[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orofacial pain is a prevalent symptom in modern society. Some musculoskeletal orofacial pain is caused by temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). This condition has a multi-factorial etiology, including emotional factors and alteration of the masticator muscle and temporomandibular joints (TMJs). TMJ inflammation is considered to be a cause of pain in patients with TMD. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes, specifically the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have been shown to modulate inflammation and pain. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the expression and level of gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the trigeminal ganglion are altered during different stages of temporomandibular inflammation, as determined by gelatin zymography. This study also evaluated whether mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia, induced by the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the TMJ capsule, were altered by an MMP inhibitor (doxycycline, DOX). TMJ inflammation was measured by plasma extravasation in the periarticular tissue (Evans blue test) and infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the synovial fluid (myeloperoxidase enzyme quantification). MMP expression in the trigeminal ganglion was shown to vary during the phases of the inflammatory process. MMP-9 regulated the early phase and MMP-2 participated in the late phase of this process. Furthermore, increases in plasma extravasation in periarticular tissue and myeloperoxidase activity in the joint tissue, which occurred throughout the inflammation process, were diminished by treatment with DOX, a nonspecific MMP inhibitor. Additionally, the increases of mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia were attenuated by the same treatment.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 11/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cause cardiomyocyte injury during acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APT). However, the functional consequences of this alteration are not known. We examined whether doxycycline (a MMP inhibitor) improves right ventricle function and the cardiac responses to dobutamine during APT. APT was induced with autologous blood clots (350 mg/kg) in anaesthetized male lambs pre-treated with doxycycline (Doxy, 10 mg/kg/day, intravenously) or saline. Non-embolized control lambs received doxycycline pre-treatment or saline. The responses to intravenous dobutamine (Dob, 1, 5, 10 μg/kg/min.) or saline infusions at 30 and 120 min. after APT induction were evaluated by echocardiography. APT increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index by ~185%. Doxycycline partially prevented APT-induced pulmonary hypertension (P < 0.05). RV diameter increased in the APT group (from 10.7 ± 0.8 to 18.3 ± 1.6 mm, P < 0.05), but not in the Doxy+APT group (from 13.3 ± 0.9 to 14.4 ± 1.0 mm, P > 0.05). RV dysfunction on stress echocardiography was observed in embolized lambs (APT+Dob group) but not in embolized animals pre-treated with doxycycline (Doxy+APT+Dob). APT increased MMP-9 activity, oxidative stress and gelatinolytic activity in the RV. Although doxycycline had no effects on RV MMP-9 activity, it prevented the increases in RV oxidative stress and gelatinolytic activity (P < 0.05). APT increased serum cardiac troponin I concentrations (P < 0.05), doxycycline partially prevented this alteration (P < 0.05). We found evidence to support that doxycycline prevents RV dysfunction and improves the cardiac responses to dobutamine during APT.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 11/2013; · 4.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels are involved in vascular remodeling of hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that doxycycline (a MMP inhibitor) could exert antioxidant effects, reverse establish vascular remodeling, and lower blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats received either doxycycline at 30 mg/kg/day by gavage or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed weekly by tail cuff. After 5 weeks of treatment, morphologic changes in the aortic wall were studied in hematoxylin/eosin sections. MMP activity and expression were determined by in situ zymography using DQ gelatin and immunofluorescence for MMP-2. Dihydroethidium was used to evaluate aortic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by fluorescence microscopy. Doxycycline reduced SBP by 25 mmHg. However, the antihypertensive effects were not associated with significant reversal of hypertension-induced vascular hypertrophy. SHR showed increased aortic MMP-2 levels which co-localized with higher aortic MMP activity and ROS levels, and all those biochemical alterations associated with hypertension were blunted by treatment with doxycycline. These results show that MMP inhibition with doxycycline in SHR with established hypertension resulted in antioxidant effects, lower gelatinolytic activity, and antihypertensive effects which were not associated with reversal of hypertension-induced vascular remodeling.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 10/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different IL4 haplotypes were associated to susceptibility to/or protection against chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of this study was to investigate if individuals carrying different haplotypes would present differences in clinical periodontal parameters and in the IL-4 levels at baseline, 45 and 90 days after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Sixty-two patients were subdivided: genetically protected without CP (PH), genetically protected with CP (PCP), genetically susceptible with CP (SCP), genetically susceptible without CP (healthy) (SH). Clinical examination and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collection were performed for all patients, and IL-4 levels were measured by ELISA. At baseline, higher values for plaque index (PI, p=0.013), gingival index (GI, p=0.005) were observed for the SCP group in comparison to the PCP group but not after the completion of periodontal therapy. Forty-five and 90 days after the non-surgical therapy, PCP demonstrated significantly higher IL-4 levels than the SCP (p=0.000002). Correlation analysis showed different results between clinical parameters and IL-4 production or GCF volume for groups with different genetic loads. The IL4 gene which was previously associated with susceptibility to CP was related with differences in the IL-4 protein levels in the GCF. However, independent of genetic carriage, individuals responded similarly to this therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although chronic periodontitis (CP) is a multifactorial condition, few studies have investigated the potential association of gene variants with the outcome of periodontal therapy. In a previous study, we reported that variants in the interleukin-8 (IL8) gene were associated with CP in a Brazilian population. The aim of this nonrandomized study was to investigate whether genetic susceptibility to CP, conferred by the presence of the IL8 ATC/TTC haplotype, influences the clinical outcomes of nonsurgical periodontal therapy and the IL-8 protein levels in the gingival crevicular fluid.
Forty-one individuals were grouped according to the presence (susceptible to CP; n = 21) or absence (not susceptible to CP; n = 20) of the IL8 ATC/TTC haplotype. These individuals received nonsurgical periodontal therapy from one periodontist, who was blinded to the genetic status of each patient, and follow up continued for 45 d. The clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected at baseline and on day 45. The IL-8 levels were determined by an ELISA. The data were subjected to the Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon and Spearman tests and to multiple logistic-regression analysis.
No significant differences between patients with or without the IL8 ATC/TTC haplotype were found for the outcome of nonsurgical periodontal therapy and IL-8 levels. The multiple logistic-regression analysis did not show a statistically significant association between the IL8 haplotype and the variables studied.
In this longitudinal clinical study, we observed that neither the outcome of nonsurgical periodontal therapy nor the IL-8 levels were influenced by the IL8 ATC/TTC CP-susceptibility haplotype. Additional studies of CP patients from other ethnic populations are necessary to confirm these results.
Journal of Periodontal Research 08/2013; · 1.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nebivolol and metoprolol are β1-adrenergic receptor blockers with different properties. We hypothesized that nebivolol, but not metoprolol, could attenuate prooxidant and profibrotic mechanisms of hypertension and therefore protect against the vascular remodeling associated with hypertension. Hypertension was induced in male Wistar rats by clipping the left renal artery. Six weeks after surgery, hypertensive and sham rats were treated with nebivolol (10mg. mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or metoprolol (20mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) for four weeks. Systolic blood pressure was monitored weekly. Morphologic changes in the aortic wall were studied in hematoxylin/eosin and picrosirius red sections. Aortic NAD(P)H activity and superoxide production were evaluated by luminescence and dihydroethidium, respectively, and TBARS levels were measured in plasma. Aortic nitrotyrosine staining was evaluated to assess peroxynitrite formation. TGF-β levels and p-ERK 1/2 expression were determined by immunofluorescence and western blotting, respectively. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and expression were determined by in situ zymography, gel zymography, western blotting and immunofluorescence, and TIMP-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Both β1-receptor antagonists exerted very similar antihypertensive effects. However, while metoprolol had no significant effects, nebivolol significantly attenuated vascular remodeling and collagen deposition associated with hypertension. Moreover, nebivolol, but not metoprolol, attenuated hypertension-induced increases in aortic NAD(P)H oxidase activity, superoxide production, TBARS concentrations, nitrotyrosine levels, TGF-β upregulation and MMP-2 and -9 expression/activity. No effects on p-ERK 1/2 and TIMP-1 expression were found. These results show for the first time that nebivolol, but not metoprolol, attenuates prooxidant and profibrotic mechanisms involving TGF-β and MMP-2 and MMP-9, which promote vascular remodeling in hypertension.
Free radical biology & medicine 06/2013; · 5.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases with an important role in physiological and pathological remodeling. Their activity is regulated by tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Excess MMPs and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity has been associated with loss of tooth supporting tissues in periodontal disease (PD). We investigate the changes in salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and MPO concentrations during PD treatment and compare results with plasma levels. METHODS: MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were analyzed by ELISA. Gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 forms were determined by zymography, and the MPO activity was determined by colorimetric assay. RESULTS: Subjects were divided into 2 groups: PD and control, which were further divided into 2 subgroups each, namely PD before (PB) and after 3months (PA) of non-surgical periodontal therapy, and healthy volunteers at baseline (CB) and 3months after baseline (CA). Subgroup PA presented lower gelatinolytic activity and MMP-8 and TIMP-2 concentrations in the saliva compared with PB (p<0.05). MPO activity was higher in PB compared with CB (p<0.05). There were significant correlations between the gelatinolytic activity of the saliva and MMP-8 and MMP-9 plasma levels. There was significant correlation between plasma and saliva TIMP-2 levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest attenuation of some inflammatory markers in the saliva and plasma after PD treatment. Moreover, correlations between salivary and plasma levels exist for some of these markers.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 03/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases involve critical mechanisms including impaired nitric oxide (NO) levels and abnormal matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. While NO downregulates MMP expression in some cell types, no previous study has examined whether NO downregulates MMP levels in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that NO donors could attenuate MMP-9 production by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a result of less NFκB activation or cyclic GMP (cGMP)-mediated mechanisms. We studied the effects of DetaNONOate (10-400 μM) or SNAP (50-400 μM) on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 10 nM)-induced increases in MMP-9 activity (by gel zymography) or concentrations (by ELISA) as well as on a tissue inhibitor of MMPs' (TIMP)-1 concentrations (by ELISA) in the conditioned medium of HUVECs incubated for 24 h with these drugs. We also examined whether the irreversible inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase ODQ modified the effects of SNAP or whether 8-bromo-cGMP (a cell-permeable analog of cGMP) influenced PMA-induced effects on MMP-9 expression. Total and phospho-NFκB p65 concentrations were measured in HUVEC lysates to assess NFκB activation. Both NO donors attenuated PMA-induced increases in MMP-9 activity and concentrations without significantly affecting TIMP-1 concentrations. This effect was not modified by ODQ, and 8-bromo-cGMP did not affect MMP-9 concentrations. While PMA increased phospho-NFκB p65 concentrations, SNAP had no influence on this effect. In conclusion, this study shows that NO donors may attenuate imbalanced MMP expression and activity in endothelial cells independent of cGMP- or NFκB-mediated mechanisms. Our results may offer an important pharmacological strategy to approach cardiovascular diseases.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 03/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO)-derived metabolites including the anion nitrite can recycle back to NO and thus complement NO formation independent of NO synthases. While nitrite is as a major vascular storage pool and source of NO, little is known about drugs that increase tissue nitrite concentrations. This study examined the effects of atorvastatin or sildenafil, or the combination, on vascular nitrite concentrations and on endothelial dysfunction in the 2 kidney-1 clip (2K1C) hypertension model. Sham-operated or 2K1C hypertensive rats were treated with vehicle, atorvastatin (50 mg/Kg), sildenafil (45 mg/Kg), or both for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored weekly. Nitrite concentrations were assessed in the aortas and in plasma samples by ozone-based reductive chemiluminescence assay. Aortic rings were isolated to assess endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation. Aortic NADPH activity and ROS production were evaluated by luminescence and dihydroethidium, respectively, and plasma TBARS levels were measured. Aortic nitrotyrosine staining was evaluated to assess peroxynitrite formation. Atorvastatin and sildenafil, alone or combined, significantly lowered SBP by approximately 40 mmHg. Atorvastatin significantly increased vascular nitrite levels by 70% in hypertensive rats, whereas sildenafil had no effects. Both drugs significantly improved the vascular function, and decreased vascular NADPH activity, ROS, and nitrotyrosine levels. Lower plasma TBARS concentrations were found with both treatments. The combination of drugs showed no improved responses compared to each drug alone. These findings show evidence that atorvastatin, but not sildenafil, increases vascular NO stores, although both drugs exert antioxidant effects, improve endothelial function, and lower blood pressure in 2K1C hypertension.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) may downregulate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We examined whether enalapril affects MMP-2, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels and activity, and their endogenous inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of MMPs, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) levels in hypertensive patients. Moreover, we assessed the effects of enalaprilat on MMP-9 and TIMP-1 secretion by human endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: Thirty-eight hypertensive patients received enalapril for 8 weeks and were compared with thirty-eight normotensive controls. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after treatment. Plasma ACE activity was determined by a fluorimetric assay. Plasma MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were measured by ELISA and gelatin zymography. A fluorogenic peptide cleavage assay was used to measure MMP activity. HUVECs cells were stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and the effects of enalaprilat (10(-10) to 10(-6) M) on MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were determined. RESULTS: Enalapril decreased blood pressure and ACE activity in hypertensive patients (P < 0.05), but had no effects on plasma MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 levels, or MMP activity. Enalaprilat had no effects on PMA-induced increases in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 secretion by HUVECs or on MMP activity. CONCLUSIONS: We show consistent evidence, both in vivo and in vitro, that enalapril does not affect MMPs and TIMPs levels in hypertensive patients.
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 10/2012; · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular remodeling found in later phases of two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertension may involve key mechanisms particularly including MMP-2, oxidative stress, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and inactivation of the endogenous MMP inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-4. We examined whether temporal cardiac remodeling resulting from 2K1C hypertension occurs concomitantly with alterations in cardiac collagen, MMP activity, MMP-2, TIMP-4, TGF-β, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during the development of 2K1C hypertension. Sham-operated and 2K1C hypertensive rats were studied after 15, 30, and 75days of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure was monitored weekly. Left ventricle (LV) morphometry and fibrosis were evaluated in hematoxylin/eosin and picrosirius red-stained sections, respectively. Cardiac MMP-2 levels/activity was determined by gelatin zymography, immunofluorescence, and in situ zymography. TIMP-4 levels were determined by western blotting. Cardiac TGF-β levels were evaluated by immunofluorescence and ROS levels were evaluated with a dihydroethidium probe. 2K1C hypertension induced LV hypertrophy associated with augmented gelatinolytic activity at an early phase of hypertension and further increased after 75days of hypertension. These alterations were associated with increased cardiac MMP-2, TGF-β, and ROS in hypertensive rats. Higher TIMP-4 levels were found in hypertensive rats only after 75days after surgery. Our findings show that increased MMP-2 activity is associated with concomitant development of LV hypertrophy and increased TGF-β and ROS levels.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology 10/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the introduction of fluoride as the main anticaries agent used in preventive dentistry, and perhaps an increase in fluoride in our food chain, dental fluorosis has become an increasing world-wide problem. Visible signs of fluorosis begin to become obvious on the enamel surface as opacities, implying some porosity in the tissue. The mechanisms that conduct the formation of fluorotic enamel are unknown, but should involve modifications in the basic physical-chemistry reactions of demineralization and remineralisation of the enamel of the teeth, which is the same reaction of formation of the enamel's hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the maturation phase. The increase of the amount of fluoride inside of the apatite will result in gradual increase of the lattice parameters. The aim of this work is to characterize the healthy and fluorotic enamel in human tooth using Synchrotron X-ray diffraction. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory—LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. X-ray diffraction experiments were performed both in powder samples and polished surfaces. The powder samples were analyzed to obtain the characterization of a typical healthy enamel pattern. The polished surfaces were analyzed in specific areas that have been identified as fluorotic ones. X-ray diffraction data were obtained for all samples and these data were compared with the control samples and also with the literature data.
Radiation Physics and Chemistry 10/2012; 81(10):1578–1585. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence supports the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Particularly, imbalanced MMP-2 activity apparently plays a critical role in cardiovascular remodelling. While some studies have suggested that MMP-2 may affect the vascular tone and impair β-adrenoreceptor function, no previous study has examined the acute haemodynamic effects of MMP-2. We examined the effects of recombinant human MMP-2 (rhMMP-2) administered intravenously to anaesthetized lambs at baseline conditions and during β(1) -adrenergic cardiac stimulation with dobutamine. We used 26 anaesthetized male lambs in two study protocols. First, rhMMP-2 (220 ng/kg/min. over 60 min.) or vehicle was infused in the lambs, and no significant haemodynamic changes were found. Therefore, we infused dobutamine at 5 μg/kg/min. i.v. (or saline) over 180 min. in lambs that had received the same rhMMP-2 infusion preceded by doxycycline i.v. at 10 mg/kg (or saline). Plasma and cardiac MMP-2 levels were assessed by gelatin zymography, and gelatinolytic activity was assessed by spectrofluorimetry. Dobutamine decreased systemic vascular resistance index, and this effect was attenuated by rhMMP-2 infusion. Moreover, dobutamine increased the cardiac index and left ventricular dP/dt(max) , and these effects were attenuated by rhMMP-2. The previous administration of doxycycline blunted rhMMP-2-induced changes in dobutamine responses. While the infusion of rhMMP-2 did not increase plasma and cardiac MMP-2 levels, it increased cardiac gelatinolytic activity, and doxycycline blunted this effect. Our findings show that rhMMP-2 exerts no major haemodynamic effects in lambs. However, rhMMP-2 impairs the responses elicited by activation of β-adrenoreceptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we identified that the ATC/TTC haplotype formed by polymorphisms in the Interleukin-(IL)8 gene conferred susceptibility to chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the study was to investigate whether the IL8 haplotype ATC/TTC was associated with the volume of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), the concentration of interleukin IL-8 in the GCF, as well as periodontal conditions in patients with CP in comparison to controls without CP.
Seventy-nine individuals (CP: n=41, controls: n=38) were grouped according to the presence (susceptible for CP) or absence (not susceptible for CP) of the IL8 ATC/TTC haplotype. After periodontal clinical evaluation, they were subdivided by the presence or absence of CP. GCF was collected from each patient and the IL-8 levels were determined by ELISA. The GCF volume of each subject was measured by means of a calibrated electronic device. Comparisons of means between carriers and non-carriers of the ATC/TTC haplotype were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney test. Linear regression and stepwise linear regression analysis were used to analyse the association of the GCF volume with potential covariates and their contribution for the phenotype.
We did not find significant differences of both periodontal conditions and IL-8 concentration in the GCF of patients with the presence or absence of the IL8 ATC/TTC haplotype. However, the GCF volume was significantly higher amongst the patients affected by CP that are absent for the IL8 ATC/TTC haplotype. In addition, linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between GCF volume and CP, IL8 haplotype ATC/TTC and IL-8 concentration.
The IL8 haplotype of susceptibility to CP was neither associated with IL-8 cytokine levels nor with clinical periodontal parameters. Also, CP, IL8 haplotype and IL-8 concentration showed a positive association with the GCF volume levels in the studied patients.
Archives of oral biology 08/2012; 57(10):1355-61. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have focused on the impact of hypertension on the progression of periodontitis (PD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether hypertension affects PD by enhancing bone loss even after the stimulus for PD induction is removed. Ligature-induced PD was created on the first mandibular molars of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive rats (Wistar Kyoto-WKY). The animals were assigned to non-ligated controls (C) and PD groups: WKY-C, WKY-PD, SHR-C, and SHR-PD. After 10 days, five animals of each group were killed and the ligatures of the other animals were removed. On the 21st day (11 days without PD induced), the remaining animals were killed. The jaws were defleshed and the amount of bone loss was measured. After 10 days, the PD groups showed more bone loss than its controls (P < .05); SHR-PD = 0.72 ± 0.05 mm, SHR-C = 0.39 ± 0.04 mm, WKY-PD = 0.75 ± 0.04 mm, and WKY-C = 0.56 ± 0.04 mm. The cumulative bone loss on day 21 (0.94 ± 0.13 mm) was significantly worse than on day 10 only in SHR-PD group (P < .05). The final bone loss differences between PD and C groups accounted for 102% (SHR) and 26% (WKY) increase in comparison with the initial control levels. Hypertension is associated with progressive alveolar bone loss even when the stimulus for PD induction is removed and it may be speculated that host condition perpetuates alveolar bone loss.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 05/2012; · 1.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and may underlie cardiomyocyte injury and the degradation of cardiac troponin I (cTI) during acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APT). We examined whether pretreatment or therapy with tempol (a ROS scavenger) prevents MMP activation and cardiomyocyte injury of APT. Anesthetized sheep received tempol infusion (1.0 mg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.) or saline starting 30 min before or 30 min after APT (autologous blood clots). Control animals received saline. Hemodynamic measurements were performed. MMPs were studied in the right ventricle (RV) by gelatin zymography, fluorimetric activity assay, and in situ zymography. The ROS levels were determined in the RV and cTI were measured in serum samples. APT increased the pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance by 146 and 164%, respectively. Pretreatment or therapy with tempol attenuated these increases. While APT increased RV + dP/dt (max), tempol infusions had no effects. APT increased RV MMP-9 (but not MMP-2) levels. In line with these findings, APT increased RV MMP activities, and this finding was confirmed by in situ zymography. APT increased the RV ROS levels and tempol infusion, before or after APT, and blunted APT-induced increases in MMP-9 levels, MMP activities, in situ MMP activities, and ROS levels in the RV. cTI concentrations increased after APT, and tempol attenuated these increases. RV oxidative stress after APT increases the RV MMP activities, leading to the degradation of sarcomeric proteins, including cTI. Antioxidant treatment may prevent MMP activation and protect against cardiomyocyte injury after APT.
Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 05/2012; 385(7):685-96. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effect of the systemic use of sodium alendronate in rats in vivo. Forty-five Wistar rats aged 36 to 42 days and weighing 200 to 230 g were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 20), which received distilled water, and an experimental group (n = 25), which received 2 weekly doses of 1 mg/kg of chemically pure sodium alendronate. The animals were killed after 60 days of treatment. The tibias were removed for analysis of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Then, the maxillary incisors were extracted for analysis of the mineralized dental tissues using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), bright field microscopy (BFM), and cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) testing. DXA and CSMH data were subjected to statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis test (5% significance level). The experimental group presented higher bone mineral density than the control group by DXA. FS analysis revealed presence of alendronate in the mineralized dental tissues of the specimens of the experimental group. Significant morphological differences were not found by SEM and BFM. Enamel and dentin (100 and 300 μm from the dentinoenamel junction) CSMH data did not show significant difference between the control and experimental groups. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that while alendronate increased the bone mineral density and was incorporated into the mineralized dental tissues it did not cause significant alterations in the morphology and microhardness of rat incisor enamel and dentin.
Microscopy Research and Technique 04/2012; 75(9):1265-71. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing experimental evidence indicates that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in many cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and its chronic complications. It is now clear that MMPs have many more substrates other than components of the extracellular matrix. In fact, intracellular targets now include those associated with the cardiovascular system. Clinical studies have suggested that circulating MMPs may predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is highly probable that increased MMPs may predispose hypertensive patients to additional complications and clinical sequelae. In this article, we review the basic principles linking MMP activity with hypertension and summarize clinical studies examining two specific MMPs (MMP-2 and -9) in hypertension. We also discuss how antihypertensive drugs may affect MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors, i.e., tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Circulating MMPs may predict increased risk of developing cardiovascular complications associated with hypertension. As such, patients could benefit from early pharmacologic intervention including use of MMP inhibitors.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 04/2012; 413(7-8):656-62. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to hypertension-induced upregulation of vascular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and remodeling, especially in the two kidney, one clip (2K1C) hypertension model. We hypothesized that the AT(1)R antagonist losartan or the renin inhibitor aliskiren, given at doses allowing similar antihypertensive effects, could prevent in vivo vascular MMPs upregulation and remodeling, and collagen/elastin deposition found in 2K1C hypertension by preventing the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and transforming growth factor-β(1) (TGF-β(1)). We also hypothesized that aliskiren could enhance the effects of losartan. METHODS: 2K1C rats were treated with aliskiren (50mg.kg(-1).day(-1)), or losartan (10mg.kg(-1).day(-1)), or both by gavage during 4weeks. RESULTS: Aliskiren, losartan, or both drugs exerted similar antihypertensive effects when compared with 2K-1C rats treated with water. Aliskiren reduced plasma renin activity in both sham and 2K-1C rats. Losartan alone or combined with aliskiren, but not aliskiren alone, abolished 2K1C-induced aortic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and prevented the increases in aortic collagen/elastin content, MMP-2 levels, gelatinolytic activity, and expression of phospho-ERK 1/2 and TGF-β(1). No significant differences were found in the aortic expression of the (pro)renin receptor. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that although losartan and aliskiren exerted similar antihypertensive effects, only losartan prevented the activation of vascular profibrotic mechanisms and MMP upregulation associated with vascular remodeling in 2K1C hypertension. Our findings also suggest that aliskiren does not enhance the protective effects exerted by losartan.
International journal of cardiology 04/2012; · 7.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased vascular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) levels play a role in late phases of hypertensive vascular remodeling. However, no previous study has examined the time course of MMPs in the various phases of two-kidney, one-clip hypertension (2K1C). We examined structural vascular changes, collagen and elastin content, vascular oxidative stress, and MMPs levels/activities during the development of 2K1C hypertension. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was measured to assess renin-angiotensin system activation. Sham or 2K1C hypertensive rats were studied after 2, 4, 6, and 10weeks of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored weekly. Morphometry of structural changes in the aortic wall was studied in hematoxylin/eosin, orcein and picrosirius red sections. Aortic NADPH activity and superoxide production was evaluated. Aortic gelatinolytic activity was determined by in situ zymography, and MMP-2, MMP-14, and tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-2 levels were determined by gelatin zymography, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. 2K1C hypertension was associated with increased ACE activity, which decreased to normal after 10 weeks. We found increased aortic collagen and elastin content in the early phase of hypertension, which were associated with vascular hypertrophy, increased vascular MMP-2 and MMP-14 (but not TIMP-2) levels, and increased gelatinolytic activity, possibly as a result of increased vascular NADPH oxidase activity and oxidative stress. These results indicate that vascular remodeling of renovascular hypertension is an early process associated with early increases in MMPs activities, enhanced matrix deposition and oxidative stress. Using antioxidants or MMPs inhibitors in the early phase of hypertension may prevent the vascular alterations of hypertension.
Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 02/2012; 31(4):261-70. · 3.56 Impact Factor