[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular phylogenies using 1–4 gene regions and information on ecology, morphology and pigment chemistry were used in a partial revision of the agaric family Hygro-phoraceae. The phylogenetically supported genera we recognize here in the Hygrophoraceae based on these and previous anal-yses are: Acantholichen,
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arguably more mycophiles hunt true morels (Morchella) during their brief fruiting season each spring in the northern hemisphere than any other wild edible fungus. Concerns about overharvesting by individual collectors and commercial enterprises make it essential that science-based management practices and conservation policies are developed to ensure thesustainability of commercial harvests and to protect and preserve morel species diversity. Therefore, the primary objectives of the present study were to: (i) investigate the utility of the ITS rDNA locus for identifying Morchella species, using phylogenetic species previously inferred from multilocus DNA sequence data as a reference; and (ii) clarify insufficiently identified sequences and determine whether the named sequences in GenBank were identified correctly. To this end, we generated 553 Morchella ITS rDNA sequences and downloaded 312 additional ones generated by other researchers from GenBank using emerencia and analyzed them phylogenetically. Three major findings emerged: (i) ITS rDNA sequences were useful in identifying 48/62 (77.4%) of the known phylospecies; however, they failed to identify 12 of the22 species within the species-rich Elata Subclade and two closely related species in the Esculenta Clade; (ii) at least 66% of the named Morchella sequences in GenBank are misidentified; and (iii) ITS rDNA sequences of up to six putatively novel Morchella species were represented inGenBank. Recognizing the need for a dedicated Web-accessible reference database to facilitate the rapid identification of known and novel species, we constructed Morchella MLST(http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/morchella/), which can be queried with ITS rDNA sequences and those of the four other genes used in our prior multilocus molecular systematic studies of thischarismatic genus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed the existence of at least 50 species of Morchella worldwide and demonstrated a high degree of continental endemism within the genus. Here we describe 19 phylogenetic species of Morchella from North America, 14 of which are new (M. diminutiva, M. virginiana, M. esculentoides, M. prava, M. cryptica, M. frustrata, M. populiphila, M. sextelata, M. septimelata, M. capitata, M. importuna, M. snyderi, M. brunnea and M. septentrionalis). Existing species names (M. rufobrunnea, M. tomentosa, M. punctipes and M. angusticeps) are applied to four phylogenetic species, and formal description of one species (M. sp. "Mel-8") is deferred pending study of additional material. Methods for assessing morphological features in Morchella are delineated, and a key to the known phylogenetic species of Morchella in North America is provided. Type studies of M. crassistipa, M. hotsonii, M. angusticeps and M. punctipes are provided. Morchella crassistipa is designated nomen dubium.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The woodwasp Sirex noctilio F. is invading North American forests, where it will interact with a large guild of pine-inhabiting beetles and their associated fungi. The woodwasp's obligate fungal symbiont, Amylostereum areolatum (Fries) Boidin (Stereaceae), plays an essential role in the wasp's larval development but is expected to be a poor competitor in the presence of fungi vectored by co-occurring insects. We examined the outcomes of competitive interactions between A. areolatum and two fungal species vectored by bark beetles, Leptographium wingfieldii Morelet (Ophiostomataceae) and Ophiostoma minus (Hedgcock) H. and P. Sydow (Ophiostomataceae), and the effect of temperature and substrate on these interactions. Beetle-associated fungi were usually able to capture more uncolonized resource than A. areolatum regardless of substrate or temperature. Amylostereum areolatum was able to colonize relatively more space in some cases but could not gain substrate already colonized by the ophiostomatoid competitor. These findings suggest that competitive interactions between beetle-vectored fungal species and A. areolatum could influence the reproductive fitness and distribution of S. noctilio within individual trees and also across a wide geographic area.
The Canadian Entomologist 06/2011; 143(03). · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA barcoding is an approach to rapidly identify species using short, standard genetic markers. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) has been proposed as the universal barcode locus, but its utility for barcoding in mushrooms (ca. 20,000 species) has not been established. We succeeded in generating 167 partial COI sequences (~450 bp) representing ~100 morphospecies from ~650 collections of Agaricomycotina using several sets of new primers. Large introns (~1500 bp) at variable locations were detected in ~5% of the sequences we obtained. We suspect that widespread presence of large introns is responsible for our low PCR success (~30%) with this locus. We also sequenced the nuclear internal transcribed spacer rDNA regions (ITS) to compare with COI. Among the small proportion of taxa for which COI could be sequenced, COI and ITS perform similarly as a barcode. However, in a densely sampled set of closely related taxa, COI was less divergent than ITS and failed to distinguish all terminal clades. Given our results and the wealth of ITS data already available in public databases, we recommend that COI be abandoned in favor of ITS as the primary DNA barcode locus in mushrooms.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e25081. · 3.73 Impact Factor