[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorders, in which oxidative stress plays an important role. The present study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid -enriched phospholipids (EPA-enriched PL) from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa on oxidative injury in PC12 cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). We also studied the effect of EPA-enriched PL on learning and memory functions in senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) in vivo. Pretreatment with EPA-enriched PL resulted in an enhancement of survival in a dose-dependent manner in H2O2 or t-BHP damaged PC12 cells. EPA-enriched PL pretreatment could also reduce the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increase the intracellular total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity compared with the H2O2 or t-BHP group. The down-regulated Bcl-2 mRNA level and up-regulated Bax, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3 mRNA expression induced by H2O2 or t-BHP could be restored by EPA-enriched PL pretreatment. These results demonstrated that EPA-enriched PL exhibited its neuroprotective effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity, which might be achieved by inhibiting the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. The neuroprotective effect of EPA-enriched PL was also verified in vivo test: the EPA-enriched PL administration prevented the development of learning and memory impairments in SAMP8 mice. Our results indicated that EPA-enriched PL could offer an efficient and novel strategy to explore novel drugs or functional food for neuronprotection and cognitive improvement.
Neurochemistry International 11/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total glucocerebrosides of the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (CFC) have been isolated from the less polar lipid fraction of the chloroform-methanol extract using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-methanol-water (5:4:1, v/v). Three glucocerebroside molecular species (CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3) were isolated from crude total cerebrosides with repeated column chromatography. The structures of these three glucocerebroside molecular species were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence: fatty acids were mainly saturated (C22:0 and C18:0), monounsaturated (C24:1 and C20:1) and α-hydroxyl fatty acids (C24:1h, C23:0h, C23:1h and C22:0h), the structures of long-chain bases were dihydroxy (d17:1, d18:2 and d18:1) and trihydroxy (t17:0 and t16:0), and the glycosylation was glucose. High purity long-chain bases of sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (CF-LCB) were prepared from total lipids by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert butyl ether-methanol-water (1:1:2:1, v/v). Compare with traditional preparative methods, the method of HSCCC is short cycle, high yield and less solvent consumption. The composition analysis of CF-LCB showed that the ratio of d18:2 and d17:1 was approximately 2:1. The four glucocerebrosides and long-chain bases from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa were evaluated for activity in vitro assays for the cytotoxic activities against Caco-2 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that both glucocerebrosides and long-chain bases exhibited an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Moreover, CFC-3 was most effective in four glucocerebrosides to Caco-2 cell viability. The inhibition effect of CF-LCB was much stronger than glucocerebrosides.
Journal of oleo science 01/2013; 62(3):133-42. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative disorders are a class of diseases that have been linked to apoptosis induced by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of sea cucumber cerebrosides (SCC) and starfish cerebrosides (SFC) on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells. Cell viability, the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined for their effect on oxidative damage. Quantitative real-time PCR was investigated to analyze the mitochondrial genes expression. These results showed that both SCC and SFC decreased the leakage of LDH and intracellular ROS in a dose-dependent manner. SCC and SFC could also increase the SOD activity compared with the model groups. In H2O2 damage model, 400 μg/mL SCC increased the SOD activity by 79%, which was stronger than SFC. The results demonstrated that SCC and SFC exhibited the protective effects, which may be related to their antioxidant action. In addition, SCC and SFC dramatically increased the gene expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) but significantly decreased the gene expression of Cytochrome c, caspase9 and caspase3 compared with H2O2 or t-BHP treatment. These results suggested that SCC and SFC might exert a protective function against oxidative damage by inhibiting mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. In conclusion, SCC and SFC played an important protective role in H2O2 and t-BHP-induced damage of PC12 cells, suggesting that the SCC and SFC may be a potential therapeutic agent against nervous system oxidative damage.
Journal of oleo science 01/2013; 62(9):717-27. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the short-term effects of the triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), ethyl ester (EE), and phospholipid (PL) forms of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the absorption of omega-3 fatty acids (FA) into tissues. Male Balb/c mice were fed a low-fat (LF, 5%) or high-fat (HF, 22.5%) diet containing different formulations of 0.7% omega-3 fatty acid for 1 week. The fatty acid compositions of the liver, adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and brain were determined. After 1 week, TG-, FFA-, and PL-DHA increased the concentration of DHA in the livers of mice fed LF diet. The hepatic DHA concentration also increased significantly in the HF-TG and HF-PL groups (39.7% and 45.0%, respectively; p < 0.05). In adipose tissue, the DHA levels in mice fed LF-DHA diets were all elevated; the same trend was observed in the HF-DHA diet groups. The proportion of DHA in the gastrocnemius muscle in the LF-DHA diet groups was higher than that in the LF-control group, but no marked increase was observed in the HF-DHA diet groups. In the gastrocnemius muscle, all DHA forms significantly increased the DHA content in mice fed an LF diet; in mice fed an HF diet, EE-DHA and PL-DHA significantly increased the concentration of DHA. No significant changes were observed in the cerebral DHA content when the various forms of DHA were added to the LF diet. However, FFA-, EE-, and PL-DHA increased the cerebral concentration of DHA significantly when added to an HF diet. The present study suggests that the molecular form of DHA contributes to the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipid metabolism. DHA-PL and DHA-TG were more efficient than other DHA forms in increasing the omega-3 concentration in mouse organs.
Journal of oleo science 01/2013; 62(11):883-91. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies had indicated that the whole body of sea cucumber had beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. However, little information has been known on the individual functions of its bioactive components, and this study was undertaken to compare the different effects on improving lipid metabolism. The rats were assigned to seven groups: control, whole sea cucumber, saponins, polysaccharides, collagen peptides, dregs and non-saponin residues. After 28 d of feeding, the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and hepatic lipid concentrations were examined. The results indicated that a dietary saponin supplement significantly suppressed adipose accumulation, and reduced serum and hepatic lipids. Saponin proved to be more effective than the other isolated components, so is considered to be the main lipid-lowering component in sea cucumber. The possible mechanism by which saponins improved lipid metabolism was also investigated. The saponins of sea cucumber suppressed and delayed TG and TC absorption which could be related to the pancreatic lipase inhibiting effect of saponins. This may be an important mechanism to explain its lipid-lowering effect on rats.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 12/2012; · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG), ethyl ester (EE), free fatty acid (FFA) and phospholipid (PL) forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet.
Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA), DHA bound triglyceride (DHA-TG), DHA bound ethyl ester (DHA-EE) and DHA bound phospholipid (DHA-PL) for 1 week, with dietary fat levels at 5% and 22.5%. Serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were analyzed, as well as the fatty acid composition of liver and brain.
At low fat level, serum total cholesterol (TC) level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Hepatic TG level decreased significantly in mice fed diets with DHA-TG (P < 0.05), DHA-EE (P < 0.05) and DHA-PL (P < 0.05), while TC level in liver was significantly lower in mice fed diets with TG and EE compared with the control group (P < 0.05). At high fat level, mice fed diets with DHA-EE and DHA-PL had significantly lower hepatic TC level compared with the control diet (P < 0.05). Hepatic PL concentration experienced a significant increase in mice fed the diet with PL at high fat level (P < 0.05). Furthermore, both at low and high fat levels, hepatic DHA level significantly increased and AA level significantly decreased in all forms of DHA groups (P < 0.05), compared to control groups at two different fat levels, respectively. Additionally, cerebral DHA level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL significantly increased compared with the control at high fat level (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed among dietary treatments for mice fed diets with low fat level.
The present study suggested that not only total dietary fat content but also the molecular forms of omega-3 fatty acids contributed to lipid metabolism in mice. DHA-PL showed effective bioactivity in decreasing hepatic and serum TC, TG levels and increasing omega-3 concentration in liver and brain.
Lipids in Health and Disease 06/2012; 11:70. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Echinoside A (EA) and ds-echinoside A (DSEA) are triterpene glycosides isolated from the sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei. DSEA, the desulfurisation product of EA, has the following structure: β-D-xylopyranosyl-holost-8(9),11(12)-diene-3β,17α-diol. In the present study, we examined the anti-tumour activities-in particular, the structure-activity relationships-of EA and DSEA in vitro and in vivo.
Both EA and DSEA exhibited an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, along with apoptosis-inducing activity, in HepG2 cells. Moreover, they significantly arrested the cell cycle in the G₀/G₁ phase. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that EA and DSEA significantly increased the expression of the cell-cycle-related genes, namely, p16, p21 and c-myc, and decreased that of cyclin D₁. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that they down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, and enhanced mitochondria cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase, cleavage. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression was significantly decreased by DSEA, but was unaffected by EA. EA and DSEA (2.5 mg kg⁻¹) treatment of mice bearing H22 hepatocarcinoma tumours reduced the tumour weight by 49.8% and 55.0%, respectively.
EA and DSEA exhibit marked anti-cancer activity in HepG2 cells, by blocking cell-cycle progression and inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. DSEA-induced apoptosis was more potent than EA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the two triterpene glycosides derived from P. graeffei may induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells in an NF-κB-dependent or NF-κB-independent manner, depending on their structure.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 03/2012; 92(4):965-74. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of cerebrosides derived from the sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides and the starfish Asterias amurensis on the anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that both Acaudina molpadioides cerebrosides (AMC) and Asterias amurensis cerebrosides (AAC) exhibited an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation through induction of apoptosis in S180 cells. Moreover, administration of AMC and AAC (50 mg/kg BW) on S180 tumor bearing mice reduced the tumor weight by 45.24 % and 35.71 %, respectively. In S180 ascites tumor model, AMC and AAC (50 mg/kg BW) treatment exhibited a significant ascites fluid growth inhibition of 31.23 % and 22.72 %. Furthermore, the ascites tumor cell viability ratio in AMC and AAC groups reduced to 50.89 % and 51.69 %, respectively. The life span of AMC and AAC administrated groups increased by 55.28 % and 35.77 % compared to control. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the administration of AMC and AAC down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, while on the other hand, up-regulated Bax, Cytochrome c, caspase-9 and caspase-3 mRNA level of the S180 ascites tumor cells. It was concluded that AMC and AAC should have potential anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. AAC seemed to be more effective than AMC in vitro but less potent in vivo. It may depend on the structural differences in their fatty acid groups and sphingoid bases.
Journal of oleo science 01/2012; 61(6):321-30. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of sea cucumber cerebroside(SCC) and its long-chain base(LCB) on lipid and glucose metabolism in obese mice.
The mouse obese model was established by feeding high fat diet. The mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control group, model group, SCC group and LCB group. After 4 weeks, the glucose tolerance test was undertaken. After 5 weeks, the body fat content, organic indexes, serum lipid level, glycemic index and liver lipid level were determined.
Compared with the model group, the glucose tolerance in the SCC group and LCB group was ameliorated significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05); glycemic index (P<0.01, P<0.01), the weight of adipose tissue (P<0.05, P<0.01) and the hepatic TG were reduced significantly (P<0.05, P<0.05).
Sea cucumber cerebroside and its long-chain base can improve the glucose and lipid metabolism in obese mice.
Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences 01/2012; 41(1):60-4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study is to investigate the feasibility of multi-elements analysis in determination of the geographical origin of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, and to make choice of the effective tracers in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin assessment. The content of the elements such as Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples from seven places of geographical origin were determined by means of ICP-MS. The results were used for the development of elements database. Cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin. Three principal components which accounted for over 89% of the total variance were extracted from the standardized data. The results of Q-type cluster analysis showed that the 26 samples could be clustered reasonably into five groups, the classification results were significantly associated with the marine distribution of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The CA and PCA were the effective methods for elements analysis of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The content of the mineral elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples was good chemical descriptors for differentiating their geographical origins.
Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu 11/2011; 31(11):3119-22. · 0.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebrosides are a kind of important bioactive substance in sea cucumber. A novel cerebroside, AMC-2, was purified from the less-polar lipid fraction of the sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides by repeated column chromatography. The major structure of AMC-2 was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectra. The amide-linked fatty acid unit was confirmed to be four saturated and monounsaturated α-hydroxy fatty acids, the long-chain base was dihydroxy sphingoid base with one double bond, and the glycosyl group was glucose. We also investigated the anti-fatty liver activity of AMC-2 in rats with fatty liver induced by orotic acid. AMC-2 significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels at a diet supplement of 0.03% and 0.006%. The indexes of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and mRNA expression were significantly decreased by AMC-2. This indicates that AMC-2 ameliorated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through suppression of SCD activity and impaired the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in the livers of the rats.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 08/2011; 75(8):1466-71. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ds-echinoside A (DSEA), a non-sulfated triterpene glycoside, was isolated from the sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei. In vitro and in vivo investigations were conducted on the effects of DSEA on tumor cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. In this study, we found that DSEA inhibited the proliferation of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells Hep G2, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 2.65 μmol/L, and suppressed Hep G2 cell adhesion, migration, and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. DSEA also reduced tube formation of human endothelial cells ECV-304 on matrigel in vitro and attenuated neovascularization in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that DSEA significantly decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which plays an important role in the degradation of basement membrane in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. DSEA also increased the protein expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), an important regulator of MMP-9 activation. From the results of Western blotting, the expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were found to be remarkably reduced by DSEA. These findings suggest that DSEA exhibits a significant anti-metastatic activity through the specific inhibition of NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 and VEGF expressions.
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 07/2011; 12(7):534-44. · 1.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mechanism of orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats.
Rats were randomly divided into two groups and fed an AIN-93 diet with 1% orotic acid or without orotic acid for 10 d. Hepatic lipid concentrations, such as triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and phospholipids, were examined. To clarify the mechanism of orotic acid-induced fatty liver, hepatic enzyme activities and mRNA levels of key enzymes related in lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression of transcription factors were determined.
Orotic acid administration significantly increased hepatic triacylglycerol concentration. The activity and mRNA level of fatty acid synthase were obviously upregulated by orotic acid treatment, whereas the activities and mRNA concentrations of carnitine palmitoyl transferase and microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein were significantly depressed. Furthermore, orotic acid stimulated the mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c but did not alter the mRNA concentration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in the liver.
The stimulation of triacylglycerol synthesis induced by orotic acid is mainly caused by enhancement of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and its target gene involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. In contrast, the inhibition of fatty acid β-oxidation and very-low-density lipoprotein secretion were related to the observed lipid accumulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC) on the lipid metabolism in rats with orotic acid-induced fatty liver.
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model was established by adding orotic acid to the diets in rats. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups:control group, NAFLD group, NAFLD + low SCC group and NAFLD + high SCC group. After 10 days of feeding, the serum and hepatic lipid concentrations and the aminopherase activities were measured; the composition of hepatic fatty acids was also analyzed.
The serum TC and TG levels reduced significantly in the NAFLD group as compared with the controls (P<0.05), while the sea cucumber cereborside feeding raised the serum lipid concentrations (P<0.05). The hepatic TC and TG levels dramatically increased in the NAFLD group in comparison with the controls (P<0.05, P<0.01), while the hepatic lipid accumulations decreased in both SCC groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). The ALT and AST activities in the NAFLD group increased markedly when compared with the controls (P<0.05, P <0.01), while the sea cucumber cerebroside feeding attenuated the hepatic injury levels (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity increased significantly in the NAFLD group (P<0.05), but decreased in SCC groups (P<0.05).
Sea cucumber cerebroside can attenuate the rat fatty liver induced by orotic acid.
Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences 09/2010; 39(5):493-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and is becoming increasingly prevalent. Saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) are proven to exhibit various biological activities. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of saponins extracted from sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei) on the preventive activity of fatty liver in rats.
Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal control group, fatty liver model group, SSC-treated group with SSC at levels of 0.01%, 0.03% and 0.05%. Model rats were established by administration with 1% orotic acid (OA). After the experiment period, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and hepatic lipid concentrations were determined. To search for a possible mechanism, we examined the changes of key enzymes and transcriptional factors involved in hepatic lipids biosynthesis, fatty acid beta-oxidation.
Both 0.03% and 0.05% SSC treatment alleviated hepatic steatosis and reduced serum TG and TC concentration significantly in OA fed rats. Hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activities were inhibited by SSC treatment. SSC also decreased the gene expression of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c). Otherwise, the rats feeding with SSC showed increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) activity in the liver. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARalpha), together with its target gene CPT and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) mRNA expression were also upregulated by SSC.
According to our study, the lipids-lowering effect of dietary SSC may be partly associated with the enhancement of beta-oxidation via PPARalpha activation. In addition, the inhibited SREBP-1c- mediated lipogenesis caused by SSC may also contribute to alleviating fatty liver.
Lipids in Health and Disease 03/2010; 9:25. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholesterol administration has been reported to influence hepatic lipid metabolism in rats. In the present study, the effect of dietary cholesterol on hepatic activity and mRNA expression of the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Fourteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed 1% cholesterol or cholesterol free AIN76 diets for 4 weeks.
The serum triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased but the total cholesterol and non high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased in the cholesterol-fed rats compared with the control rats. And the concentrations of the hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride increased about 4-fold and 20-fold separately by dietary cholesterol. The activities of hepatic malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, phosphatidate phophatase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase were depressed by the cholesterol feeding (40%, 70%, 50%, 15% and 25% respectively). The results of mRNA expression showed that fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2, and HMG-CoA reductase were down-regulated (35%, 30%, 50% and 25% respectively) and acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase were up regulated (1.6 and 6.5 folds) in liver by the cholesterol administration.
The dietary cholesterol increased the triglyceride accumulation in liver, but did not stimulate the activity and the gene expression of hepatic enzymes related to triglyceride and fatty acid biosynthesis.
Lipids in Health and Disease 01/2010; 9:4. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An ion chromatography method with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine-n-oxide (TMAO) in aquatic products. They were separated by means of cation-exchange chromatography using a 3.0 mmol/L methanesulfonic acid solution as eluent and an IonPac CS17 column (250 mm x 4 mm i.d.) as the separation column. Detection limits of dimethylamine, trimethylamine and trimethylamine-n-oxide were 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of peak area were less than 3.53%. The recoveries were between 93.7% and 104.1%. Unlike traditional methods, this validated method is inexpensive and stable.
Journal of chromatography. A 07/2009; 1216(31):5924-6. · 4.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in microbial flora of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) during storage at 5+/-1 degrees C were analyzed and the antimicrobial activity of chitosan was studied to identify its potential in shelf-life extension. The dominant microorganisms were found to be Pseudomonas (22%) and Vibrionaceae (20%) in raw oysters. During storage, proportion of Pseudomonas increased significantly and reached 73% at the end of storage, while Vibrionaceae preserved a level of approximate 20%. Wide-spectrum antibacterial property of chitosan against the bacteria isolated from oysters was discovered, and chitosan concentration of 5.0 g/L was eventually determined for application in oyster preservation. Based on microbiological analysis, biochemical indices determination and sensory evaluation, shelf-life of oysters stored at 5+/-1 degrees C was determined. Data showed that chitosan treatment extended the shelf-life of oysters from 8-9 days to 14-15 days.
International journal of food microbiology 04/2009; 131(2-3):272-6. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glass transition temperatures of freeze-dried horse mackerel muscle conditioned at various water activities at 25 °C were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). High moisture content (>0.33 g/g, d.b.) samples obtained by adding liquid water into freeze-dried samples, were also analyzed. The state diagram was composed of the freezing curve and the glass transition line, which were fitted according to Clausius–Clapeyron model and Gordon–Taylor model, respectively. The state diagram yielded maximally freeze-concentrated solutes at 0.786 solids with the characteristic temperature of glass formation being −83.1 °C. The state diagram of horse mackerel muscle developed in this work could be used to predict the stability during frozen storage and in dried conditions as well as in designing drying and freezing processes.