James Schilling

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

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Publications (28)101.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of infants and young children that is recognized through a constellation of clinical signs that can mimic other benign conditions of childhood. The etiology remains unknown and there is no specific laboratory-based test to identify patients with Kawasaki disease. Treatment to prevent the complication of coronary artery aneurysms is most effective if administered early in the course of the illness. We sought to develop a diagnostic algorithm to help clinicians distinguish Kawasaki disease patients from febrile controls to allow timely initiation of treatment. Urine peptidome profiling and whole blood cell type-specific gene expression analyses were integrated with clinical multivariate analysis to improve differentiation of Kawasaki disease subjects from febrile controls. Comparative analyses of multidimensional protein identification using 23 pooled Kawasaki disease and 23 pooled febrile control urine peptide samples revealed 139 candidate markers, of which 13 were confirmed (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC 0.919)) in an independent cohort of 30 Kawasaki disease and 30 febrile control urine peptidomes. Cell type-specific analysis of microarrays (csSAM) on 26 Kawasaki disease and 13 febrile control whole blood samples revealed a 32-lymphocyte-specific-gene panel (ROC AUC 0.969). The integration of the urine/blood based biomarker panels and a multivariate analysis of 7 clinical parameters (ROC AUC 0.803) effectively stratified 441 Kawasaki disease and 342 febrile control subjects to diagnose Kawasaki disease. A hybrid approach using a multi-step diagnostic algorithm integrating both clinical and molecular findings was successful in differentiating children with acute Kawasaki disease from febrile controls.
    BMC Medicine 12/2011; 9:130. · 7.28 Impact Factor
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    PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 08/2011; 5(7-8):463. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a chronic pediatric disease. The initial clinical presentation can mimic other pediatric inflammatory conditions, which often leads to significant delays in diagnosis and appropriate therapy. SJIA biomarker development is an unmet diagnostic/prognostic need to prevent disease complications. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We profiled the urine peptidome to analyze a set of 102 urine samples, from patients with SJIA, Kawasaki disease (KD), febrile illnesses (FI), and healthy controls. A set of 91 plasma samples, from SJIA flare and quiescent patients, were profiled using a customized antibody array against 43 proteins known to be involved in inflammatory and protein catabolic processes. RESULTS: We identified a 17-urine-peptide biomarker panel that could effectively discriminate SJIA patients at active, quiescent, and remission disease states, and patients with active SJIA from confounding conditions including KD and FI. Targeted sequencing of these peptides revealed that they fall into several tight clusters from seven different proteins, suggesting disease-specific proteolytic activities. The antibody array plasma profiling identified an SJIA plasma flare signature consisting of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1), interleukin (IL)-18, regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), P-Selectin, MMP9, and L-Selectin. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The urine peptidomic and plasma protein analyses have the potential to improve SJIA care and suggest that SJIA urine peptide biomarkers may be an outcome of inflammation-driven effects on catabolic pathways operating at multiple sites. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12014-010-9058-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Clinical Proteomics 12/2010; 6(4):175-193.
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) is a chronic arthritis of children characterized by a combination of arthritis and systemic inflammation. There is usually non-specific laboratory evidence of inflammation at diagnosis but no diagnostic test. Normalized volumes from 89/889 2-D protein spots representing 26 proteins revealed a plasma pattern that distinguishes SJIA flare from quiescence. Highly discriminating spots derived from 15 proteins constitute a robust SJIA flare signature and show specificity for SJIA flare in comparison to active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis or acute febrile illness. We used 7 available ELISA assays, including one to the complex of S100A8/S100A9, to measure levels of 8 of the15 proteins. Validating our DIGE results, this ELISA panel correctly classified independent SJIA flare samples, and distinguished them from acute febrile illness. Notably, data using the panel suggest its ability to improve on erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein or S100A8/S100A9, either alone or in combination in SJIA F/Q discriminations. Our results also support the panel's potential clinical utility as a predictor of incipient flare (within 9 wk) in SJIA subjects with clinically inactive disease. Pathway analyses of the 15 proteins in the SJIA flare versus quiescence signature corroborate growing evidence for a key role for IL-1 at disease flare.
    Proteomics 12/2010; 10(24):4415-30. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY: The expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules is post-translationally regulated by endocytic protein turnover. Here, we identified the serine protease cathepsin G (CatG) as an MHC II-degrading protease by in vitro screening and examined its role in MHC II turnover in vivo. CatG, uniquely among endocytic proteases tested, initiated cleavage of detergent-solubilized native and recombinant soluble MHC II molecules. CatG cleaved human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR isolated from both HLA-DM-expressing and DM-null cells. Even following CatG cleavage, peptide binding was retained by pre-loaded, soluble recombinant HLA-DR. MHC II cleavage occurred on the loop between fx1 and fx2 of the membrane-proximal beta2 domain. All allelic variants of HLA-DR tested and murine I-A(g7) class II molecules were susceptible, whereas murine I-E(k) and HLA-DM were not, consistent with their altered sequence at the P1' position of the CatG cleavage site. CatG effects were reduced on HLA-DR molecules with DRB mutations in the region implicated in interaction with HLA-DM. In contrast, addition of CatG to intact B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs) did not cause degradation of membrane-bound MHC II. Moreover, inhibition or genetic ablation of CatG in primary antigen-presenting cells did not cause accumulation of MHC II molecules. Thus, in vivo, the CatG cleavage site is sterically inaccessible or masked by associated molecules. A combination of intrinsic and context-dependent proteolytic resistance may allow peptide capture by MHC II molecules in harshly proteolytic endocytic compartments, as well as persistent antigen presentation in acute inflammatory settings with extracellular proteolysis.
    Immunology 03/2010; 130(3):436-46. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive methods to diagnose rejection of renal allografts are unavailable. Mass spectrometry followed by multiple-reaction monitoring provides a unique approach to identify disease-specific urine peptide biomarkers. Here, we performed urine peptidomic analysis of 70 unique samples from 50 renal transplant patients and 20 controls (n = 20), identifying a specific panel of 40 peptides for acute rejection (AR). Peptide sequencing revealed suggestive mechanisms of graft injury with roles for proteolytic degradation of uromodulin (UMOD) and several collagens, including COL1A2 and COL3A1. The 40-peptide panel discriminated AR in training (n = 46) and test (n = 24) sets (area under ROC curve >0.96). Integrative analysis of transcriptional signals from paired renal transplant biopsies, matched with the urine samples, revealed coordinated transcriptional changes for the corresponding genes in addition to dysregulation of extracellular matrix proteins in AR (MMP-7, SERPING1, and TIMP1). Quantitative PCR on an independent set of 34 transplant biopsies with and without AR validated coordinated changes in expression for the corresponding genes in rejection tissue. A six-gene biomarker panel (COL1A2, COL3A1, UMOD, MMP-7, SERPING1, TIMP1) classified AR with high specificity and sensitivity (area under ROC curve = 0.98). These data suggest that changes in collagen remodeling characterize AR and that detection of the corresponding proteolytic degradation products in urine provides a noninvasive diagnostic approach.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2010; 21(4):646-53. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rate of pre-term birth in the United States continues to rise despite several interventions. Induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines has been implicated in the activation of the cascade of events resulting in pre-term labor. To date, no comprehensive panel of the cytokine profile in PTL has been published. To address cytokine profiles in pre-term labor, levels of 19 plasma and amniotic fluid cytokines were measured using a multiplex immunoassay in an inflammation-induced murine model of pre-term labor. Pro-inflammatory mediators, RANTES, KC, IL-6, and IL-12p40 were increased by 3 hr and remained high at 15 hr. Concentrations of KC, IL-6, IL-1beta, and MIP-1alpha were increased in the amniotic fluid at 15 hr. Plasma levels of anti-inflammatory mediators IL-10 and IL-13 at 15 hr were unchanged and decreased respectively. These results suggest that stimulation of several pro-inflammatory cytokines occurs very early in the cascade of events and remains increased, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines are either unchanged or decreased until the onset of delivery in an inflammation-induced mouse model of pre-term labor.
    American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 11/2009; 62(5):339-47. · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have designed and fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The coupling is advantageous in biological research because CE has the power of separating analytes in a sample based on mobility difference and MALDI-MS provides accurate and sensitive mass analysis of the analytes. The goal is realized by fractionating the separated analytes inside the microfluidic device and pushing the analyte fractions into open reservoirs. Each analyte fraction is then mixed with a matrix solution and deposited on a MALDI target for MALDI-MS. Therefore, a two-step analysis of analytes in the form of CE-MALDI-MS is achieved by using the microfluidic device.
    Journal of the Association for Laboratory Automation 10/2009; 14(5):252-261. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine if there is a relationship between serum concentrations of cytokines and the development of preterm labor. A panel of 28 cytokines was measured using the multiplex assay in serum samples collected between 15 and 18 weeks' gestation from women who developed spontaneous preterm labor and delivered between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation (N = 25) and from women who delivered at term (>or=37 weeks; N = 25). Sixteen of the 28 cytokines measured were detected. Except for vascular endothelial growth factor, which showed a trend toward a significant increase in patients who developed preterm labor, there was no difference in cytokine levels between groups in preterm labor and in term labor. Serum cytokine changes in women who develop spontaneous preterm labor possibly occur in the period between 18 weeks' gestation and the onset of labor.
    American Journal of Perinatology 07/2009; 27(1):31-6. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid progress in technology, particularly in high-throughput biology, allows the analysis of thousands of genes or proteins simultaneously, where the multiple comparison problems occurs. Global false discovery rate (gFDR) analysis statistically controls this error, computing the ratio of the number of false positives over the total number of rejections. Local FDR (lFDR) method can associate the corrected significance measure with each hypothesis testing for its feature-by-feature interpretation. Given the large feature number and sample size in any genomics or proteomics analysis, FDR computation, albeit critical, is both beyond the regular biologists' specialty and computationally expensive, easily exceeding the capacity of desktop computers. To overcome this digital divide, a web portal has been developed that provides bench-side biologists easy access to the server-side computing capabilities to analyze for FDR, differential expressed genes or proteins, and for the correlation between molecular data and clinical measurements. AVAILABILITY: (http://translationalmedicine.stanford.edu/Mass-Conductor/FDR.html).
    Bioinformatics 05/2009; 25(11):1461-2. · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preterm labor (PTL) is frequently associated with inflammation. We hypothesized that biomarkers during pregnancy can identify pregnancies most at risk for development of PTL. An inflammation-induced mouse model of PTL was used. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to analyze and compare the plasma protein (PP) profile between CD-1 mice injected intrauterine with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PBS on d 14.5 of gestation. The median differences of normalized PP peaks between the two groups were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test and the false discovery rate. In a second series of experiments, both groups of mice were injected with a lower dose of LPS. A total of 1665 peaks were detected. Thirty peaks were highly differentially expressed (p < 0.0001) between the groups. Two 11 kDa protein peaks were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and confirmed to be mouse serum amyloid A (SAA) 1 and 2. Plasma SAA2 levels were increased in LPS-treated animals compared with controls and in LPS-treated animals that delivered preterm vs. those that delivered at term. SAA2 has the potential to be a plasma biomarker that can identify pregnancies at risk for development of PTL.
    Pediatric Research 04/2009; 66(1):11-6. · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Proteomics. 01/2009; 5:163-169.
  • Tara K Sigdel, Ken Lau, James Schilling, Minnie Sarwal
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    ABSTRACT: Despite attractiveness of urine for biomarker discovery for systemic and renal diseases, the confounding effect of the high abundance plasma proteins in urine, and a lack of optimization of urine protein recovery methods are bottlenecks for urine proteomics. Three methods were performed and compared for percentage protein yield, yield consistency, ease and cost of analysis: (i) organic solvent precipitation, (ii) dialysis/lyophilization, and (iii) centrifugal filtration. Urine samples were subjected to an immunoaffinity column to deplete high abundance proteins. Difference gel electrophoresis was performed to assess use of depletion strategy for detection of low abundance proteins. Urine from healthy volunteers (n = 10) and kidney transplant recipients with proteinuria (n = 11) were used. Centrifugal filtration performed best for analysis ease and yield consistency. Highest percentage yield was obtained from dialysis/lyophilization but was laborious and residual salt interfered with subsequent gel electrophoresis. Organic solvent precipitation was inexpensive, but suffered from varying yield consistency. Increased spot intensity for some low abundance and previously undetected proteins were noted after depletion of high abundance proteins. In conclusion, we compare the pros and cons of different protein recovery methods and reveal an increase in the dynamic range of protein detection after depletional strategy that could be critical for biomarker discovery, particularly with reference to processing human study samples from clinical trials.
    Clinical Transplantation 06/2008; 22(5):617-23. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preterm infants are at risk of developing sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), chronic lung disease (CLD), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We used high-throughput mass spectrometry to investigate whether cord blood proteins can be used to predict development of these morbidities. Cord blood plasma from 44 infants with a birth weight of <1500 g was analyzed by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF). Six infants developed ROP >or=stage II, 10 CLD, three sepsis, and one NEC. We detected 814 protein signals representing 330 distinct protein species. Nineteen biomarkers were associated with development of >or=stage II ROP [false-discovery rate (FDR) <5%] and none with CLD. Several proteins with molecular weight (Mr) 15-16 kD and pI 4-5 were detected with increased abundance in infants with ROP, while similar Mr proteins with pI 7-9 were less abundant in these patients. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and sequence analysis identified these proteins as alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globin chains. Partial deamidation of Asn139 in beta-globin chains was observed only in the pI 4-5 proteins. We conclude that there are several promising biomarkers for the risk of ROP. Deamidation of globin chains is especially promising and may indicate underlying prenatal pathologic mechanisms in ROP. Validation studies will be undertaken to determine their clinical utility.
    Pediatric Research 03/2007; 61(2):215-21. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The low density lipoproteins (LDL) from patients with Tangier disease are enriched in triglycerides, 27% of LDL mass versus 7% for normal LDL. To study whether this unique LDL core lipid composition affects the surface disposition of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100, we analyzed the LDL by protease digestion and in competitive radioimmunoassays. Limited proteolytic digestion of Tangier LDL by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease generated a prominent fragment of 120 kDa (cleavage site at residue 1076), which was not visible in similarly digested normal LDL. In competitive radioimmunoassay, Tangier LDL bound weakly to the apoB-specific monoclonal antibody MB20, compared with control LDL. We localized the MB20 epitope between residues 1031 and 1084 of apoB-100, probably very near residue 1076. DNA sequencing of exon 21 of apoB genomic clones (coding for residues 1014-1084) from a Tangier patient revealed no difference from the normal DNA sequence, thus eliminating a protein polymorphism as a basis for the altered protease sensitivity and antibody binding. When the triglyceride contents of Tangier LDL were reduced to 10% of mass by incubation with normal high density lipoproteins, production of the 120-kDa fragment by proteolysis decreased and MB20 binding increased in affinity, implying a change toward normal conformation of apoB-100. Thus, using two independent techniques, proteolytic digestion and binding of monoclonal antibodies, we have demonstrated an alternative conformation of apoB-100 in the vicinity of residue 1076, which reflects the content of triglycerides in the LDL particle.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1991; 265(34):20739-46. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • D L Wong, Y S Yoo, K Lau, J W Schilling
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine adrenal medullary phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (E.C. was sequenced to determine if primary structure or post-translational processing accounts for the charged isozymes. A blocked NH2-terminus precluded amino terminal sequencing. Therefore, cyanogen bromide and tryptic peptide fragments were isolated and subjected to gas phase/gas-liquid phase sequencing. Primary structure was identified for 45% of the protein. At least two polypeptide chains exist with alternative amino acids representing conservative changes or single-base changes in amino acid codons by comparison to the cDNA sequence for the enzyme.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 07/1990; 3(3):175-80. · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein A-I-containing lipoproteins (high density lipoproteins, HDL) can be separated into two subfractions, which have pre-beta and alpha electrophoretic mobilities, respectively. These fractions differ in both composition and structure. Some preparations of pre-beta-migrating HDL, but not alpha-migrating HDL, were found to contain two polypeptides with Mr of approximately 26 and 14 kDa, which are scission products of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. They are recognized by monospecific antibodies to apo A-I and have N-terminal sequences identical to those of mature apo A-I. This proteolytic scission of apo A-I occurs primarily after venipuncture. Immediate addition of protease inhibitors minimized the appearance of the fragments in plasma. To study the relative susceptibilities of pre-beta and alpha HDL to proteolysis, the lipoproteins were incubated in vitro with plasmin. The apo A-I in pre-beta HDL was extensively degraded, but that in alpha-migrating HDL was degraded to a much lesser extent, indicating that the appearance of apo A-I fragments in pre-beta HDL was due to enhanced sensitivity to proteolysis. To varying degrees, thrombin, kallikrein, elastase, arginine C endoprotease, and chymotrypsin also appear to cleave pre-beta HDL faster than alpha HDL. Most of the proteases generated a 12 to 14 kDa peptide fragment under conditions of limited cleavage. These results suggest that the conformational state of apo A-I in pre-beta-migrating HDL or its spatial relationship to lipids is significantly different from that of apo A-I in alpha-migrating HDL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Arteriosclerosis (Dallas, Tex.) 01/1990; 10(1):25-30.
  • G C Chen, S Zhu, D A Hardman, J W Schilling, K Lau, J P Kane
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    ABSTRACT: The structural domains of human apolipoprotein B-100 in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and the conformational changes of B-100 that accompany the conversion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) to LDL were investigated by limited proteolysis with 12 endoproteases of various specificities, and their cleavage sites were determined. In B-100 of LDL, we identified two peptide regions that are highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. One region encompassed about 40 amino acids (residues 1280-1320, designated as the NH2-terminal region) and the other about 100 amino acids (residues 3180-3280, designated as the COOH-terminal region). IN LDL, the cleavage sites in both susceptible regions of B-100 were readily accessible to limited proteolysis; but in VLDL, only sites in the COOH-terminal region were readily accessible. Moreover, B-100 in VLDL appeared less degraded than B-100 in LDL by all enzymes used. Reduction of disulfide bonds of B-100 in both LDL and VLDL before digestion by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease and clostripain exposed additional cleavage sites and increased the rate of B-100 degradation, suggesting that disulfide bonds probably exert conformational constraints. These results indicate the presence of three principal structural domains in B-100 of LDL that are relatively resistant to limited proteolysis. These three domains are connected by the two susceptible peptide regions. Our results also demonstrate differential accessibility of cleavage sites in B-100 of LDL and VLDL to limited proteolysis. This differential accessibility suggests that substantial changes in the conformation or environment of B-100 accompany the conversion of VLDL to LDL.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1989; 264(24):14369-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution of lipid-binding regions of human apolipoprotein B-100 has been investigated by recombining proteolytic fragments of B-100 with lipids and characterizing the lipid-bound fragments by peptide mapping, amino acid sequencing, and immunoblotting. Fragments of B-100 were generated by digestion of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the presence of sodium decyl sulfate with either Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, pancreatic elastase, or chymotrypsin. Particles with electron microscopic appearance of native lipoproteins formed spontaneously when detergent was removed by dialysis from enzyme digests containing fragments of B-100 and endogenous lipids, or from incubation mixtures of delipidated B-100 fragments mixed with microemulsions of exogenous lipids (cholesteryl oleate and egg phosphatidylcholine). Fractionation of the recombinant particles by isopycnic or density gradient ultracentrifugation yielded complexes similar to native LDL with respect to shape, diameter, electrophoretic mobility, and surface and core compositions. Circular dichroic spectra of these particles showed helicity similar to LDL but a somewhat decreased content of beta-structure. Most of the fragments of B-100 were capable of binding to lipids; 12 were identified by direct sequence analysis and 14 by reaction with antisera against specific sequences within B-100. Our results indicate that lipid-binding regions of B-100 are widely distributed within the protein molecule and that proteolytic fragments derived from B-100 can reassociate in vitro with lipids to form LDL-like particles.
    Biochemistry 04/1989; 28(6):2477-84. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Biochemistry 03/1989; 28(6):2477-2484. · 3.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

348 Citations
101.94 Total Impact Points


  • 1990–2011
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2010
    • Universität Ulm
      • Institute of General Medicine
      Ulm, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2009–2010
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 1988–1991
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Cardiovascular Research Institute
      • • Department of Anatomy
      San Francisco, CA, United States