[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the wide use of metformin in metabolically challenged pregnancies, the long-term effects on the metabolism of the offspring are not known. We studied the long-term effects of prenatal metformin exposure during metabolically challenged pregnancy in mice.
Female mice were on a high fat diet (HFD) prior to and during the gestation. Metformin was administered during gestation from E0.5 to E17.5. Male and female offspring were weaned to a regular diet (RD) and subjected to HFD at adulthood (10-11 weeks). Body weight and several metabolic parameters (e.g. body composition and glucose tolerance) were measured during the study. Microarray and subsequent pathway analyses on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue of the male offspring were performed at postnatal day 4 in a separate experiment.
Prenatal metformin exposure changed the offspring's response to HFD. Metformin exposed offspring gained less body weight and adipose tissue during the HFD phase. Additionally, prenatal metformin exposure prevented HFD-induced impairment in glucose tolerance. Microarray and annotation analyses revealed metformin-induced changes in several metabolic pathways from which electron transport chain (ETC) was prominently affected both in the neonatal liver and adipose tissue.
This study shows the beneficial effects of prenatal metformin exposure on the offspring's glucose tolerance and fat mass accumulation during HFD. The transcriptome data obtained at neonatal age indicates major effects on the genes involved in mitochondrial ATP production and adipocyte differentiation suggesting the mechanistic routes to improved metabolic phenotype at adulthood.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115778. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115778 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine how AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activating antidiabetic drug metformin regulates the major activator of hepatic gluconeogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and the PGC-1α controlled liver functions.
Mouse and human primary hepatocytes and mice in vivo were treated with metformin. Adenoviral over-expression, siRNA and reporter gene constructs were used for mechanistic studies.
Metformin induced PGC-1α mRNA and protein expression in mouse primary hepatocytes. AICAR (another AMPK activator) had an opposite effect. Metformin induced PGC-1α also in human primary hepatocytes. PGC-1α induction by metformin was abolished by AMPK inhibitor Compound C and Sirtuin 1 siRNA. AMPK overexpression by AMPK-Ad also induced PGC-1α. While PGC-1α was induced, metformin downregulated gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Furthermore, metformin attenuated induction of PEPCK and G6Pase mRNAs by PGC-1α overexpression, but had no effect on PGC-1α-mediated induction of mitochondrial genes. Metformin downregulated several key transcription factors mediating PGC-1α effect on gluconeogenic genes i.e. krüppel-like factor 15, forkhead box protein O1 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, while nuclear respiratory factor 1 involved in PGC-1α-mediated regulation of mitochondrial proteins was induced.
Downregulation of PGC-1α is not necessary for suppression of gluconeogenic genes by metformin. Importantly, metformin selectively regulates hepatic PGC-1α-mediated gene regulation and prevents activation of gluconeogenesis, but leaves regulation of mitochondrial genes intact. Our results thus identify selective modulation of hepatic PGC-1α functions as a novel mechanism involved in the therapeutic action of metformin.
British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2014; 171(9). DOI:10.1111/bph.12585 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antidiabetic drug metformin is currently used prior and during pregnancy for polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as during gestational diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of prenatal metformin exposure on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring during adulthood in mice.
Metformin (300 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally to dams on regular diet from the embryonic day E0.5 to E17.5. Gene expression profiles in liver and brain were analysed from 4-day old offspring by microarray. Body weight development and several metabolic parameters of offspring were monitored both during regular diet (RD-phase) and high fat diet (HFD-phase). At the end of the study, two doses of metformin or vehicle were given acutely to mice at the age of 20 weeks, and Insig-1 and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in liver and fat tissue were analysed using qRT-PCR.
Metformin exposed fetuses were lighter at E18.5. There was no effect of metformin on the maternal body weight development or food intake. Metformin exposed offspring gained more body weight and mesenteric fat during the HFD-phase. The male offspring also had impaired glucose tolerance and elevated fasting glucose during the HFD-phase. Moreover, the expression of GLUT4 mRNA was down-regulated in epididymal fat in male offspring prenatally exposed to metformin. Based on the microarray and subsequent qRT-PCR analyses, the expression of Insig-1 was changed in the liver of neonatal mice exposed to metformin prenatally. Furthermore, metformin up-regulated the expression of Insig-1 later in development. Gene set enrichment analysis based on preliminary microarray data identified several differentially enriched pathways both in control and metformin exposed mice.
The present study shows that prenatal metformin exposure causes long-term programming effects on the metabolic phenotype during high fat diet in mice. This should be taken into consideration when using metformin as a therapeutic agent during pregnancy.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(2):e56594. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056594 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sympathetic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) is associated with vascular remodelling, neointimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis in experimental animal models and clinical studies. In order to study the role of sympathetic nerve-produced NPY in vascular diseases, transgenic mouse model overexpressing NPY in central and peripheral noradrenergic neurons under the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) promoter was recently created (OE-NPY(DBH) mouse). This study aimed to examine the effect of NPY overexpression on arterial neointimal hyperplasia in an experimental model of vascular injury. Transgenic OE-NPY(DBH) mice and wildtype control mice of two different inbred strains (C57BL/6 and FVB/n) underwent a femoral artery surgery with a transluminar injury by a 0.38-mm guide wire insertion. Arteries were harvested 4 weeks from the surgery, and they were stained for basic morphology. Both strains of OE-NPY(DBH) mice, as compared with wildtype control mice, showed on average 50% greater formation of the neointima (P<0.01) and an increase in the medial area (P=0.05). The results suggest that moderately increased neuronal NPY causes the arteries to be more susceptible to femoral artery thickening after endothelial injury. The OE-NPY(DBH) mouse provides a novel tool to explore the role of NPY in the development of vascular disease related to metabolic disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter co-stored and co-released with noradrenaline and adrenaline. We have constructed a novel NPY transgenic mouse model (OE-NPY(DBH) mouse) where targeted overexpression results in increased levels of NPY in the brainstem and adrenal glands. The present study was aimed to understand the role of NPY released from sympathetic nerves and brain noradrenergic neurons in regulation of blood pressure, and behavioral responses to stress.
Blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry in conscious male OE-NPY(DBH) and wild-type mice during surgical stress and in baseline conditions. Plasma and adrenal gland catecholamine levels were measured at baseline. Acute immobilization and cold exposure were used to study the plasma levels of NPY and corticosterone in stress, and brown adipose tissue thermogenic activity was measured with [(3)H]GDP binding after cold.
Here, we demonstrate that sympathoadrenal activity is enhanced in the OE-NPY(DBH) mice. Blood pressure during surgical stress was significantly increased in comparison with wild-type controls. Furthermore, OE-NPY(DBH) mice showed sexually dimorphic NPY responses to stress, and an anxiolytic-like behavior in elevated plus-maze and light-dark tests.
This study shows that the overactive noradrenergic NPY system plays a role in regulation of blood pressure and adaptive responses to stress, and may be a link between chronic stress and adiposity-associated disturbances in metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A functional polymorphism leucine 7 proline in the human neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene leading to increased NPY release from sympathetic nerves is associated with traits of metabolic syndrome. Although hypothalamic NPY neurons play an established role in promoting positive energy balance, the role of NPY colocalized with norepinephrine in sympathetic nervous system and brain noradrenergic neurons remains obscure.
To clarify the role of NPY in noradrenergic neurons, we generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing NPY under dopamine-beta-hydroxylase promoter and characterized the metabolic phenotype of the OE-NPY(DbetaH) mouse.
NPY levels are increased by 1.3-fold in adrenal glands and 1.8-fold in the brainstem but not in the hypothalamus in OE-NPY(DbetaH) mice. They display increased white adipose tissue mass and cellularity and liver triglyceride accumulation without hyperphagia or increased body weight. Hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose tolerance develop by the age of 6 months in the OE-NPY(DbetaH) mice. Furthermore, circulating ghrelin is significantly increased in comparison with wild-type mice.
The present study shows that even a moderate increase in NPY levels in noradrenergic neurons leads to disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism. The OE-NPY(DbetaH) mouse is an interesting new model to investigate the pathophysiology of some key components of the cluster of abnormalities characterizing the metabolic syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter that plays a role in e.g. circulation, hormone release and angiogenesis. Earlier studies have shown that the Leucine 7 to Proline 7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with increased risk for vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. The mechanism for this maybe altered transmitter and hormone levels or altered cardiovascular functions, which have been observed in healthy subjects having the Leu7Pro polymorphism. The current study was undertaken to explore if the Leu7Pro polymorphism has an impact on these functions in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diurnal measurements were performed for Finnish Caucasian type 2 diabetes patients of two preproNPY genotypes (matched by sex, age, BMI, duration of diabetes and HbA1c) in resting position to prevent sympathetic stimulation. Standard meals were offered during the 24-hour study period. Nine subjects with the Leu7Pro polymorphism and ten subjects without this polymorphism were studied. Plasma concentrations of NPY, glucose, insulin, cortisol, prolactin and leptin were measured by taking blood samples at 20 time points (from 8 a.m. to 8 a.m.). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured at the same time points. The results show that NPY concentrations were similar in both preproNPY genotypes. Glucose, insulin, cortisol and leptin concentrations as well as heart rate and blood pressure were also similar. However, a significant difference between genotypes was found in the association of NPY concentrations with cortisol concentrations (p for difference=0.002). Also a statistically significant negative association of plasma NPY levels with plasma glucose levels was found in both genotypes. Since no impact of preproNPY genotype on mean NPY or hormone levels were detected in subjects with type 2 diabetes, the mechanisms for the increased risk for diabetic complications in the subjects with the Leu7Pro polymorphism need to be further explored.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the regulatory role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in angiogenesis, we set out to determine the presence of the leucine 7-proline 7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients and to analyse its implications.
Genotype analysis of the Leu7Pro polymorphism in the signal peptide region of the human prepro-NPY was performed in blood samples from exudative AMD patients (n = 240) and control subjects (n = 79).
In all, 11% of exudative AMD patients and 14% of control subjects exhibited the NPY signal peptide Leu7Pro polymorphism. There were no statistically significant differences in Leu7Pro polymorphism frequency between the exudative AMD and control cases, as analysed by Fisher's exact two-sided test.
Leu7Pro polymorphism in the signal peptide region of the human prepro-NPY is not a risk factor for exudative AMD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The important role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the regulation of food intake and energy balance has been firmly documented in rodents, but human data are sparse. The recently identified functional Leu7Pro polymorphism in the signal peptide region of the prepro-NPY is a useful tool for the investigation of the role of NPY in men. Pro7 substitution has been associated with the following: plasma NPY concentration, the risk factors of cardiovascular disease, birth weight of children, serum triglyceride concentration, and the function of vascular endothelium.
The objective of this study was to analyze the connection between Leu7Pro polymorphism and relative weight, nutrient intakes, and serum lipids in early childhood. We closely followed 647 healthy Finnish children participating in the Special Turku Risk Factor Intervention Project through their first 9 yr of life.
Leu7Pro polymorphism showed no relation to intakes of energy, macronutrients, or the relative weight in either gender. However, Pro7 substitution was associated with serum triglyceride concentration in boys at the ages of 5, 7, and 9 yr.
The functional Leu7Pro polymorphism is not likely to be involved in the regulation of adiposity or major nutrient preferences in childhood. In boys, the Pro7 variant may have impact on serum triglyceride concentration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown genetic predisposition for diabetic complications. The leucine7 to proline7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism of preproNPY has been shown to be a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. In the current study we examined the contribution of this polymorphism on the progression of retinopathy in Caucasian type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes and the Leu7Pro polymorphism developed retinopathy at younger age because of markedly earlier disease onset of diabetes (RC- 6.8, 95% CI-12.2 - [- 1.5]), but no association of the Leu7Pro polymorphism with the current severity of retinopathy was detected. A strong association of the polymorphism with proteinuria in type 2 diabetes patients with retinopathy could be detected (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.8); 31% of subjects having both retinopathy and proteinuria had the polymorphism compared to only 13% of retinopathy patents without concomitant proteinuria (p = 0.032). Plasma concentrations of NPY were increased in subjects with proteinuria (79.2+/-28.4 and 64.7+/-26.2 pmol/l, p = 0.001). These results suggest that the Leu7Pro polymorphism could be used to predict earlier onset of type 2 diabetes and retinopathy, and increased risk for diabetic nephropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a role in angiogenesis, cardiovascular regulation, and hormone secretion. The leucine7 to proline7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with vascular diseases and has an impact on hormone levels in healthy subjects.
The current study investigated the role of the Leu7Pro polymorphism in metabolic and cardiovascular autonomic regulation.
A 5-h oral glucose tolerance test was performed on 27 healthy volunteers representing two preproNPY genotypes (Leu7/Pro7 and Leu7/Leu7) matched for age, sex, body mass index and physical activity.
Simultaneously we performed cardiovascular autonomic function tests and plasma measurements of sympathetic transmitters, glucose, insulin, and ghrelin.
The subjects with Leu7/Pro7 genotype had decreased plasma NPY, norepinephrine (NE), and insulin concentrations and insulin to glucose ratios. The suppression of ghrelin concentrations after glucose ingestion was delayed in these subjects. They also had increased heart rate variability indices and baroreflex sensitivity. However, they displayed significant negative association of NE concentration with variability of low-frequency R-R-intervals and with baroreflex sensitivity.
The Leu7Pro polymorphism of preproNPY is related to decreased level of basal sympathetic activity, decreased insulin secretion, and delayed ghrelin suppression during oral glucose tolerance test. The increased responsiveness of autonomic functions to NE associated with the polymorphism may be connected to increased cardiovascular vulnerability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a versatile neurotransmitter that has recently been shown to regulate bone metabolism in animal and in vitro studies. We studied the influence of leucine7-to-proline7 (Leu7/Pro7) polymorphism of the NPY signal peptide gene on bone mineral density (BMD) before and after a 5-year hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in 316 early postmenopausal women participating in a randomized controlled trial nested in the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) study. The participants were randomized into two treatment groups: the HRT group (n = 146) received a sequential combination of 2 mg estradiol valerate and 1 mg cyproterone acetate and calcium lactate, 500 mg/day (equal to 93 mg Ca2+) alone or in combination with vitamin D3, 100-300 IU/day. The non-HRT group (n = 170) received calcium lactate, 500 mg alone or in combination with vitamin D3, 100-300 IU/day. BMDs of the lumbar spine (L2-4) and proximal femur were measured by using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The frequency of Leu7/Pro7 polymorphism was 15.2%. At baseline, there were no significant differences in the lumbar or femoral neck BMD between the subjects who had Leu7Pro7 polymorphism and the normal subjects. After 5 years, the BMD of the femoral neck remained unaltered and that of the lumbar spine increased by 1.7% in the HRT group, whereas both BMDs were decreased by 4-5% in the non-HRT group. After 5 years, the femoral neck BMD was significantly lower in those with the wild-type NPY polymorphism than in those with Leu7/Pro7 polymorphism (P = 0.040) in the non-HRT group. In the HRT group, the changes in BMD were quite modest and not significantly modified by Leu7/Pro7 genotype. We conclude that the Leu7/Pro7 polymorphism in NPY signal gene may favorably affect femoral neck BMD in postmenopausal women.
Bone 10/2004; 35(3):589-94. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2004.05.004 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied whether the serum leptin concentration at age 2 years predicts changes in relative body weight by age 8 and whether the serum leptin concentration is associated with intake of energy and nutrients at age 5.
A total of 156 8-year-old participants of the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project were chosen to represent children whose relative weight decreased, was stable, or increased during the preceding 6 years. Their serum leptin concentrations were measured in samples collected when they were 2 years. Serum leptin was also measured in 100 5-year-old children in the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project whose energy and nutrient intakes were analyzed using 4-day food records.
The boys whose relative weight decreased (n = 25), was stable (n = 28), or increased (n = 26) between 2 and 8 years of age had similar serum leptin concentrations at the age of 2 years. The girls whose relative weight decreased (n = 27) had higher serum leptin concentrations at 2 years than the girls whose relative weight remained stable (n = 26) but only when the leptin values were not adjusted for body mass index. The serum leptin concentration was higher in 5-year-old girls than in 5-year-old boys even when adjusted for body mass index. Serum leptin correlated with relative weight in girls and boys (r = 0.65 and r = 0.45, respectively). Serum leptin concentration adjusted for relative weight correlated poorly with intakes of energy, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, sucrose, and protein.
Serum leptin concentrations at age 2 poorly predicted changes in relative body weight during the following 6 years and poorly reflected the intake of energy or major nutrients at age 5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y is a potent vasoconstrictor thought to enhance the development of atherosclerosis. The leucine 7 to proline 7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism, located in the signal peptide part of the human preproneuropeptide Y, has been associated with serum lipid levels, intima-media thickness of the common carotid arteries, and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, we investigated the impact of the Leu7Pro polymorphism on diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetic patients.
A total of 996 patients from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy study were studied in a case-control, cross-sectional study. The carrier frequency of the Pro7 substitution was 13% in the entire study population.
The Pro7 substitution was more common in patients with proteinuria than in those with a normal albumin excretion rate (16 vs. 11%, P < 0.05). Patients with the Pro7 allele had worse glycemic control (HbA(1c) 8.8 vs. 8.5%, P < 0.005), more coronary heart disease (CHD) (14 vs. 8%, P < 0.05), and higher serum triglycerides (1.65 vs. 1.35 mmol/l, P < 0.005) than patients with the wild-type genotype. There were no differences in the plasma neuropeptide Y levels between the patients with Pro7 compared with those with the wild-type genotype. The Leu7Pro polymorphism was independently associated with HbA(1c) (P < 0.001), proteinuria (P < 0.01), and CHD (P < 0.01) in multiple regression analyses.
We conclude that the Leu7Pro polymorphism may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy and CHD in type 1 diabetic patients, possibly by influencing glycemic control and triglycerides.
Diabetes Care 03/2004; 27(2):503-9. DOI:10.2337/diacare.27.2.503 · 8.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y is a sympathetic neurotransmitter, a potent endothelium-derived angiogenic factor and a vascular mitogen. We have studied the role of the functional leucine7 to proline7 polymorphism of the signal peptide region of preproneuropeptide Y (prepro-NPY) as a genetic susceptibility factor for diabetic retinopathy. In addition, we investigated the role of the NPY Y2-receptor as a putative mediator of angiogenic NPY signaling in the retina.
Frequencies of proline7 (Pro7) carriers in the prepro-NPY were determined in type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients having retinopathy, in type 2 diabetes patients without retinopathy and in healthy control subjects. The role of Y2-receptor in hyperoxemia-induced retinal neovascularization was investigated in Y2-receptor knockout mice (Y2-/-) and in rats administered Y2-receptor mRNA antisense oligonucleotide.
The carriers having Pro7 in the preproNPY are markedly over-represented among type 2 diabetes patients with retinopathy compared to type 2 diabetes patients without retinopathy and to the population control. Neonatal exposure to hyperoxia resulted in development of retinal neovascularization that was prevented in Y2(-1-) -mice, and significantly inhibited in rats treated with the Y2-receptor antisense oligonucleotide.
NPY and Y2-receptor play important roles in diabetic retinopathy and retinal neovascularization and are thus potential new targets for drug molecules for treatment of retinopathy.
Annals of Medicine 02/2004; 36(3):232-40. DOI:10.1080/07853890410031236 · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transgenic (TG) female mice, expressing a chimeric bovine luteinizing hormone (LH) beta-subunit/human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit COOH-terminal extension (bLHbeta-CTP) gene, produce high levels of circulating LH and serve as a model for functional ovarian hyperandrogenism and follicular cysts. We report here that obesity is a typical feature of these female mice. The mean body weight of the bLHbeta-CTP females was significantly higher than in controls at, and beyond 5 wk of age, and at 5 mo, it was 32% increased. At this age, the amount of white adipose tissue in the bLHbeta-CTP females was significantly increased, as reflected by the weight difference of the retroperitoneal fat pad. In addition, the expression of leptin mRNA in white adipose tissue of the TG females was elevated about twofold. Serum leptin and insulin levels, and food intake, were also increased significantly in the TG females. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity, as measured by GDP binding to BAT mitochondria, was reduced (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy at the age of 3 wk totally prevented the development of obesity. In summary, the present results show that intact female bLHbeta-CTP mice are obese, have increased food consumption, and reduced BAT thermogenic activity. The weight gain can be explained partly by elevated androgens but is probably also contributed to the increased adrenal steroidogenesis. Hence, the bLHbeta-CTP mice provide a useful model for studying obesity related to elevated LH secretion, with consequent alterations in ovarian and adrenal function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It has a regulatory role in cardiovascular and metabolic functions and control of hormone release. The leucine 7 to proline 7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism in the signal peptide of prepro-NPY is associated with increased blood lipid levels, accelerated atherosclerosis, and diabetic retinopathy. This study elucidated the role of this polymorphism in diurnal cardiovascular, metabolic, and hormonal functions of healthy subjects during rest. The two study groups comprised individuals with different genotype, but they were matched for age and body mass index. Subjects with the Leu7Pro polymorphism had significantly lower plasma NPY and norepinephrine concentrations, lower insulin concentrations, higher glucose concentrations, and lower insulin-glucose ratio in plasma than the controls. Heart rate was significantly higher during daytime in the subjects with Leu7Pro polymorphism. Furthermore, these subjects had significantly lower prolactin concentrations in plasma. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum free fatty acid and plasma leptin, ACTH, cortisol, LH, FSH, TSH, free thyroxin, and melatonin concentrations were similar during the 24-h period, compared with controls. These results show that genetically determined changes in NPY levels lead to widespread consequences in the control of sympathoadrenal, metabolic, and hormonal balance in healthy subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a molecule that may have both vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory actions. A common polymorphism in the human NPY gene that results in the Leucine7 to Proline7 substitution (Leu7Pro) in the signal peptide part of the NPY was recently identified. This substitution has been associated with elevated serum cholesterol levels and with slightly accelerated progression rate of carotid intima-media thickness, thus suggesting increased risk of atherosclerosis in carriers of Pro7 substitution. Recent data also indicate that subjects with Pro7 substitution may have increased endothelial release of NPY. This study was undertaken to elucidate the effects of Leu7Pro polymorphism on arterial endothelial function. We measured flow-mediated endothelial-dependent dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery in two separate populations: in 152 middle-aged men and in 95 prepubertal children. In both study populations, subjects with Pro7 substitution had 48-52% higher FMD compared with subjects having the wildtype (Leu7/Leu7) signal peptide sequence. We conclude that Pro7 substitution in signal peptide of the NPY is associated with enhanced endothelial-dependent vasodilation. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether Pro7 substitution is associated with increased or decreased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.