[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Disc perforation (DP) is one of the most important pathologic signs of intracapsular temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease; however, few clinical studies have focused on the arthroscopic management of this feature. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether operative arthroscopy with abrasion of the perforation borders is effective for the treatment of this alteration of the internal derangement of the TMJ. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients (39 joints) who underwent TMJ arthroscopy under general anesthesia and presented with DP (Wilkes stages IV and V) from 1994 through 2006 were included in this study. The age range at the time of surgery was 14 to 59 years. DPs were classified into 3 groups according to size: small (SMA), medium (MED), or large (LAR). Pain (visual analog scale, scores 0 to 100), maximal interincisal opening, and lateral and protrusive excursions were assessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 months after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative scores were compared and tested for statistically significant differences by the Student t test for paired data. The level of statistical significance was set at .05. Differences in the global, SMA, MED, and LAR groups were evaluated. RESULTS: In the global group, the mean score of preoperative pain according to the visual analog scale was 53.97 mm, which decreased to 14.33 mm at 4-year follow-up. The maximal interincisal opening improved from a mean of 28.56 mm before surgery to 34.88 mm after the final follow-up. SMA perforations were found in 11 cases (28.20%), MED in 19 cases (48.71%), and LAR in 9 cases (23.07%). A significant decrease in pain (P < .01) was observed from the first postoperative month to the end of the follow-up period in the global and SMA groups. A statistically significant increase in mouth opening was observed in the global group from 6 months postoperatively; however, no significant differences were observed in the MED and LAR groups from before surgery to the different times of follow-up. After the final follow-up, 2 patients underwent open TMJ surgery owing to unfavorable results. CONCLUSIONS: Operative arthroscopy of the TMJ is a reliable and effective procedure for the articular dysfunction associated with DP because this procedure alleviates pain and improves mouth opening. Patients with SMA perforations are better candidates for this surgical treatment.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 04/2013; 71(4):667-676. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The maxilla is the functional and esthetic keystone of the midface, and large maxillary defects remain a challenge for reconstructive surgery. Different regional and microvascularized flaps have been used to restore the hemimaxilla. Distraction osteogenesis offers an alternative to complex flaps, with less donor-site morbidity. This method is also preferable as a secondary reconstruction in cases of serious bone defects where other flaps have failed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four patients with maxillary defects after oncologic ablation presented at a mean follow-up period of 36 months (standard deviation, 18 mo). In these patients, transport distraction osteogenesis of the zygoma was used to restore the bony support of the low maxilla. RESULTS: After a latency period of 15 days, distraction began at a rate of 0.5 mm/day. A 2-step distraction, by changing the direction of the zygomatic device, was carried out in 3 cases. After a consolidation period of 4 to 6 months for each distraction, the devices were removed and the bone edges were joined together with an autogenous bone graft (anterior iliac crest and calvaria). A good quality of bone was observed in the distracted gap, which allowed for postoperative dental implant placement and prosthetic rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: In patients with large maxillary defects in which the remaining bone is insufficient and in patients in whom other reconstructive methods have failed, zygomatic distraction is an excellent option to restore the low projection of the maxilla. Bone transport was found to be a stable reconstructive method that allowed for the restoration of function and esthetics in oncologic patients.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 04/2013; 71(4):e189-e197. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess whether arthroscopic lysis and lavage (ALL) or operative arthroscopy (OA) is more effective for the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement at any stage of involvement.
In 458 patients (611 joints) with internal derangement of the TMJ classified as Wilkes stages II through V, arthroscopy was performed. Pain (visual analog scale score, 0-100) and maximal interincisal opening were assessed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months after surgery.
ALL was performed in 308 of 611 arthroscopies (50.4%), and OA was performed in 303 arthroscopies (49.59%). A significant decrease in pain (P < .001) was observed for all patients at any time during the follow-up period from the first month postoperatively to the end of the 2-year follow-up period. A highly significant increase in mouth opening greater than 13 mm was observed in the group of patients classified as Wilkes stage IV from the first month postoperatively. When we compared ALL versus OA among Wilkes stages, no significant differences in terms of pain were observed during the entire follow-up period.
Both ALL and OA are equally effective at decreasing pain in patients with TMJ internal derangement of any Wilkes stage. Patients classified as Wilkes stage IV presenting with chronic closed lock of the TMJ had the highest decrease in pain and the highest increase in mouth opening among the stages, thus confirming these patients as the best candidates for arthroscopy.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 10/2011; 69(10):2513-24. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to analyze implant survival in patients who received radiotherapy treatment for oral malignancies and in patients who had suffered mandibular osteoradionecrosis.
We reviewed retrospectively 225 implants placed in 30 patients who had received radiotherapy as part of the oncologic treatment. Radiation doses ranged between 50 and 70 Gy. 39 implants were placed after a combined treatment of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Data referred to tumour type and reconstruction, presence of osteoradionecrosis, region of implant installation and type of prostheses were recorded. Survival rates were calculated with cumulative Kaplan-Meier survival curves and compared between different groups with a log-rank test.
152 osseointegrated implants were placed in patients who presented previous reconstruction procedure. Five patients developed osteorradionecrosis as a complication of the radiotherapy treatment. Once osteoradionecrosis had healed in these patients, 41 implants were installed. The overall 5 year survival rate in irradiated patients was 92.6%. Irradiated patients had a marginally significantly higher implant loss than non-irradiated patients. (p = 0.063). The 5 year survival rate in the osteoradionecrosis group was of 48.3% and in the non-osteoradionecrosis group 92.3%, with a statistically significant difference between both groups. (p = 0.002).
Osseointegrated implants enhance oral rehabilitation in most irradiated patients, even being an acceptable option for patients who had suffered osteoradionecrosis. Totally implant supported prostheses are recommended after irradiation providing functional, stable and aesthetically satisfactory rehabilitation.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 07/2011; 70(5):1052-63. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free vascularized fibular flap is considered the treatment of choice in mandibular reconstruction for extensive bone defects (over 6 centimeters) resulting from trauma, infections or tumor resections. But, when the reconstruction involves a dentate mandible, the fibula has the limit as it does not offer sufficient bone height to restore the alveolar arch up to the occlusal plane. Therefore, the deficiency in bone height makes implant placement impractical. We report a case of vertical distraction osteogenesis of a free vascularized fibula flap used to reconstruct a hemimandible after resection of an odontogenic myxoma, for optimization of the implant prosthetic rehabilitation. The distraction device was applied intraorally. After 10 days of latency period, distraction protocol was performed at a distraction rate of 0.5 mm per day. A consolidation period of 3 months followed. Afterwards the distraction device was removed and 3 osseointegrated dental implants were placed in the distracted area. As a result, the vertical discrepancy between the fibula and the native hemimandible was corrected. The amount of vertical height achieved after distraction was 17 milimeters. The increase of vertical bone height was stable and enabled placement of dental implants without any complications. In conclusion, we consider that vertical distraction osteogenesis of free vascularized flaps is a reliable technique that optimizes implant positioning for ideal prosthetic rehabilitation, after mandibular reconstruction following tumor surgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognostic influence of different clinicopathologic factors in contralateral lymph node metastases of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been rarely described in the literature. Prediction of these contralateral metastases may be of relevance because this factor is strongly associated with poor prognosis. This study analyzed the relationship between predictor factors and the development of contralateral metastases in oral and oropharyngeal SCC.
A series of 402 cases of oral and oropharyngeal SCC were analyzed retrospectively. Unilateral neck dissection was carried out in 190 patients, bilateral neck dissection in 101, and tumor resection without neck dissection in 111. The log-rank test was used for survival analysis of contralateral metastases. Correlation between different clinicopathologic factors and the presence of contralateral metastases was studied with the chi(2) test for univariate analysis and logistic regression for association of these factors and contralateral metastases in the multivariate analysis (P < .05).
Of the patients, 20 (5.1%) had primary positive contralateral metastases in neck dissection specimens and 19 (4.8%) had contralateral recurrences at follow-up. When the 2 groups were taken into consideration, the rate of contralateral metastases of the series was 9%. Gender, tumor location, homolateral positive nodes, tumor extension across the midline, histologic grade, margin status, pattern of growth, and perineural spread were correlated with contralateral metastases in the univariate analysis (P < .05). However, homolateral lymph node metastases and extension across the midline were the most important predictors of contralateral metastases (P < .01) on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Positive contralateral metastases showed a strong correlation with a poor prognosis for survival in this study (P < .05).
Oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas with homolateral positive lymph nodes and tumor extension across the midline are at higher risk of contralateral lymph node involvement. Prediction of contralateral metastases may be useful in planning more aggressive therapies in patients with head and neck SCC with poor prognostic criteria.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 02/2010; 68(2):268-75. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionArthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has been considered an effective technique to treat close lock (CL). The purpose of this study is to evaluate if the status of the joint surface and the synovial membrane directly seen via arthroscopy can determine the post operative results of patients with chronic block of the TMJ.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthroscopy has been reported to be an effective and reliable technique for the treatment of chronic closed lock (CCL) of the TMJ. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether the status of the joint surface and the synovial lining directly visualized with arthroscopy could determine postoperative results in patients with CCL of the TMJ.
In all, 257 of 500 patients (344 joints) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for CCL of the TMJ. Of these patients, 172 with unilateral TMJ involvement were finally selected for the study. Synovitis and chondromalacia were chosen as the main features for evaluation of the joint surface and synovial lining. Two groups of patients were established: 1) patients with scarce affectation (synovitis grades I-II and chondromalacia grades I-II); and 2) patients with severe affectation (synovitis grades III-IV and/or chondromalacia grades III-IV). Pain and maximal interincisal opening were chosen as dependent variables. All patients were assessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. The paired-samples Student's t test was used to compare mean values for pain (using a visual analog scale) and maximal interincisal opening (MIO) both pre- and postoperatively. The Student's t test for unpaired data was applied for the statistical analysis. A P value less than .05 was considered statistically significant.
Synovitis grades I-II were arthroscopically observed in 87 (50.58%) patients, whereas synovitis grades III-IV were present in 72 (41.86%) patients. Chondromalacia grades I-II were arthroscopically observed in 66 (38.37%) patients, whereas chondromalacia grades III-IV were present in 54 (31.39%) patients. A statistically significant decrease in pain (P < .001) with a parallel increase in mouth opening (P < .001) after arthroscopy was observed for patients with synovitis I-II, synovitis III-IV, chondromalacia I-II, and chondromalacia III-IV during the whole follow-up period. A significant difference (P = .01) in relation to VAS score was observed between patients with synovitis I-II and patients with synovitis III-IV at month 6 postoperatively. However, this difference did not persist during the rest of the follow-up period, as was the case in relation to mouth opening. No significant differences were observed in relation to decrease of pain and increase of MIO between patients with chondromalacia I-II and patients with chondromalacia III-IV at any time during the follow-up period. Although mean values for pain were lower in patients with synovitis I-II plus chondromalacia I-II in comparison to patients with synovitis III-IV plus chondromalacia III-IV for the whole follow-up period, no statistical significant differences were observed. In relation to the increase in mouth opening, slightly higher values were observed for patients with synovitis I-II plus chondromalacia I-II, although no statistical differences were observed with regard to patients presenting with synovitis III-IV plus chondromalacia III-IV.
A significant decrease in pain with a parallel increase in MIO was achieved from month 1 postoperatively in patients with any grade of synovitis and/or chondromalacia. No statistical difference in pain or function was observed between patients with scarce involvement of the joint surface and the synovial lining and patients with severe involvement after arthroscopy.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 01/2010; 68(1):35-42. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calvarial defects are common problems in craniofacial surgery. They may be explained by surgical interventions, infectious processes, cranial trauma or congenital anomalies. Calvarial defects are particularly challenging because they do not heal spontaneously in humans older than 24 months. The feasibility of using bifocal transport distraction osteogenesis to repair calvarial defects has been successfully evaluated in numerous experimental models. To our knowledge, it has not been used for the reconstruction of human skull defects. We report the first case of human calvarial defect healed by transport distraction osteogenesis.
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 11/2009; 38(5):368-73. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the advent of the modern microvascular techniques, the radial forearm free flap (RFFF) and the vascularized fibular free flap (VFFF) have become reliable methods for reconstructing oromandibular defects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate our experience with the use of both free flaps in the reconstruction of oral cavity defects after tumoral ablation.
Over a 9-year period, 103 consecutive patients were treated in our department for the reconstruction of oral defects after tumor ablation by means of microvascularized free flaps. A total of 55 patients underwent reconstruction using RFFFs; 42 patients underwent reconstruction using VFFFs with or without skin paddles. Patients were treated for benign (n = 15) and malignant (n = 82) entities. All but 7 patients received donor site covering with abdominal full-thickness skin grafts.
Of the 55 patients who received RFFFs, 5 (9.09%) developed necrosis at the end of the postsurgical period, and 7 patients developed complications of the donor site. Of the 42 patients who received VFFFs, an overall flap survival rate of 92.85% was achieved, and complications at the donor site occurred in 5 patients. For both free flaps, anesthesia time lasted from 6 to 15 hours (mean, 9.57 hours), whereas the mean flap ischemic time was 82.86 minutes.
Our results reveal that the RFFF is a reliable method for reconstructing a wide range of oral cavity defects with an acceptably low morbidity rate. It provides adequate bulk and pliability, enabling the reconstruction of a wide variety of locations within the oral cavity. The VFFF allows good reconstruction of composite mandibular defects and provides adequate support for dental implants.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 08/2009; 67(7):1473-7. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of local recurrences (LRs) and second primary tumors (SPTs) from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity primarily treated with surgery and to further study their relationship with several primary tumor clinical and pathological features.
Five hundred of 522 patients with SCC of the oral cavity primarily treated with surgery were retrospectively analyzed for the appearance of LRs and SPTs within the oral cavity. All patients with SPTs fulfilled the Warren & Gates criteria. Several clinical features were analyzed. Histological study included TNM classification, tumor size, tumor thickness, surgical margins, perineural infiltration, peritumoral inflammation, and bone involvement. In the univariant analysis, the possible association between different clinical and pathological features and the presence of LRs or SPTs was analyzed by means of the chi-square test for categorical data and the Student's t test for parametric data. The appearance of LRs and SPTs was also studied by binary logistic regression as time-dependant phenomena, in the univariant analysis. Logistic regression was also used for the multivariant analysis between the selected variables. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the probability of SPT- or LR-free survival.
The mean duration of the follow-up period was 52.27 +/- 49.52 months. At the end of this time, 53.82% of the patients were alive without evidence of disease, whereas 31.48% had specifically died of disease. Twenty-eight (5.6%) patients developed an SPT within the oral cavity, whereas 95 (19%) patients developed an LR during the whole follow-up period. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for the whole series was 67.2%, in contrast to 34.9% in the group of patients with SPT and/or LR. In relation to the univariant analysis, T classification, TNM staging, pT classification, surgical margins, bone involvement, and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) were found to be predictive for LR. In relation to the multivariant analysis, only postoperative RT and bone involvement were predictive for the development of LR.
The identification of preoperative and postoperative clinical and pathological features that prelude a higher risk for the appearance of LRs and/or SPTs may be of potential interest in determining which patients should benefit of a closer regular follow-up. When considering together the whole clinical and pathological features, only postoperative RT and bone involvement were predictive for the development of LRs. Because of the poor survival rate of the affected patients, we strongly recommend aggressive surgical treatment following the appearance of an SPT or LR.
Head & Neck 04/2009; 31(9):1168-80. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors evaluate the results of transoral endoscopic-assisted open reduction and miniplate fixation of subcondylar fractures. Seventeen patients were treated from August 2005 to April 2007. Inclusion criteria were: adult patients, inability to achieve adequate occlusion with closed reduction, dislocation of the condylar fragment between 10 and 45 degrees , and 2-mm inter-fragment overlapping. Regular panoramic radiographs were taken postoperatively. Transbuccal incisions were used to place the screws for fixation in 15 patients. Pure intraoral access and angulated drills and screwdrivers were used in 2 patients. The condyle was placed into the condylar fossa in all cases. No damage to the facial nerve was observed. No visible scars were present. Mean surgical time was 80.36 minutes. Transitory hyposthesia was observed in 3 cases. Adequate reduction and consolidation of the fracture was achieved in 16 patients. No condylar reabsortion was present at the end of the follow-up period. The authors consider that transoral endoscopic-assisted open reduction constitutes a valid alternative to a transcutaneous approach for the reduction and fixation of subcondylar fractures in selected cases. It provides the benefits of open reduction and internal fixation without the potential complications. Advice is given on how to achieve adequate reduction and stability of the proximal fragment.
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 01/2009; 38(1):19-25. · 1.52 Impact Factor