pulp mineralization. This study aimed to reveal the regulatory function of periostin (Postn), which is essential for osteoblast differentiation, for odontoblast differentiation/mineralization. We evaluated the effects of Postn overexpression and RNAi-mediated suppression in mouse dental papilla cells (MDPs) on the expression of odontoblastic markers and Notch signaling molecules, and on the formation of mineralized nodules. Localization of Postn in the dental pulp tissue of normal and cavity-prepared molars was observed immunohistologically. Enforced overexpression of Postn in MDPs induced down-regulation of odontoblastic markers and in vitro mineralization. Conversely, silencing of Postn mRNA in MDPs induced up-regulation of odontoblastic markers and ALP activity. Up- and down-regulation of Postn caused increased and decreased expression, respectively, of Notch signaling molecules. Postn expression was minimal in normal dental pulp, but was rapidly and globally increased in the whole pulp tissue of molar teeth at 1 day after cavity preparation, decreasing thereafter. These results indicate that Postn may be a negative regulator of odontoblast differentiation/mineralization, and that may exert its actions via Notch signals.
    Odontology 03/2014; · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate effects of torsional loading on the mechanical properties of endodontic instruments using the nanoindentation technique. ProFile (PF; size 30, taper 04; Dentsply Maillefer, Switzerland) and stainless steel (SS; size 30, taper 02; Mani, Japan) instruments were subjected to torsional test. Nanoindentation was then performed adjacent to the edge of fracture (edge) and at the cutting part beside the shank (shank). Hardness and elastic modulus were measured under 100-mN force on 100 locations at each region, and compared to those obtained from the same regions on new instruments. It showed that PF and SS instruments failed at 559 ± 67 and 596 ± 73 rotation degrees and mean maximum torque of 0.90 ± 0.07 and 0.99 ± 0.05 N-cm, respectively. Hardness and elastic modulus ranged 4.8-6.7 and 118-339 GPa in SS, and 2.7-3.2 and 52-81 GPa in PF. Significant differences between torsion-fractured and new instruments in hardness and elastic modulus were detected in the SS system used. While in PF system, the edge region after torsional fracture had significantly lower hardness and elastic modulus compared to new instruments. The local hardness and modulus of elasticity of endodontic instruments adjacent to the fracture edge are significantly reduced by torsional loading. SCANNING 9999:1-7, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Scanning 03/2014; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) spheroid culture is a method for creating 3D aggregations of cells and their extracellular matrix without a scaffold mimicking the actual tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3D spheroid culture on the phenotype of immortalized mouse dental papilla cells (MDPs) that have the ability to differentiate into odontoblasts. We cultured MDPs for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days in 96-well low-attachment culture plates for 3D spheroid culture or flat-bottomed plates for two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by immunohistochemical staining of Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3, respectively. Hypoxia was measured by the hypoxia probe LOX-1. Odonto/osteoblastic differentiation marker gene expression was evaluated by quantitative PCR. We also determined mineralized nodule formation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and dentine matrix protein-1 (DMP1) expression. Vinculin and integrin signalling-related proteins were detected immunohistochemically. Odonto/osteoblastic marker gene expression and mineralized nodule formation were significantly up-regulated in 3D spheroid-cultured MDPs compared with those in 2D monolayer-cultured MDPs (p<0.05). Histologically, 3D spheroid colonies consisted of two compartments: a cell-dense peripheral zone and cell-sparse core zone. Proliferating cells with high ALP activity and DMP1 expression were found mainly in the peripheral zone that also showed strong expression of vinculin and integrin signalling-related proteins. In contrast, apoptotic and hypoxic cells were detected in the core zone. 3D spheroid culture promotes odonto/osteoblastic differentiation of MDPs, which may be mediated by integrin signalling.
    Archives of oral biology 03/2014; 59(3):310-7. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 is a member of the MMP family that degrades the extracellular matrix. Application of MMP-3 to injured pulp tissue induces angiogenesis and wound healing, but its anti-inflammatory effects are still unclear. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory functions of MMP-3 in vitro and in vivo. Methods Nitric oxide and inflammatory mediator synthesis in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in the presence or absence of MMP-3. The mouse Mmp3 (mMmp3) expression vector containing full length cDNA sequence of mMmp3 or cDNA sequence of mMmp3 missing the signal peptide and pro-peptide regions was transfected to RAW264, a mouse macrophage cell line, and NO synthesis and inflammatory mediator expression were evaluated. Pulpal inflammation was histologically and immunohistochemically evaluated in a rat model of incisor pulpitis induced by the application of LPS for 9 hours in the presence or absence of MMP-3. Results NO and pro-inflammatory mediator synthesis promoted by LPS was significantly down-regulated by MMP-3 in vitro. The full length of mMmp3 down-regulated the LPS-induced NO synthesis and chemical mediator mRNA expression, however the mMmp3 missing the signal peptide failed to block the NO synthesis induced by LPS. The numbers of major histocompatibility complex class II+ and CD68+ cells, which infiltrated into the rat incisor pulp tissues in response to the topical application of LPS, were significantly decreased by the application of MMP-3 in vivo. Conclusions These results indicate that MMP-3 possesses anti-inflammatory functions, suggesting its potential utility as an anti-inflammatory agent for pulpal inflammation.
    Journal of Endodontics. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of cyclic fatigue on bending properties of NiTi endodontic instruments were investigated. Sixteen Profiles(®) were divided into two groups (A, and B). The sequence of cantilever bending test and cyclic fatigue test was alternated repeatedly until file separation occurred. In the cyclic fatigue test, the instrument curvature was 19° in group A and 38° in group B. Fractographic examination was performed to determine fracture patterns. In group A, there were significant differences between the bending load values measured before the cyclic fatigue test and the last cantilever bending test before instrument fracture at each deflection (p<0.05). Fractographic examination showed the specific patterns of cyclic fatigue fracture. The stress required to induce martensitic transformation might be reduced due to the softening behavior caused by the cyclic fatigue under the relaxation condition of the superelasticity range (group A). The SEM images were able to display specific patterns indicating cyclic fatigue fracture.
    Dental Materials Journal 01/2014; 33(4):539-44. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of Ni-Ti file materials. Ni-Ti wire (1.00 mm ø) was processed into a conical shape with 0.30-mm diameter tip and 0.06 taper. Specimens were heated for 30 min at 300, 400, 450, 500 or 600°C. Non-heated specimens were used as controls. DSC, a cantilever-bending test and cyclic fatigue test were performed. Ms and Af for groups 400 and 450 were higher than those for others (p<0.05). The load/deflection ratios of groups 400, 450 and 500 were lower than that of group 600 (p<0.05). The bending load values at 2.0-mm deflection of groups 400, 450 and 500 were lower than those of group 300 and the control group (p<0.05). The NCFs of groups 400, 450 and 500 exceeded that of group 600(p<0.05). Changes in flexibility with heat treatment could improve the cyclic fatigue properties of Ni-Ti instruments.
    Dental Materials Journal 01/2014; 33(1):27-31. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Th17-related cytokines are essential factors in various pathological states, including inflammatory bone destruction. This study investigated the contribution of Th17-related cytokines to the progress of experimentally induced rat periapical lesions. Periapical pathoses were induced by unsealed exposure of the pulp chamber of the lower first molars. A variety of immunocompetent cells, including CD68(+) macrophages, Ia antigen(+) cells and TCRαβ(+) T cells, were observed in the lesions. The expression levels of Th17-related cytokines, IL-17 and IL-23, and of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6, were significantly increased at 14 days (expansion stage) compared with normal periapical tissues. The expression levels of Foxp3, a regulatory T cell (Treg)-related gene, and of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, were higher at 28 days (chronic stage) than at 14 days. These findings suggest that Th17-related cytokines may be primary contributors to the initiation of periapical bone destruction, and that lesion expansion may be regulated by anti-inflammatory mediators.
    Australian Endodontic Journal 12/2013; 39(3):164-70. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nickel-titanium files often separate because of mechanical fatigue. The purpose of this study was to determine safe preparation techniques for separated file removal by using ultrasonics. Fifty nickel-titanium file fragments were divided into 5 groups. An ultrasonic tip was activated on a file fragment positioned between dentin blocks simulating several canal conditions: Group 1 consisted of the fragment protruding from a pair of straight dentin blocks. For group 2, the fragment was also positioned between 2 straight dentin blocks except one block was positioned 1 mm more apically than the other block, simulating a troughed area that is often created during file removal attempts. For groups 3-5, the fragment was positioned similarly as group 2 but between blocks with 30°, 45°, and 60° curvatures, respectively. The time it took for secondary fracture to occur was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. Fragments with dentin wall supporting on the opposite side of ultrasonic activation site resisted fracture significantly longer than those without it. Fragments in 30° and 45° curved blocks took significantly longer to fracture than the other groups (Fisher protected least significant difference, P < .05). Secondary fracture of separated files appeared to be reduced when the ultrasonic tip was applied to the inner curvature of the canal.
    Journal of endodontics 10/2013; 39(10):1300-5. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital anomalies of wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) integration site family (Wnt) are frequently accompanied with tooth and dentin abnormality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Wnt signaling on odontoblast differentiation of mouse dental papilla cells (MDPs). Mouse dental papilla cells were cultured in α-modified minimum essential medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics. Odontoblast differentiation was induced by bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2), and the expression of odontoblast-specific markers and Wnt-related signaling molecules was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Odontoblast differentiation was evaluated by dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) and dentin matrix protein (DMP) 1 expression. Localization of β-catenin in MDPs was detected by immunocytochemistry using an anti-β-catenin antibody. Dspp expression in MDPs was upregulated in the presence of BMP2. Wnt5a, Wnt11, Lef1 and Tcf4 expression was upregulated in BMP2-treated MDPs. Wnt11 expression was detected in rat dental pulp in vivo, and particularly strong expression of Wnt11 was detected in odontoblasts. Enhanced Dspp and DMP1 expression and alkaline phosphatase activity induced by BMP2 were completely negated by the Wnt antagonist: IWR-1-endo treatment. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin observed in BMP2-treated MDPs was also negated by IWR-1-endo treatment. These results indicate that Wnt signaling upregulates odontoblast marker expression in MDPs, suggesting a promoting effect of Wnt signaling on odontoblast differentiation.
    Congenital Anomalies 09/2013; 53(3):101-8.
  • Ying Li, Hideharu Ikeda, Hideaki Suda
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The size of the functional space available for hydrodynamic fluid movement between cellular components and the walls of dentinal tubules has not yet been investigated. We attempted to measure the space using small diameter fluorescent microspheres. METHODS: The coronal enamel of 144 rat molars was removed to expose the dentine, which was acid-etched. Fluorescent microspheres of different diameters (0.02-4.0μm) were applied to the exposed dentine for 60min before the rat jaws were cut into cryostat sections. The distribution and fluorescent intensities of the fluorescent microspheres were examined with confocal laser scanning microscope and analyzed using image analysis software. RESULTS: Microspheres with a diameter of 2.0-4.0μm were detected only on the surface of the cavities. A small number of microspheres with a diameter of 1.0μm accumulated primarily in the outer third of the dentine. Microspheres with a diameter of 0.2-0.5μm were found in the outer and middle thirds of the dentine. Microspheres with a diameter of 0.02-0.1μm accumulated in the middle and occasionally inner thirds of the dentine. Some of the microspheres measuring 0.02-0.04μm in diameter reached the dental pulp. CONCLUSIONS: The dentinal tubules in the inner third of the rat coronal dentine may have a space less than 0.1μm through which dentinal fluid can move, despite outward tapering of the dentinal tubules. Retrograde tapering may increase the pressure in the inner third of the dentine layer, and this elevated pressure may contribute to mechanical deformation of the content in the dentinal tubules.
    Archives of oral biology 07/2013; 58(7):780-787. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently reported that the signal of pulp injury induces both neuronal and glial cell activation in the contralateral thalamus in rats, although the mechanisms of the glial cell/neuronal interaction remain unclear. This study was undertaken to test our hypothesis that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are involved in the pulp injury-induced glial cell/neuronal interaction in the thalamus. A local anesthetic (lidocaine with epinephrine) or saline (control) was injected into the tissue surrounding the left mandibular first molar of Wistar rats. The tooth was then pulp-exposed, and the cavity was sealed with flowable composite. After 0 (normal pulp with local anesthetic or saline pretreatment), 24, and 72 hours, the contralateral side of thalamus was retrieved and subjected to immunohistochemistry for phospho-p38 MAPK and glial fibrillary acidic protein and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of p38-MAPK family (MAPK 13 and MAPK 14) mRNAs. The area immunopositive to phospho-p38 MAPK increased until 72 hours after pulp exposure in both local anesthetic-pretreated and saline-pretreated animals, but the rate of increase was lower in the local anesthetic-pretreated animals. The density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing astrocytes showed a significant increase only in the saline-pretreated animals. Expression levels of MAPK 13 and MAPK 14 mRNAs increased at 24 hours and still higher at 72 hours in the saline-pretreated animals. Notably, MAPK 13 and MAPK 14 mRNA levels at 24 and 72 hours in the local anesthetic-pretreated animals showed significantly lower levels than those in the saline-pretreated animals. It was concluded that pulp injury-induced up-regulation of MAPK 13, MAPK 14, and phospho-p38 MAPK in the thalamus was suppressed by the local anesthetic pretreatment, suggesting the involvement of p38 MAPK signaling pathways in the glial cell-neuronal interaction induced by pulpal nociception.
    Journal of endodontics 04/2013; 39(4):488-92. · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • H Ikeda, H Suda
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported a dye-coupling network between odontoblasts (OBs). However, it is still unclear how the information detected by the odontoblasts is transmitted. The aim of this study was to characterize the odontoblastic syncytium electrophysiologically in the human dental pulp. Pulpal cells were freshly isolated from human premolars immediately after extraction. Under a light microscope, coupled or small clusters (3-20) of odontoblasts, each of which had a monopolar process (95-280 µm) and an oval cell body, were easily observed to be lined up in parallel. Cells were used for electrophysiological recording within 3 hrs in the dual patch-clamp configuration. Electrical couplings were found between odontoblasts (37/40 pairs). Voltage gating showed directional independence between pairs of odontoblasts. The time constant to a current decay increased with the number of clustered odontoblasts. Nine of 37 pairs isolated from young patients were electrically coupled, but could not be voltage-clamped. Transjunctional currents were blocked by octanol. These results suggest that odontoblasts form a syncytium that is directionally independent via symmetric gap junction channels in the odontoblastic layer. Young odontoblasts with a high electrical conductance to neighboring cells may be related to high potential of information transmission or calcification.
    Journal of dental research 02/2013; · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate coronal leakage after obturation with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), resin-based sealer, and silicon-based sealer for open apical foramina and to evaluate pathway of leakage. Twenty-eight maxillary premolars were used, and instrumented to ISO size #80. Teeth were randomly divided into four groups as follows: Group A filled with MTA, Group B with gutta-percha and resin-based sealer, Group C with polymer-based material and resin-based sealer, and Group D with gutta-percha and silicon-based sealer. All samples were evaluated for coronal leakage with methylene blue solution and spectrophotometry. After leakage testing, samples were cut, and sections were observed. Dye leakage of Group A was significantly lowest among all groups at 15 days and 30 days. Defects which induced coronal leakage in resin-based sealer were observed at 7 mm from the apex. Coronal leakage after obturation with MTA for open apical foramina was significantly lower than resin-based sealer and silicon-based sealer.
    Dental Materials Journal 01/2013; 32(1):130-137. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: To evaluate the potential effects of endodontic procedures (instrumentation and filling) on crack initiation and propagation in apical dentine. METHODOLOGY: Forty extracted single-rooted premolars with two canals were selected, 1.5 mm of the apex was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and the surface polished. The specimens were divided into 4 groups. The buccal canals of groups A, B and C were enlarged to size 40 with manual K-files. Group A was filled with gutta-percha using lateral condensation and vertical compaction without sealer. Group B was filled with the same method as group A except only lateral condensation was used. Group C was left unfilled, while group D was left unprepared and unfilled. Images of the resected surface were taken after resection (baseline), after canal preparation, after filling and after 4-week storage. The images were then inspected for cracks originating from the canal. RESULTS: A significant effect of preparation on crack initiation (P < 0.05) and no significant effect of filling (P > 0.05) or 4-week storage on crack initiation (P > 0.05) was found (logistic regression). Fisher's exact test revealed a significant effect of filling on crack propagation (P < 0.05) and no effect of 4-week storage on crack propagation (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Root canal procedures can potentially initiate and propagate cracks from within the root canal in the apical region.
    International Endodontic Journal 12/2012; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) with the existing technologies, to assess its accuracy and utility in detecting vertical root fractures of extracted human teeth. Background data: The detection of root fractures in teeth that have undergone root canal treatment is challenging because of the great difficulty in differentiating these fractures from morphologic or radiographic anomalies. OCT methods are based on depth-resolved optical reflectivity and have been developed to reduce the invasiveness and radiation exposure inherent to other techniques. Methods: Twelve extracted human mandibular teeth (totaling 25 roots) that were free of caries, calculus, and root treatment were used, and assessed by microfocus computed tomography, the current gold standard for fracture detection. The ability of appropriately trained observers to detect root fractures using visual, microscopic, and swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) techniques were compared. micro-CT and SS-OCT produce three-dimensional images of the tooth from which to diagnose fractures, but CT scanning involves radiation exposure that is not required in SS-OCT. Results: Seventeen of the 25 roots were found to have fractures by microfocus CT. These findings were replicated by SS-OCT, which revealed fractures exhibiting identical origin, size, and angulation within the root. We found that SS-OCT gave results compatible to the gold standard technique, and that SS-OCT and microscopy were more effective for identifying root fractures than was visual observation alone. Conclusions: SS-OCT may represent a novel, noninvasive, noncontact and nonexposure alternative to the conventional methods used for assessing root fractures in teeth.
    Photomedicine and laser surgery 12/2012; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS), a bilayered epithelial cell sheath located at the cervical loop of the enamel organ in a developing tooth, is at the forefront of root formation. However, little is known about the exact mechanisms that regulate the development of HERS. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is involved in the development of various tissues and cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of VIP in HERS development. VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were found in the dental pulp and around the root apex of the tooth, while the expression of VIP receptor 1 (VPAC1) was observed in HERS. The expression level of VPAC1 correlated with the development of HERS and was elevated at postnatal days 14 and 21. Using ex vivo cultures of neonatal tooth germs, VIP enhanced the elongation and proliferation of HERS. In vitro, VIP also promoted the proliferation of cells from the HERS-derived cell line, HERS01a cells, and upregulated the mRNA expression of cytokeratin 14 and vimentin (typical molecular markers of HERS) in these cells. These results suggest that VIP may be an essential factor for HERS development.
    Congenital Anomalies 09/2012; 52(3):162-7.
  • Hideharu Ikeda, Hideaki Suda
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the present study were to quantitatively evaluate chemical permeability through human enamel/dentine using conductometry and to clarify if alternating current (AC) iontophoresis facilitates such permeability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electrical impedance of different concentrations of lidocaine hydrochloride was measured using a bipolar platinum impedance probe. A quadratic curve closely fitted to the response functions between conductance and lidocaine hydrochloride. For analysis of the passage of lidocaine hydrochloride through human enamel/dentine, eight premolars that were extracted for orthodontic treatment were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction. The tooth crowns were held between two chambers with a double O-ring. The enamel-side chamber was filled with lidocaine hydrochloride, and the pulp-side chamber was filled with extrapure water. Two platinum plate electrodes were set at the end of each chamber to pass alternating current. A simulated interstitial pulp pressure was applied to the pulp-side chamber. The change in the concentration of lidocaine hydrochloride in the pulp-side chamber was measured every 2min using a platinum recording probe positioned at the centre of the pulp-side chamber. Passive entry without iontophoresis was used as a control. RESULTS: The level of lidocaine hydrochloride that passed through enamel/dentine against the dentinal fluid flow increased with time. Electrical conductance (G, mho) correlated closely to the concentration (x, mmol/L) of lidocaine hydrochloride (G=2.16x(2)+0.0289x+0.000376, r(2)=0.999). CONCLUSIONS: Lidocaine hydrochloride can pass through enamel/dentine. Conductometry showed that the level of lidocaine hydrochloride that passed through enamel/dentine was increased by AC iontophoresis.
    Archives of oral biology 08/2012; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degree of Er:YAG laser irradiation at the apical area in vitro. Since the laser was developed, advancement of laser treatment has been seen in various fields. However, few reports exist on shaping of the root canal using Er:YAG laser irradiation. Six single-rooted human teeth were used. The working length of root canals was set at 6.5 mm, and they were enlarged to apical file size #25. An Er:YAG laser and cone-shaped irradiation tips (R135T and R200T) were used. Laser irradiation conditions were 30 m J, 20 pps, and water flow of 5 mL/min. Samples were irradiated three times for 10 sec each using each tip. To evaluate the cutting degree of horizontal area of the root canal, the laser-irradiated surfaces were observed using microfocus X-ray computed tomographic photography before and after every irradiation. The samples were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Measurement of pixels in an area was performed by image-editing software (Adobe Photoshop 7.0). Statistical analysis was performed using StatView (version 5.0). One-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer tests were used; p<0.05 indicated statistical significance. When root canals were irradiated with R200T for 10 sec (p<0.05), a large amount of evaporation (0.12 ± 1.07 mm(2)) was acquired in their cut area compared with the other irradiation conditions. In scanning electron microscopic observation, there was no smear layer and the dentinal tubules were open. When the distance between the tip and root dentin was adjacent, the shaping of root dentin by Er:YAG laser irradiation was definitely observed.
    Photomedicine and laser surgery 06/2012; 30(7):367-73. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In conventional whole-tooth culture systems, limitation exists regarding maintenance of the vitality of the dental pulp, because this tissue is encased in rigid dentin walls that hinder nutrition supply. We here report a whole tooth-in-jaw-bone culture system of rat mandibular first molars, where transcardiac perfusion with culture medium was carried out before placement of the jaw bone into culture medium, aiming to facilitate longer time preservation of the dental pulp tissue. Following 7 days of culture, the pulp tissues were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry to ED2 (antiresident macrophage). ED2-positive macrophages were also analyzed for their Class II MHC, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and p53 mRNA expression levels by means of immune-laser capture microdissection (immune-LCM). Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) mRNA expression in odontobalstic layer was also examined by LCM. Teeth cultured following saline-perfusion and nonperfusion served as cultured controls. Normal teeth also served as noncultured controls. Histological examination demonstrated that the structure of the pulp tissue was well preserved in the medium-perfused explants in contrast to the cultured control groups. The Class II MHC, IL-6, and p53 mRNA expression levels of ED2-positive cells and DSPP expression levels of odontoblastic layer tissues in the pulp of medium-perfused explants were not significantly different from those in the noncultured normal teeth. In conclusion, the structural integrity and mRNA expression in the pulp were maintained at the in vivo level in the ex vivo whole tooth-in-jaw-bone culture system. The system may lay the foundation for studies aiming at defining further histological and molecular mechanism of the pulp. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Microscopy Research and Technique 05/2012; 75(10):1341-7. · 1.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
275.43 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2014
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • • Division of Oral Health Sciences
      • • Department of Restorative Sciences
      • • Faculty of Dentistry
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2013
    • Capital Medical University
      • School of Stomatology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2012
    • Universidad Nacional de Asunción
      San Lorenzo del Campo Grande, Central, Paraguay
    • Iwate Medical University
      • Department of Anatomy
      Morioka, Iwate, Japan
    • Chulalongkorn University
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2011
    • Niigata University
      • Division of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Endodontics
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
  • 2010–2011
    • Fourth Military Medical University
      • School of Stomatology
      Xi’an, Liaoning, China
  • 2005
    • Naresuan University
      • Faculty of Dentistry
      Phitsanulok, Changwat Phitsanulok, Thailand