[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal obesity increases offspring birth weight and susceptibility to obesity. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with a prominent function in maintaining energy homeostasis. In contrast to adults, neonatal blood adiponectin levels are positively correlated with anthropometric parameters of adiposity. This study was designed to investigate the role of adiponectin in maternal obesityenhanced fetal fat deposition. By using high-fat diet-induced obese mouse models, our study showed that maternal obesity increased fetal fat tissue mass, with a significant elevation in fetal blood adiponectin. However, adiponectin gene knockout (Adipoq(-/-)) attenuated maternal obesity-induced high fetal fat tissue mass. We further studied the effects of fetal adiponectin on fetal fat deposition by using a cross breeding approach to create Adipoq(-/+) and Adipoq(-/-) offspring, whereas maternal adiponectin was null. Adipoq(-/+) offspring had more fat tissue mass at both birth and adulthood. Significantly high levels of lipogenic genes, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase, were detected in the livers of Adipoq(-/+) fetuses. In addition, expression of genes for placental fatty acid transport was significantly increased in Adipoq(-/+) fetuses. Together, our study indicates that adiponectin enhances fetal fat deposition and plays an important role in maternal obesity-induced high birth weight.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms through which adiponectin induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial contents, expression, and activation status of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) were compared between skeletal muscle samples from adiponectin gene knockout, adiponectin-reconstituted, and control mice. Adenovirus-mediated adiponectin and MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP1) overexpression were used to verify the relationship of MKP1 and PGC-1α in adiponectin-enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis using cultured C2C12 myotubes and PGC-1α knockout mice. An inhibitory effect of adiponectin on MKP1 gene expression was observed in mouse skeletal muscle and cultured C2C12 myotubes. Overexpression of MKP1 attenuated adiponectin-enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, with significantly decreased PGC-1α expression and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Although in vivo adiponectin overexpression reduced MKP1 protein levels, the stimulative effects of adiponectin on mitochondrial biogenesis vanished in skeletal muscle of PGC-1α knockout mice. Therefore, our study indicates that adiponectin enhances p38 MAPK/PGC-1α signaling and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by suppressing MKP1 expression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that sensitizes insulin and improves energy metabolism in tissues. This study was designed to investigate the direct regulatory effects of adiponectin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes.
Basal and hormone-stimulated lipolysis were comparatively analyzed using white adipose tissues or primary adipocytes from adiponectin gene knockout and control mice. To further study the underlying mechanisms through which adiponectin suppresses lipolysis, cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adenovirus-mediated gene transduction were used.
Significantly increased lipolysis was observed in both adiponectin gene knockout mice and primary adipocytes from these mice. Hormone-stimulated glycerol release was inhibited in adiponectin-treated adipocytes. Adiponectin suppressed hormone-sensitive lipase activation without altering adipose triglyceride lipase and CGI-58 expression in adipocytes. Moreover, adiponectin reduced protein levels of the type 2 regulatory subunit RIIα of protein kinase A by reducing its protein stability. Ectopic expression of RIIα abolished the inhibitory effects of adiponectin on lipolysis in adipocytes.
This study demonstrates that adiponectin inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes and reveals a novel function of adiponectin in lipid metabolism in adipocytes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoadiponectinemia and decreased adiponectin gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) have been well observed in obese subjects and animal models. However, the mechanism for obesity-associated hypoadiponectinemia is still largely unknown. To investigate the regulatory role of energy intake, dietary fat, and adiposity in adiponectin gene expression and blood adiponectin level, a series of feeding regimens was employed to manipulate energy intake and dietary fat in obese-prone C57BL/6, genetically obese ob/ob, obese-resistant A/J and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α gene knockout (PPARα KO) mice. Adiponectin gene expression in WAT and circulating adiponectin levels were studied in these dietary intervention-treated mice. Our study showed that calorie restriction (CR) robustly increased adiponectin gene expression in epididymal fat and blood adiponectin levels in both low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. Although HF pair-fed C57BL/6 mice received the same amount of calories as LF ad libitum-fed mice, HF diet clearly increased adiposity but showed no significant effects on adiponectin gene expression and blood adiponectin level. CR also significantly increased blood adiponectin levels in ob/ob and A/J mice. Neither CR nor HF feeding displayed any significant effect on blood adiponectin half-life in C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, CR increased PPARα expression in epididymal fat of C57BL/6 mice. Low levels of blood adiponectin and adiponectin gene expression in WAT were observed in PPARα KO mice. PPARα agonist treatment increased adiponectin mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, CR failed to increase adiponectin gene expression and blood adiponectin levels in PPARα KO mice. Therefore, our study demonstrated that energy intake, not dietary fat, plays an important role in regulating adiponectin gene expression and blood adiponectin level. PPARα mediates CR-enhanced adiponectin gene expression in WAT.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2011; 300(5):E809-16. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have made improvements to E1-deleted adenovirus (Ad) transducing vectors that both substantially reduce the innate inflammatory response provoked by the virus in BALB/c mouse ears and increase the duration of expression of the GFP transgene in BALB/c mouse liver. These improvements result from testing the hypothesis that induction of strong innate responses is primarily a result of the powerful enhancer contained within the strong CMV promoter activating expression of Ad genes retained within the vector. A DNA fragment containing four CTCF-binding sites, which was expected to act as a chromatin insulator, was introduced 5', 3', or both 5' and 3' of a CMV-GFP cassette in an attempt to reduce activation of Ad gene expression by the enhancer. The presence of this sequence in any of the configurations led to reduction of the innate immune response, as assayed by mouse ear swelling, to the low level induced by a virus deleted for the E1 region and carrying no introduced sequence. In addition, the duration of GFP expression in the liver more than doubled. The prolonged GFP expression indicates that GFP does not play the limiting role in shutting down vector expression. The CTCF-binding sequence introduced appears to act as a chromatin insulator in Ad DNA, but position-independence of the elements in reducing the innate immune response indicate unanticipated complexities in the mechanism by which Ad vectors induce innate immune responses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipolysis and lipogenesis are two opposite processes that control lipid storage in adipocytes. Impaired adipose lipolysis has been observed in both obese human subjects and animal models. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying impaired adipose lipolysis in a high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model. DIO models were created using male C57BL/6 mice. Our results show that beta3 adrenergic receptor-specific agonist BRL37344 induced adipose lipolysis was significantly blunted in DIO mice. The levels of Ser660 phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were significantly decreased in the epididymal fat of DIO mice. However, protein levels of HSL, adipose triglyceride lipase and its coactivator comparative gene identification-58 were similar between DIO and control mice. It is known that upon lipolytic hormone stimulation, protein kinase A phosphorylates HSL Ser660 and activates HSL, whereas protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) dephosphorylates and inactivates HSL. Interestingly, our study shows that high-fat feeding did not alter epididymal fat cAMP and protein kinase A protein levels but significantly increased the expression of the alpha-isoform of PP2A regulatory subunit B' (B56alpha). To study the role of B56alpha in obesity-associated lipolytic defect, B56alpha was overexpressed or knocked down by adenovirus-mediated gene transduction in cultured 3T3-L1CARDelta1 adipocytes. Overexpression of B56alpha significantly decreased HSL Ser660 phosphorylation. In contrast, knocking down B56alpha increased hormone-stimulated HSL activation and lipolysis in mature 3T3-L1CARDelta1 adipocytes. These results strongly suggest that elevated B56alpha/PP2A inhibits HSL and lipolysis in white adipose tissue of DIO mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. The main aims of this study are to investigate the effects of adiponectin on VLDL triglyceride (VLDL-TG) metabolism and the underlying mechanism.
Adenoviruses were used to generate a mouse model with elevated circulating adiponectin. HepG2 and C2C12 cells were treated with recombinant human adiponectin.
Three days after Ad-mACRP30 adenovirus injection, plasma adiponectin protein levels were increased 12-fold. All three main multimeric adiponectin molecules were proportionally elevated. Fasting plasma TG levels were significantly decreased (approximately 40%) in the mice with elevated adiponectin in circulation, as were the plasma levels of large and medium VLDL subclasses. Although apolipoprotein B mRNA levels were robustly suppressed in the livers of adiponectin-overexpressing mice and in cultured HepG2 cells treated with recombinant human adiponectin, hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rates were not altered by elevated plasma adiponectin. However, Ad-mACRP30-treated mice exhibited a significant increase of postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity compared with mice that received control viral vector. Skeletal muscle LPL activity and mRNA levels of LPL and VLDL receptor (VLDLr) were also increased in Ad-mACRP30-treated mice. Recombinant human adiponectin treatment increased LPL and VLDLr mRNA levels in differentiated C1C12 myotubes.
These results suggest that adiponectin decreases plasma TG levels by increasing skeletal muscle LPL and VLDLr expression and consequently VLDL-TG catabolism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) plays an important role in facilitating long chain fatty acid transport. FAT/CD36 gene deletion protects mice from high fat diet-induced obesity. In this study we have investigated the regulatory mechanism of FAT/CD36 expression at the transcription level. FAT/CD36 expression was activated during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, and FAT/CD36 protein levels were positively correlated with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. However, a negative correlation was detected between FAT/CD36 and C/EBPbeta. Overexpression of C/EBPalpha or C/EBPbeta increased FAT/CD36 mRNA and protein levels in several types of cells. Restoration of C/EBPalpha or C/EBPbeta expression in C/EBPalpha- or C/EBPbeta-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts increased FAT/CD36 expression. However, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts C/EBPalpha was a more potent activator of FAT/CD36 expression than was C/EBPbeta. Expression of C/EBPalpha robustly increased FAT/CD36 proximal promoter-directed luciferase expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. A C/EBP-responsive element was identified in the FAT/CD36 promoter by using 5' and specific site mutations. The binding of C/EBPalpha in the FAT/CD36 promoter was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results demonstrated that C/EBPalpha regulates FAT/CD36 gene expression at the transcriptional level.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2008; 283(14):8788-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) plays a key role in initiation of adipogenesis in adipose tissue and gluconeogenesis in liver; however, the role of C/EBPbeta in hepatic lipogenesis remains undefined. Here we show that C/EBPbeta inactivation in Lepr(db/db) mice attenuates obesity, fatty liver, and diabetes. In addition to impaired adipogenesis, livers from C/EBPbeta(-/-) x Lepr(db/db) mice had dramatically decreased triglyceride content and reduced lipogenic enzyme activity. C/EBPbeta deletion in Lepr(db/db) mice down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and up-regulated PPARalpha independent of SREBP1c. Conversely, C/EBPbeta overexpression in wild-type mice increased PPARgamma2 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mRNA and hepatic triglyceride content. In FAO cells, overexpression of the liver inhibiting form of C/EBPbeta or C/EBPbeta RNA interference attenuated palmitate-induced triglyceride accumulation and reduced PPARgamma2 and triglyceride levels in the liver in vivo. Leptin and the anti-diabetic drug metformin acutely down-regulated C/EBPbeta expression in hepatocytes, whereas fatty acids up-regulate C/EBPbeta expression. These data provide novel evidence linking C/EBPbeta expression to lipogenesis and energy balance with important implications for the treatment of obesity and fatty liver disease.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2007; 282(21):15717-29. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipose-derived hormone that plays an important role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Adiponectin gene expression is diminished in both obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism underlying the impaired adiponectin gene expression remains poorly understood. Recent studies have indicated that forkhead transcription factor O1 (Foxo1) and silent information regulator 2 mammalian ortholog SIRT1 are involved in adipogenesis. Here we have shown that Foxo1 up-regulates adiponectin gene transcription through a Foxo1-responsive region in the mouse adiponectin promoter that contains two adjacent Foxo1 binding sites. Foxo1 interacts with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) to form a transcription complex at the mouse adiponectin promoter and up-regulates adiponectin gene transcription. Our study has revealed that C/EBPalpha accesses the adiponectin promoter through two Foxo1 binding sites and acts as a co-activator. Further, SIRT1 increases adiponectin transcription in adipocytes by activating Foxo1 and enhancing Foxo1 and C/EBPalpha interaction. Importantly, both Foxo1 and SIRT1 protein levels were significantly lower in epididymal fat tissues from db/db and high fat diet-induced obese mice compared with normal mice. We propose that low expression of SIRT1 and Foxo1 leads to impaired Foxo1-C/EBPalpha complex formation, which contributes to the diminished adiponectin expression in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2007; 281(52):39915-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose production are important contributors to hyperglycemia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In diabetic humans and animal models, elevated levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) are observed in several tissues. Our study shows that activity of p38 is significantly elevated in livers of db/db or streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Using cultured hepatoma cells, we find that activation of p38 enhances expression of hepatic gluconeogenic gene phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Furthermore, our studies demonstrate that activation of p38 stimulates phosphorylation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) at serine 21 and increases its transactivation activity in the context of PEPCK gene transcription. Our results indicate that C/EBPalpha mediates p38-stimulated PEPCK transcription in liver cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2006; 281(34):24390-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) is a member of the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family and regulates expression of several enzymes in the liver that control glucose and lipid metabolism. Using adenovirus-transduced silent interfering (si)RNA against C/EBPalpha, endogenous liver C/EBPalpha protein was knocked down by 70-80% in 8-wk-old wild-type (WT) and db/db mice. In WT mice, fasting blood glucose concentrations were reduced approximately 24% without changes in plasma free fatty acid and triglycerides, when compared with LacZ adenovirus-treated control mice. Ad-C/EBPalpha siRNA treatment nearly normalized fasting glucose and significantly reduced plasma insulin and free fatty acid content, even though there was no elevation of C/EBPalpha protein in the livers of db/db mice. In parallel with the changes in glucose levels, hepatic glucose production was significantly reduced in C/EBPalpha siRNA-treated WT and db/db mice. mRNA levels of phyosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and liver glycogen synthase were decreased in the C/EBPalpha siRNA-treated WT and db/db mice. Interestingly, the magnitude of reduction in these enzymes was more profound in db/db mice. C/EBPalpha siRNA also decreased mRNA levels of proliferator activator protein-gamma coactivator-1alpha in both the WT and db/db mice but reduced cAMP response element-binding protein only in WT and did not alter hepatic nuclear factor-4alpha and CBP/p300 expression. Expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, such as fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c was robustly suppressed in the C/EBPalpha siRNA-treated db/db mice. Taken together, these results indicate that C/EBPalpha plays an important role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valproic acid (VPA) has been used for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorders for more than 30 yr. Obesity and insulin resistance are common side effects of VPA treatment. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived protein that plays an important role in controlling insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. In this report, we examined the effects of VPA on adiponectin gene expression in C57BL/6J mice and in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. VPA treatment significantly decreased adiponectin protein and mRNA levels in both mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The adipocyte study showed that VPA inhibited adiponectin gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Repression of adiponectin expression by VPA occurred at the transcription level and correlated with inhibition of histone deacetylase activity. Therapeutic concentrations of VPA increased overall histone acetylation and increased adiponectin promoter-driven luciferase expression in fibroblasts, but decreased adiponectin promoter activity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. VPA treatment decreased adipogenic transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) levels and binding of C/EBPalpha to the adiponectin promoter without altering the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and steroid regulatory element binding protein-1. Furthermore, VPA did not suppress adiponectin gene expression in C/EBPalpha gene-deficient adipocytes that stably expressed exogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2. Together, these results demonstrate that histone deacetylase inhibitor VPA suppresses adiponectin gene expression in mature adipocytes. The study also provides evidence that diminished C/EBPalpha protein level and decreased binding at the adiponectin promoter mediate the inhibitory effects of VPA on adiponectin gene transcription.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipose-derived hormone that enhances insulin sensitivity and plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA encoding the first intron of the human adiponectin gene contains an intronic enhancer that regulates adiponectin gene expression in an adipose tissue-specific manner. Insertion of the DNA encoding the first intron into reporter constructs containing the proximal adiponectin promoter (Pro-Int1-Luc) resulted in a 20-fold increase in activity relative to the promoter alone in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Coexpression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)alpha increased luciferase activity of the Pro-Int1-Luc construct approximately 75-fold but had no effect on the constructs containing the proximal adiponectin promoter alone. At least eight potential C/EBPalpha response elements are located between +3000 to +10000 nucleotides within the DNA encoding the first intron, including a 34-bp core sequence for the intronic enhancer that contains three tandem C/EBPalpha response elements. However, the intronic enhancer is not conserved between human and mouse. Overexpression or siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous C/EBPalpha significantly increased or decreased, respectively, adiponectin mRNA levels in differentiated human Chub-S7 adipocytes, while neither C/EBPbeta nor C/EBPdelta significantly affected adiponectin expression in mature adipocytes. Thus, C/EBPalpha is a key transcription factor for full activation of human adiponectin gene transcription in mature adipocytes through interaction with response elements in the intronic enhancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute hyperglycemia normally suppresses hepatic glucose production (HGP) and gluconeogenic gene expression. Conversely, chronic hyperglycemia is accompanied by progressive increases in basal HGP and is a major contributor to hyperglycemia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes by mechanisms that are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms whereby hyperglycemia contributes to excessive gluconeogenesis in Fao hepatoma cells. Increasing glucose from 5 to 20 mmol/l resulted in loss of glucose inhibition of PEPCK gene expression after 12 h. Furthermore, 24 h of incubation with 20 mmol/l glucose increased cAMP-stimulated PEPCK mRNA by approximately 40% (P < 0.05) and similarly increased glucose production. Although total CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) protein levels were suppressed, 20 mmol/l glucose increased the liver activating protein (LAP; an active isoform of C/EBPbeta)/liver inhibitory protein (LIP; an inhibitory isoform of C/EBPbeta) ratio significantly. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies of the endogenous PEPCK gene demonstrated an increased association of LAP with the cAMP response element of the promoter. Using transient transfection to manipulate the LAP/LIP ratio, we also demonstrate a direct relationship between this ratio and PEPCK promoter activity. An increased LAP/LIP ratio not only enhanced cAMP- and dexamethasone-induced PEPCK gene expression but also impaired the repressive effect of insulin. These results demonstrate that sustained hyperglycemia diminishes the inhibitory effect of glucose and insulin on PEPCK expression and enhances hormone-stimulated PEPCK gene expression and hepatocellular glucose production. Because prolonged hyperglycemia increases the LAP/LIP ratio and can potentiate hormone induction of PEPCK transcription, our results suggest that a hyperglycemia-driven increased LAP/LIP ratio may be a critical molecular event in the pathogenesis of increased HGP in diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the effects of acute fetal hyperinsulinemia on the pattern and time course of insulin signaling in ovine fetal skeletal muscle, we measured selected signal transduction proteins in the mitogenic, protein synthetic, and metabolic pathways in the skeletal muscle of normally growing fetal sheep in utero. In experiment 1, 4-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were conducted in anesthetized twin fetuses to produce selective fetal hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia in one twin and euinsulinemia-euglycemia in the other. Serial skeletal muscle biopsies were taken from each fetus during the clamp and assayed by Western blot for selected insulin signal transduction proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase doubled at 30 min and gradually returned to control values by 240 min. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1,2 was increased fivefold through 120 min of insulin infusion and decreased to control concentration by 240 min. Protein kinase B phosphorylation doubled at 30 min and remained elevated throughout the study. Phosphorylation of p70 S6K increased fourfold at 30, 60, and 120 min. In the second experiment, a separate group of nonanesthetized singleton fetuses was clamped to intermediate and high hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic conditions for 1 h. GLUT4 increased fourfold in the plasma membrane at 1 h, and hindlimb glucose uptake increased significantly at the higher insulin concentration. These data demonstrate that an acute increase in fetal plasma insulin concentration stimulates a unique pattern of insulin signal transduction proteins in intact skeletal muscle, thereby increasing pathways for mRNA translation, glucose transport, and cell growth.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulin resistance of normal pregnancy is necessary to divert fuels to the fetus to meet fetal growth demands and is mediated by placental hormones. We recently demonstrated that human placental GH (hPGH) can trigger severe insulin resistance in transgenic (TG) mice. In this study we sought to elucidate the cellular mechanisms by which hPGH interferes with insulin signaling in muscle in TG mice. Insulin-stimulated GLUT-4 translocation to the plasma membrane (PM) was reduced in the TG compared with wild-type (WT) mice (P = 0.05). Insulin receptor (IR) levels were modestly reduced by 19% (P < 0.01) in TG mice, but there were no changes in phosphorylation of IR or IR substrate-1 (IRS-1) between WT and TG mice. A singular finding was a highly significant increase in the p85 alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase; P < 0.001), yet a reduced ability of insulin to stimulate IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity (P < 0.05). Although the levels of the p110 catalytic subunit protein of PI 3-kinase and IRS-1 were unchanged in the TG mice, insulin's ability to stimulate p110 association with IRS-1 was markedly reduced (P < 0.0001). We demonstrate a unique mechanism of insulin resistance and suggest that hPGH may contribute to the insulin resistance of normal pregnancy by increasing the expression of the p85 alpha monomer, which competes in a dominant negative fashion with the p85-p110 heterodimer for binding to IRS-1 protein.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Islet cells undergo major changes in structure and function to meet the demand for increased insulin secretion during pregnancy, but the nature of the hormonal interactions and signaling events is incompletely understood. Here, we used the glucose-responsive MIN6 beta-cell line treated with prolactin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), and dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid), all elevated during late pregnancy, to study their effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion. DEX alone or combined with PRL and PRG inhibited insulin secretion in response to 16 mM glucose-stimulating concentrations. However, in the basal state (3 mM glucose), the insulin levels in response to DEX treatment were unchanged, and the three hormones together maintained higher insulin release. There were no changes of protein levels of GLUT2 or glucokinase (GK), but PRL or PRG treatment increased GK activity, whereas DEX had an inhibitory effect on GK activity. alpha-Ketoisocaproate (alpha-KIC)-stimulated insulin secretion was also reduced by DEX alone or combined with PRL and PRG, suggesting that DEX may inhibit distal steps in the insulin-exocytotic process. PRL treatment increased the concentration of intracellular cAMP in response to 16 mM glucose, suggesting a role for cAMP in potentiation of insulin secretion, whereas DEX alone or combined with PRL and PRG reduced cAMP levels by increasing phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. These data provide evidence that PRL and to a lesser extent PRG, which increase in early pregnancy, enhance basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in part by increasing GK activity and amplifying cAMP levels. Glucocorticoid, which increases throughout gestation, counteracts only glucose-stimulated insulin secretion under high glucose concentrations by dominantly inhibiting GK activity and increasing PDE activity to reduce cAMP levels. These adaptations in the beta-cell may play an important role in maintaining the basal hyperinsulinemia of pregnancy while limiting the capacity of PRL and PRG to promote glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during late gestation.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 03/2004; 286(2):E304-10. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infant macrosomia is a classic feature of a gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnancy and is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and type II diabetes mellitus, however mechanisms linking GDM and later disease remain poorly understood. The heterozygous leptin receptor-deficient (Lepr(db/+)) mouse develops spontaneous GDM and the fetuses display characteristics similar to infants of GDM mothers. We examined the effects of GDM on maternal insulin resistance, fetal growth, and postnatal development of hepatic insulin resistance. Fetal body weight on d 18 of gestation was 6.5% greater (p < 0.05) in pups from ad libitum-fed db/+ mothers compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Pair-feeding db/+ mothers to the intake of WT mothers normalized fetal weight despite less than normal maternal insulin sensitivity. More stringent caloric restriction reduced insulin and glucose levels below WT controls and resulted in fetal intrauterine growth restriction. The level of hepatic insulin receptor protein was decreased by 28% to 31% in both intrauterine growth restriction and fetuses from ad libitum-fed GDM mothers compared with offspring from WT mothers. In 24-wk-old adult offspring from GDM mothers, body weight was similar to WT offspring, however, the females from GDM mothers were fatter and hyperinsulinemic compared with offspring from WT mothers. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, a key intermediate in insulin signaling, was severely decreased in the livers of adult GDM offspring. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity was also inappropriately increased in the adult offspring from GDM mothers. These results suggest that spontaneous GDM in the pregnant Lepr(db/+) mouse is triggered by overfeeding, and this effect results in obesity and insulin resistance in the livers of the adult offspring. The specific decrease in Akt phosphorylation in livers of adult offspring suggests that this may be a mechanism for reduced insulin-dependent physiologic events, such as suppression of hepatic glucose production, a defect associated with susceptibility to type II diabetes mellitus.
Pediatric Research 04/2003; 53(3):411-8. · 2.67 Impact Factor