[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blast wounds often involve diverse tissue types and require substantial time and treatment for appropriate healing. Some of these subsequent wounds become colonized with bacteria requiring a better understanding of how the host responds to these bacteria and what proteomic factors contribute wound healing outcome. In addition, using reliable and effective proteomic sample preparation procedures can lead to novel biomarkers for improved diagnosis and therapy.
To address this need, suitable sample preparation for 2-D DIGE proteomic characterization of wound effluent and serum samples from combat-wounded patients was investigated. Initial evaluation of crude effluent and serum proved the necessity of high abundant protein depletion. Subsequently, both samples were successfully depleted using Agilent Multiple Affinity Removal system and showed greatly improved 2-D spot maps, comprising 1,800 and 1,200 protein spots, respectively.
High abundant protein removal was necessary for both wound effluent and serum. This is the first study to show a successful method for high abundant protein depletion from wound effluent which is compatible with downstream 2-D DIGE analysis. This development allows for improved biomarker discovery in wound effluent and serum samples.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) in non-human primates (NHPs) is highly contagious, requiring efficient identification of animals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculin skin test is usually used but lacks desirable sensitivity/specificity and efficiency.
We aimed to develop an immunoassay for plasma antibodies against M. tuberculosis. A key challenge is that not all infected animals contain antibodies against the same M. tuberculosis antigen. Therefore, a multiplex panel of 28 antigens (Luminex(®) -Platform) was developed.
Data revealed antibodies against eight antigens (Rv3875, Rv3875-Rv3874 fusion, Rv3874, Rv0934, Rv3881, Rv1886c, Rv2031, Rv3841) in experimentally infected (M. tuberculosis strains: Erdman and H37Rv) NHPs (rhesus and cynomolgus macaques). In a naturally acquired M. tuberculosis infection, rhesus macaques (n = 15) with lung TB pathology (n = 10) contained antibodies to five additional antigens (Rv0831, Rv2220, Rv0054, Rv1099, and Rv0129c).
Results suggest that this user-friendly and easily implementable multiplex panel, containing 13 M. tuberculosis antigens, may provide a high-throughput alternative for NHP TB screening.
Journal of Medical Primatology 01/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to undetectable levels in infected individuals, but the virus is not eradicated. The mechanisms of viral persistence during HAART are poorly defined, but some reservoirs have been identified, such as latently infected resting memory CD4(+) T cells. During latency, in addition to blocks at the initiation and elongation steps of viral transcription, there is a block in the export of viral RNA (vRNA), leading to the accumulation of multiply-spliced transcripts in the nucleus. Two of the genes encoded by the multiply-spliced transcripts are Tat and Rev, which are essential early in the viral replication cycle and might indicate the state of infection in a given population of cells. Here, the levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were compared to the levels of gag-containing RNA in tissue samples from RT-SHIV-infected rhesus macaques treated with HAART. Splice site sequence variation was identified during development of a TaqMan PCR assay. Multiply-spliced transcripts were detected in gastrointestinal and lymphatic tissues, but not the thymus. Levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were lower than levels of gag RNA, and both correlated with plasma virus loads. The ratio of multiply-spliced to gag RNA was greatest in the gastrointestinal samples from macaques with plasma virus loads <50 vRNA copies per mL at necropsy. Levels of gag RNA and multiply-spliced mRNA in tissues from RT-SHIV-infected macaques correlate with plasma virus load.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e87914. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to forecast whether a wound will heal after closure without further debridement(s), would provide substantial benefits to patients with severe extremity trauma.
Wound effluent is a readily available material which can be collected without disturbing healthy tissue. For analysis of potential host response biomarkers, forty four serial combat wound effluent samples from 19 patients with either healing or failing traumatic- and other combat-related wounds were examined by 2-D DIGE. Spot map patterns were correlated to eventual wound outcome (healed or wound failure) and analyzed using DeCyder 7.0 and differential proteins identified via LC-MS/MS.
This approach identified 52 protein spots that were differentially expressed and thus represent candidate biomarkers for this clinical application. Many of these proteins are intimately involved in inflammatory and immune responses. Furthermore, discriminate analysis further refined the 52 differential protein spots to a smaller subset of which successfully differentiate between wounds that will heal and those that will fail and require further surgical intervention with greater than 83% accuracy.
These results suggest candidates for a panel of protein biomarkers that may aid traumatic wound care prognosis and treatment. We recommend that this strategy be refined, and then externally validated, in future studies of traumatic wounds.
Journal of Translational Medicine 11/2013; 11(1):281. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Host immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) are generally able to contain infection and maintain a delicate balance between protection and immunopathology. A shift in this balance appears to underlie active disease observed in about ten percent of infected individuals. Effects of local inflammation, combined with anti-M. tb. systemic immune responses, are directly detectable in peripheral circulation, without ex vivo stimulation of blood cells or biopsy of the affected organs. We studied plasma immunomodulator and antibody biomarkers in patients with active pulmonary TB by a combination of multiplex microbead immunoassays and computational tools for data analysis. Plasma profiles of ten immunomodulators and antibodies against eight M. tb. antigens (previously reported by us) were examined in active pulmonary TB patients in a TB endemic country, Pakistan. Multiplex analyses were performed on samples from apparently healthy individuals, without active TB, from the same community as the TB patients to establish the assay baselines for all analytes. Over three thousand data points were collected from patients (n=135) and controls (n=37). The data were analyzed by multivariate and computer assisted cluster analyses to reveal patterns of plasma immunomodulators and antibodies. This study shows plasma profiles that in most patients represented either strong antibody or strong immunomodulator biomarkers. Profiling of a combination of both immunomodulators and antibodies described here may be valuable for the analysis of host immune responses in active TB in endemic countries.
Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 06/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FIV establishes a latent infection in peripheral CD4+ T-cells, and the latent FIV promoter is associated with deacetylated, methylated histones, consistent with a restrictive chromatin structure. Here we explored the use of 5 histone-modifying agents - 4 histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and 1 histone methyltransferase inhibitor (HMTi) - to reactivate latent FIV ex vivo. All compounds tested were able to alter histone lysine residue modifications in feline cells, both globally and at the FIV promoter locally. When latently FIV-infected peripheral CD4+ T-cells were cultured ex vivo in the presence of these inhibitors, viral transcription was significantly activated relative to no treatment controls. Transcriptional reactivation of virus mediated by the HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) was dose-dependent, detected after as little as 1h of exposure, and resulted in virion formation as evidenced by supernatant reverse transcriptase activity. A synergistic effect was not found when SAHA was combined with HMTi under the conditions tested. At low therapeutically relevant concentrations in primary feline PBMC, SAHA was found to be minimally cytotoxic and non-immune activating. HDACi and HMTi can reactivate latent FIV ex vivo, and SAHA, also known as the anticancer drug Vorinostat, in particular is a promising candidate for in vivo use because of its efficacy, potency, and relative safety. Use of the FIV/cat model of lentiviral latency to explore in vivo treatment with SAHA and other anti-latency therapeutics will allow investigations that are either ethically or logistically not addressable in patients persistently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (esat6) is one of the genes present on region of difference 1 (RD1) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) genome. This RD1 is a characteristic of virulent strains of M. tb and Mycobacterium bovis and this is one of the major differences between the disease causing strains and Bacillus-Calmat Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains. Studies have proved the presence of large number of memory T cells in M. tb infected individuals and these memory cells are reactive towards Esat6 antigen, which highlighted the importance of this gene especially in early infections. In this study, numbers of esat6 gene constructs were made in order to get a suitable construct to be used as good DNA vaccine. First esat6 gene construct was made in pND vector without Kozak sequence upstream the gene, second construct was made in pcDNA3.1 vector with Kozak sequence upstream the gene, third construct was made again in pND vector with Kozak sequence, fourth construct was made with Kozak sequence upstream and GGG downstream the ATG as a second codon of gene first in pcDNA3.1 and later in pND vectors respectively which was designated as construct five. Sixth construct was a fusion and in pcDNA3.1 vector with Kozak upstream the gene and epitope V and poly histidine tail sequence provided by vector down stream the gene through in-frame cloning of esat6 gene with sequences provided by vector by removing stop codon through PCR based primers. Seventh and final construct was prepared in pND14 vector also as a fusion construct and gene was cloned under tissue plasminogen activator sequence in an in-frame through PCR based primers. All these constructs were subjected to 293T human embryonic kidney cell lines to evaluate their level of expression. Although none of the constructs gave detectable level of expression in cultured cells when tested through Western blots (WB) but tpa-esat6-pND14 construct was selected as potential DNA vaccine candidate to inject intramuscularly and interadermally to balb/c mice along with controls to obtain detectable response in vivo. Animals were tested nine weeks post vaccination and found positive against tpa-esat6-pND14 vaccine through WB and multiplex micro bead immunoassay (MMIA).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with HIV-1 results in marked immunologic insults and structural damage to the intestinal mucosa, including compromised barrier function. While the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been a major advancement in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, the need for novel complementary interventions to help restore intestinal structural and functional integrity remains unmet. Known properties of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics suggest that they may be useful tools in achieving this goal.
This was a 4-week parallel, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot trial in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy. A synbiotic formulation (Synbiotic 2000®) containing 4 strains of probiotic bacteria (10(10) each) plus 4 nondigestible, fermentable dietary fibers (2.5 g each) was provided each day, versus a fiber-only placebo formulation. The primary outcome was bacterial translocation. Secondary outcomes included the levels of supplemented bacteria in stool, the activation phenotype of peripheral T-cells and monocytes, and plasma levels of C-reactive protein and soluble CD14.
Microbial translocation, as measured by plasma bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA concentration, was not altered by synbiotic treatment. In contrast, the synbiotic formulation resulted in significantly elevated levels of supplemented probiotic bacterial strains in stool, including L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus, with the colonization of these two species being positively correlated with each other. T-cell activation phenotype of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed modest changes in response to synbiotic exposure, with HLA-DR expression slightly elevated on a minor population of CD4+ T-cells which lack expression of HLA-DR or PD-1. In addition, CD38 expression on CD8+ T-cells was slightly lower in the fiber-only group. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 and C-reactive protein were unaffected by synbiotic treatment in this study.
Synbiotic treatment for 4 weeks can successfully augment the levels of probiotic species in the gut during chronic HIV-1 infection. Associated changes in microbial translocation appear to be absent, and markers of systemic immune activation appear largely unchanged. These findings may help inform future studies aimed at testing pre- and probiotic approaches to improve gut function and mucosal immunity in chronic HIV-1 infection.
Clinical Trials.gov: NCT00688311.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2012; 12:84. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many resource-poor countries are faced with concurrent epidemics of AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. Dual infections with HIV and M. tuberculosis are especially severe in infants. There is, however, no effective HIV vaccine, and the only licensed TB vaccine, the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, can cause disseminated mycobacterial disease in HIV-infected children. Thus, a pediatric vaccine to prevent HIV and M. tuberculosis infections is urgently needed. We hypothesized that a highly attenuated M. tuberculosis strain containing HIV antigens could be safely administered at birth and induce mucosal and systemic immune responses to protect against HIV and TB infections, and we rationalized that vaccine safety could be most rigorously assessed in immunocompromised hosts. Of three vaccine candidates tested, the recombinant attenuated M. tuberculosis strain mc(2)6435 carrying a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag expression plasmid and harboring attenuations of genes critical for replication (panCD and leuCD) and immune evasion (secA2), was found to be safe for oral or intradermal administration to non-SIV-infected and SIV-infected infant macaques. Safety was defined as the absence of clinical symptoms, a lack of histopathological changes indicative of M. tuberculosis infection, and a lack of mycobacterial dissemination. These data represent an important step in the development of novel TB vaccines and suggest that a combination recombinant attenuated M. tuberculosis-HIV vaccine could be a safe alternative to BCG for the pediatric population as a whole and, more importantly, for the extreme at-risk group of HIV-infected infants.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid detection and therapeutic intervention for infectious and emerging diseases is a major scientific goal in biodefense and public health. Toward this end, cytokine profiles in human blood were investigated using a human whole blood ex vivo exposure model, called WEEM.
Samples of whole blood from healthy volunteers were incubated with seven pathogens including Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus anthracis, and multiple strains of Yersinia pestis, and multiplexed protein expression profiling was conducted on supernatants of these cultures with an antibody array to detect 30 cytokines simultaneously. Levels of 8 cytokines, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IP-10, MCP-1 and TNFα, were significantly up-regulated in plasma after bacterial exposures of 4 hours. Statistical clustering was applied to group the pathogens based on the host response protein expression profiles. The nearest phylogenetic neighbors clustered more closely than the more distant pathogens, and all seven pathogens were clearly differentiated from the unexposed control. In addition, the Y. pestis and Yersinia near neighbors were differentiated from the B. anthracis strains.
Cluster analysis, based on host response cytokine profiles, indicates that distinct patterns of immunomodulatory proteins are induced by the different pathogen exposures and these patterns may enable further development into biomarkers for diagnosing pathogen exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the lentivirus of domestic cats responsible for feline AIDS, establishes a latent infection in peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells approximately eight months after experimental inoculation. In this study, cats experimentally infected with the FIV-C strain in the asymptomatic phase demonstrated an estimated viral load of 1 infected cell per approximately 10(3) CD4+ T-cells, with about 1 copy of viral DNA per cell. Approximately 1 in 10 proviral copies was capable of transcription in the asymptomatic phase. The latent FIV proviral promoter was associated with deacetylated, methylated histones, which is consistent with a condensed chromatin structure. In contrast, the transcriptionally active FIV promoter was associated with histone acetylation and demethylation. In addition, RNA polymerase II appeared to be paused on the latent viral promoter, and short promoter-proximal transcripts were detected. Our findings for the FIV promoter in infected cats are similar to results obtained in studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 latent proviruses in cell culture in vitro studies. Thus, the FIV/cat model may offer insights into in vivo mechanisms of HIV latency and provides a unique opportunity to test novel therapeutic interventions aimed at eradicating latent virus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of cats that establishes a lifelong persistent infection with immunologic impairment.
In an approximately 2 year-long experimental infection study, cats infected with a biological isolate of FIV clade C demonstrated undetectable plasma viral loads from 10 months post-infection onward. Viral DNA was detected in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells isolated from infected cats whereas viral RNA was not detected at multiple time points during the early chronic phase of infection. Viral transcription could be reactivated in latently infected CD4+ T cells ex vivo as demonstrated by detectable FIV gag RNA and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) circle junctions. Viral LTR and gag sequences amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during early and chronic stages of infection demonstrated minimal to no viral sequence variation.
Collectively, these findings are consistent with FIV latency in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells isolated from chronically infected cats. The ability to isolate latently FIV-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes from FIV-infected cats provides a platform for the study of in vivo mechanisms of lentiviral latency.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a multifunctional protein with roles in gene regulation and maintenance of viral latency. Post-translational modification of LANA is important for functional diversification. Here, we report that LANA is subject to arginine methylation by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 in vitro and in vivo. The major arginine methylation site in LANA was mapped to arginine 20. This site was mutated to either phenylalanine (bulky hydrophobic, constitutive methylated mimetic) or lysine (positively charged, non-arginine methylatable) residues. The significance of the methylation in LANA function was examined in both the isolated form and in the context of the viral genome through the generation of recombinant KSHV. In addition, authentic LANA binding sites on the KSHV episome in naturally infected cells were identified using a whole genome KSHV tiling array. Although mutation of the methylation site resulted in no significant difference in KSHV LANA subcellular localization, we found that the methylation mimetic mutation resulted in augmented histone binding in vitro and increased LANA occupancy at identified LANA target promoters in vivo. Moreover, a cell line carrying the methylation mimetic mutant KSHV showed reduced viral gene expression relative to controls both in latency and in the course of reactivation. These results suggest that residue 20 is important for modulation of a subset of LANA functions and properties of this residue, including the hydrophobic character induced by arginine methylation, may contribute to the observed effects.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 287(8):5806-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two billion people are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), worldwide. Ten million to 20 million of the infected individuals develop disease per year. TB is a treatable disease, provided that it is diagnosed in a timely manner. The current TB diagnostic methods are subjective, inefficient, or not cost-effective. Antibody-based blood tests can be used efficiently and cost-effectively for TB diagnosis. A major challenge is that different TB patients generate antibodies against different antigens. Therefore, a multiplex immunoassay approach is needed. We have developed a multiplex panel of 28 M. tuberculosis antigen-coated microbeads. Plasma samples were obtained from over 300 pulmonary TB patients and healthy controls in a country where TB is endemic, Pakistan. Multiplex data were analyzed using computational tools by multivariate statistics, classification algorithms, and cluster analysis. The results of antibody profile-based detection, using 16 selected antigens, closely correlated with those of the sputum-based diagnostic methods (smear microscopy and culture) practiced in countries where TB is endemic. Multiplex microbead immunoassay had a sensitivity and specificity of approximately 90% and 80%, respectively. These antibody profiles could potentially be useful for the diagnosis of nonpulmonary TB, which accounts for approximately 20% of cases of disease. Since an automated, high-throughput version of this multiplex microbead immunoassay could analyze thousands of samples per day, it may be useful for the diagnosis of TB in millions of patients worldwide.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis primarily produces a multifocal distribution of pulmonary granulomas in which the pathogen resides. Accordingly, quantitative assessment of the bacterial load and pathology is a substantial challenge in tuberculosis. Such assessments are critical for studies of the pathogenesis and for the development of vaccines and drugs in animal models of experimental M. tuberculosis infection. Stereology enables unbiased quantitation of three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional sections and thus is suited to quantify histological lesions. We have developed a protocol for stereological analysis of the lung in rhesus macaques inoculated with a pathogenic clinical strain of M. tuberculosis (Erdman strain). These animals exhibit a pattern of infection and tuberculosis similar to that of naturally infected humans. Conditions were optimized for collecting lung samples in a nonbiased, random manner. Bacterial load in these samples was assessed by a standard plating assay, and granulomas were graded and enumerated microscopically. Stereological analysis provided quantitative data that supported a significant correlation between bacterial load and lung granulomas. Thus this stereological approach enables a quantitative, statistically valid analysis of the impact of M. tuberculosis infection in the lung and will serve as an essential tool for objectively comparing the efficacy of drugs and vaccines.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is a fatal and contagious disease. The annual death toll occurring from TB is approximately 2 million according to World Health Organization (WHO). The removal of disease from global face needs immediate treatment for which early diagnosis is pre-requisite. Existing tests for the diagnosis of TB are not efficient and robust. In the present study Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific six antigens namely cfp-10, esat-6 and hspx, along with three antigens which are components of immunodominant mycolyl transferases ag85a, ag85b, ag85c were expressed and purified to evaluate their potential use in immunoassays like Western blotting and multiplex microbead immunoassay. Protein expression of all six antigenic genes was optimized for time and different concentrations of inducer isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside. Protein products were confirmed by Western blotting and purified through immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) technique using columns having affinity for His-tag. Each fluorescently labeled set of microbeads were coated with one of the M. tuberculosis specific antigenic proteins and later on human plasma samples of reactivated TB patients along with healthy BCG as well as tuberculin skin test negative controls were tested for presence of antibodies against these antigenic proteins individually in a multiplex format. The results were generated in median fluorescence intensity form which detected antibodies against M. tuberculosis specific antigenic proteins only in reactivated TB patients. This system detected antibodies against four antigenic proteins in 100% of reactivated TB patients. Thus, M. tuberculosis antigens described in this study seem to have purified at the level to be used in the development of immunoassays for the detection of M. tuberculosis infection in TB patients of different categories like active and latent TB.
Pakistan journal of zoology 01/2011; 44:217-226. · 0.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The switch between the latency and lytic cycles of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is accompanied by specific alterations of histone codes. Recently, comprehensive analysis of histone modifications of KSHV showed the deposition of H3K27me3 across the KSHV genome with two specific regions occupied by the heterochromatin marker H3K9me3. Here, we show that knockdown of JMJD2A, an H3K9me3 demethylase, attenuates viral titers, whereas its overexpression increases KSHV reactivation. JMJD2A is localized in regions of latent viral chromosomes that are deficient in the H3K9me3 mark, indicating that JMJD2A may be responsible for the low level of this mark on viral chromatin. The presence of JMJD2A on the latent genome maintains H3K9 in unmethylated form and signals the readiness of specific sets of viral genes to be reactivated. The demethylase activity of JMJD2A is important for KSHV reactivation, because a demethylase-deficient mutant cannot restore the JMJD2A knockdown phenotype. Interestingly, we found that the KSHV encoded K-bZIP associated with JMJD2A, resulting in the inhibition of demethylase activity of JMJD2A both in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of JMJD2A by K-bZIP is likely due to a physical interaction which blocks substrate accessibility. A consequence of such an inhibition is increasing global levels of H3K9me3 and gene silencing. Consistently, K-bZIP overexpression resulted in a repression of ∼80% of the ≥2-fold differentially regulated genes compared to results for the uninduced control cells. The consequences of K-bZIP targeting JMJD2A during viral replication will be discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a viral product shown to be a potent inhibitor of a host cellular histone demethylase.
Journal of Virology 01/2011; 85(7):3283-93. · 5.08 Impact Factor