Cindy W Christian

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (40)137.13 Total impact

  • Samantha Schilling, Cindy W Christian
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited.
    Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 04/2014; 23(2):309-319. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate associations between retinal hemorrhage severity and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HII) patterns by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in young children with head trauma. DW-MRI images of a consecutive cohort study of children under age 3 years with inflicted or accidental head trauma who had eye examinations were analyzed by two independent masked examiners for type, severity, and location of primary lesions attributable to trauma, HII secondary to trauma, and mixed injury patterns. Retinal hemorrhage was graded retrospectively on a scale from 1 (none) to 5 (severe). Retinal hemorrhage score was 3-5 in 6 of 7 patients with predominantly post-traumatic HII pattern and 4 of 32 who had traumatic injury without HII (P < 0.001) on DW-MRI imaging. Severe retinal hemorrhage was observed in absence of HII but only in inflicted injury. Retinal hemorrhage severity was correlated with HII severity (ρ = 0.53, P < 0.001) but not traumatic injury severity (ρ = -0.10, P = 0.50). HII severity was associated with retinal hemorrhage score 3-5 (P = 0.01), but traumatic injury severity was not (P = 0.37). During inflicted head injury, a distinct type of trauma occurs causing more global brain injury with HII and more severe retinal hemorrhages. HII is not a necessary factor for severe retinal hemorrhage to develop from inflicted trauma.
    Journal of AAPOS: the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 11/2013; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) has been proposed as an isolated cause of retinal hemorrhages (RHs) in children with suspected traumatic head injury. We examined the incidence and patterns of RHs associated with increased ICP in children without trauma, measured by lumbar puncture (LP).METHODS:Children undergoing LP as part of their routine clinical care were studied prospectively at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and retrospectively at Nationwide Children's Hospital. Inclusion criteria were absence of trauma, LP opening pressure (OP) ≥20 cm of water (cm H2O), and a dilated fundus examination by an ophthalmologist or neuro-ophthalmologist.RESULTS:One hundred children were studied (mean age: 12 years; range: 3-17 years). Mean OP was 35 cm H2O (range: 20-56 cm H2O); 68 (68%) children had OP >28 cm H2O. The most frequent etiology was idiopathic intracranial hypertension (70%). Seventy-four children had papilledema. Sixteen children had RH: 8 had superficial intraretinal peripapillary RH adjacent to a swollen optic disc, and 8 had only splinter hemorrhages directly on a swollen disc. All had significantly elevated OP (mean: 42 cm H2O).CONCLUSIONS:Only a small proportion of children with nontraumatic elevated ICP have RHs. When present, RHs are associated with markedly elevated OP, intraretinal, and invariably located adjacent to a swollen optic disc. This peripapillary pattern is distinct from the multilayered, widespread pattern of RH in abusive head trauma. When RHs are numerous, multilayered, or not near a swollen optic disc (eg, elsewhere in the posterior pole or in the retinal periphery), increased ICP alone is unlikely to be the cause.
    PEDIATRICS 07/2013; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of nonconvulsive seizures in children with abusive head trauma. Retrospective study of children with abusive head trauma undergoing clinically indicated continuous electroencephalographic monitoring. PICU of a tertiary care hospital. Children less than or equal to 2 years old with evidence of abusive head trauma determined by neuroimaging, physical examination, and determination of abuse by the Child Protection Team. None. Thirty-two children with abusive head trauma were identified with a median age of 4 months (interquartile range 3, 5.5 months). Twenty-one of 32 children (66%) underwent electroencephalographic monitoring. Those monitored were more likely to have a lower admission Glasgow Coma Scale (8 vs 15, p = 0.05) and be intubated (16 vs 2, p= 0.002). Electrographic seizures occurred in 12 of 21 children (57%) and constituted electrographic status epilepticus in 8 of 12 children (67%). Electrographic seizures were entirely nonconvulsive in 8 of 12 children (67%). Electroencephalographic background category (discontinuous and slow-disorganized) (p=0.02) and neuroimaging evidence of ischemia were associated with the presence of electrographic seizures (p = 0.05). Subjects who had electrographic seizures were no more likely to have clinical seizures at admission (67% electrographic seizures vs 33% none, p = 0.6), parenchymal imaging abnormalities (61% electrographic seizures vs 39% none, p = 0.40), or extra-axial imaging abnormalities (56% electrographic seizures vs 44% none, p = 0.72). Four of 21 (19%) children died prior to discharge; none had electrographic seizures, but all had attenuated-featureless electroencephalographic backgrounds. Follow-up outcome data were available for 16 of 17 survivors at a median duration of 9.5 months following PICU admission, and the presence of electrographic seizures or electrographic status epilepticus was not associated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale score (p = 0.10). Electrographic seizures and electrographic status epilepticus are common in children with abusive head trauma. Most seizures have no clinical correlate. Further study is needed to determine whether seizure identification and management improves outcome.
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 07/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object Enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces has been theorized as a risk factor for the development of subdural hemorrhage (SDH). As the finding of unexplained SDH in children often raises suspicion for nonaccidental trauma, the possibility of increased risk of SDH in children with enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces has important clinical, social, and legal implications. Therefore, the authors evaluated the frequency of SDH in a cohort of children with enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces. Methods The authors identified children younger than 2 years of age who were diagnosed with enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces on MRI or CT scanning in a large primary care network between July 2001 and January 2008. The authors excluded children who had enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces diagnosed on imaging performed for trauma or developmental delay, as well as children with a history of prematurity, diagnosis of intracranial pathology, or metabolic or genetic disorders. Chart review recovered the following data: patient demographics, head circumference, history of head trauma, and head imaging results. For the subset of children with SDH, information regarding evaluation for other injuries, including skeletal survey, ophthalmological examination, and child protection team evaluation, was abstracted. Results There were 177 children with enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces who met the inclusion criteria. Subdural hemorrhage was identified in 4 (2.3%) of the 177 children. All of the children with SDH underwent evaluations for suspected nonaccidental trauma, which included consultation by the child protection team, skeletal survey, and ophthalmological examination. Additional injuries (healing rib fractures) were identified in 1 of 4 patients. None of the 4 children had retinal hemorrhages. Only the child with rib fractures was reported to child protective services due to concerns for abuse. Conclusions Only a small minority of the patients with enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces had SDH. Evidence of additional injuries concerning for physical abuse were identified in a quarter of the children with enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces and SDH, suggesting that an evaluation for suspected nonaccidental trauma including occult injury screening should be performed in cases of SDH with enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces. In the absence of additional injuries, however, the presence of an unexplained SDH in the setting of enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces may be insufficient to support a diagnosis of nonaccidental trauma.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 02/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Hiu-Fai Fong, Cindy W Christian
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    ABSTRACT: CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES1.Review the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, and consequences of neglect.2.Provide a step-wise approach to the assessment of neglect, highlighting situations in which a report to child protective services is necessary.3.Describe promising strategies to help prevent child neglect. Child neglect, the most commonly reported form of maltreatment, can significantly impact a child's long-term development. Pediatricians must understand how to recognize and respond to neglect. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, and consequences of neglect. It provides a step-wise approach to the assessment of neglect, highlighting the situations in which a report to child protective services is necessary. Additionally, promising strategies for child neglect prevention are described.
    Pediatric Annals 12/2012; 41(12):e1-5. · 0.29 Impact Factor
  • Hiu-fai Fong, Cindy W. Christian
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    ABSTRACT: Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is an important component of the medical evaluation for sexually abused children. Selective screening of this population with culture or microscopy-based techniques has been the traditional approach, particularly in younger children who have a lower prevalence of STIs compared with adolescents. However, newer testing methodologies (nucleic acid amplification tests) that use noninvasively collected specimens enable more widespread screening in children. This article provides an updated review of recommended STI testing and interpretation in children who present with suspected sexual abuse, focusing on these emerging methodologies and the evidence to support their use.
    Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine 09/2012; 13(3):202–212.
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    ABSTRACT: Although the majority of poisonings in young children are due to exploratory ingestions and might be prevented through improved caregiver supervision, the circumstances that warrant evaluation for suspected maltreatment and referral to Child Protective Services (CPS) are unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the percentage and characteristics of young poisoning victims who were evaluated for child maltreatment by the hospital team (social work and/or child protection team) and/or referred to CPS. Retrospective study of poisoning victims<6 years old seen at an urban children's hospital from 2006 to 2008. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations between the outcomes (evaluation for maltreatment by hospital team and/or referral to CPS) and predictor variables (demographics and circumstances, type and severity of poisoning). Among 928 poisonings, 41% were from household products, 20% from over-the-counter drugs, 7% from prescription narcotics/sedatives, 29% from other prescription drugs, and ≤ 1% each from ethanol, illicit drugs, or other substances. Most children were asymptomatic (69%) or stable (28%); 3% were critically ill. Only 13% were evaluated by the hospital team and 4% were referred to CPS. Demographic characteristics were not associated with referral to CPS. Higher clinical severity was associated with increased referral (p<0.001). Compared to poisonings with over-the-counter drugs, referrals were more likely for poisonings with ethanol and prescription narcotics/sedatives, but not other prescription drugs or household products (p<0.001). All illicit drug poisonings and 44% of ethanol poisonings were referred. The majority of referrals to CPS were for concerns for illicit drugs, poor supervision or multiple forms of maltreatment; 6% were secondary to concerns for intentional poisoning. Evaluations and referrals to CPS for maltreatment are uncommon in young poisoning victims. Referrals occurred consistently for illicit drugs but not ethanol. Although referrals were more likely for higher severity poisonings, it is unclear if the severity of poisoning is associated with the level of supervisory neglect or a marker of ongoing risk to the child. These findings suggest the need to identify risk factors for ongoing harm and the development of clinical guidelines used to determine which poisoning victims should be referred to Child Protective Services.
    Child abuse & neglect 05/2012; 36(4):362-9. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delay in seeking medical care is one criterion used to identify victims of abuse. However, typical symptoms of accidental fractures in young children and the time between injury and the seeking of medical care have not been reported. We describe patient and injury characteristics that influence the time from injury to medical care. Parental interviews were conducted for children <6 years old with accidental extremity fractures. Demographic characteristics, signs and symptoms of the injury, and fracture location and severity were described and examined for their association with a delay (>8 hours) in seeking medical care. Among 206 children, 69% had upper extremity fractures. The median time to the first medical evaluation was 1 hour, but 21% were seen at >8 hours after injury. Although 91% of children cried after the injury, only 83% were irritable for >30 minutes. Parents observed no external sign of injury in 15% of children, and 12% used the injured extremity normally. However, all parents noted at least 1 sign or symptom. Minority children (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-5.47), those with lower extremity injuries (OR: 2.23 [95% CI: 1.01-4.90]), those without external signs of injury (OR: 3.40 [95% CI: 1.36-8.51]), and those with continued extremity use (OR: 3.26 [95% CI: 1.22-8.76]) were more likely to delay seeking medical care. Although some children did not manifest all expected responses, no child with an accidental fracture was asymptomatic. Delay in seeking medical care was associated with more subtle signs of injury; however, delays identified in minority patients are unexplained.
    PEDIATRICS 12/2011; 129(1):e128-33. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Age-based differences in fall type and neuroanatomy in infants and toddlers may affect clinical presentations and injury patterns. Our goal is to understand the influence of fall type and age on injuries to help guide clinical evaluation. Retrospectively, 285 children 0-48 months with accidental head injury from a fall and brain imaging between 2000 and 2006 were categorized by age (infant ≤1 year and toddler=1-4 years) and fall type: low (≤3 ft), intermediate (>3 and <10 ft), high height falls (≥10 ft) and stair falls. Clinical manifestations were noted and head injuries separated into primary (bleeding) and secondary (hypoxia, edema). The influence of age and fall type on head injuries sustained was evaluated. Injury patterns in children <4 years varied with age. Despite similar injury severity scores, infants sustained more skull fractures than toddlers (71% vs. 39%). Of children with skull fractures, 11% had no evidence of scalp/facial soft tissue swelling. Of the patients with primary intracranial injury, 30% had no skull fracture and 8% had neither skull fracture nor cranial soft tissue injury. Low height falls resulted in primary intracranial injury without soft tissue or skull injury in infants (6%) and toddlers (16%). Within a given fall type, age-related differences in injuries exist between infants and toddlers. When interpreting a fall history, clinicians must consider the fall type and influence of age on resulting injury. For young children, intracranial injury is not always accompanied by external manifestations of their injury.
    International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 10/2011; 30(3):201-6. · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • Cindy W Christian
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    ABSTRACT: The medical examination of the sexually abused child may have evidentiary, medical, and therapeutic purposes, and the timing of the examination requires consideration of each of these objectives. In cases of acute sexual assault, emergent examinations may be needed to identify injury, collect forensic evidence, and provide infection and pregnancy prophylaxis. Alternately, most sexually abused children are not identified immediately after assault, and the timing of the examination needs to balance physical and emotional issues with the availability of qualified examiners. In all cases, the best interests of the child should be paramount.
    Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 09/2011; 20(5):505-20. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine vitamin D levels in children with (1) suspected abusive and accidental fractures, (2) single and multiple fractures, and (3) fracture types highly associated with inflicted trauma. A study of children younger than 2 years of age with fractures admitted to a large children's hospital was performed. Bivariate analysis and test for trend were performed to test for the association of vitamin D status and biochemical markers of bone health with the primary outcomes of fracture etiology, number, and type. Of 118 subjects in the study, 8% had deficient vitamin D levels (<20 ng/mL; <50 nmol/L), 31% were insufficient (≥20 < 30 ng/mL; ≥50 < 78 nmol/L), and 61% were sufficient (≥30 ng/mL; ≥78 nmol/L). Lower vitamin D levels were associated with higher incidences of hypocalcemia (P = .002) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (P = .05) but not hypophosphatemia (P = .30). The majority of children sustained accidental fractures (60%); 31% were nonaccidental and 9% were indeterminate. There was no association between vitamin D levels and any of the following outcomes: child abuse diagnosis (P = .32), multiple fractures (P = .24), rib fractures (P = .16), or metaphyseal fractures (P = .49). Vitamin D insufficiency was common in young children with fractures but was not more common than in previously studied healthy children. Vitamin D insufficiency was not associated with multiple fractures or diagnosis of child abuse. Nonaccidental trauma remains the most common cause of multiple fractures in young children.
    PEDIATRICS 05/2011; 127(5):835-41. · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Cindy W Christian, Donald F Schwarz
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    ABSTRACT: Child maltreatment is a public health problem with lifelong health consequences for survivors. Each year, >29 000 adolescents leave foster care via emancipation without achieving family permanency. The previous 30 years of research has revealed the significant physical and mental health consequences of child maltreatment, yet health and well-being have not been a priority for the child welfare system. To describe the health outcomes of maltreated children and those in foster care and barriers to transitioning these adolescents to adult systems of care. We reviewed the literature about pediatric and adult health outcomes for maltreated children, barriers to transition, and recent efforts to improve health and well-being for this population. The health of child and adult survivors of child maltreatment is poor. Both physical and mental health problems are significant, and many maltreated children have special health care needs. Barriers to care include medical, child welfare, and social issues. Although children often have complex medical problems, they infrequently have a medical home, their complex health care needs are poorly understood by the child welfare system that is responsible for them, and they lack the family supports that most young adults require for success. Recent federal legislation requires states and local child welfare agencies to assess and improve health and well-being for foster children. Few successful transition data are available for maltreated children and those in foster care, but opportunities for improvement have been highlighted by recent federal legislation.
    PEDIATRICS 01/2011; 127(1):139-45. · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Sarah M Frioux, Thane Blinman, Cindy W Christian
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    ABSTRACT: (1) To describe lacerations of the vaginal fornices, an injury known to be associated with consensual sexual intercourse, including known complications and treatment course, (2) to contrast these injuries with injuries sustained during sexual assault, and (3) to discuss the assessment of adolescent patients for sexual injuries. We present a case series of 4 female adolescent patients seen at a children's hospital over a period of 6 months. Each patient developed significant vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse, and 3 of the patients presented to the emergency department with vital signs consistent with compensated shock. Each patient was evaluated by pediatric surgery, and found to have a laceration of the vagina. Three of the patients described consensual intercourse prior to the onset of bleeding, and had lacerations of the vaginal fornices; these patients were determined to have injuries resulting from consensual sexual intercourse. The fourth patient reported sexual assault as the cause of her injuries, and was treated for longitudinal lacerations of the vaginal wall. Lacerations of the upper vagina are not frequently reported in forced vaginal intercourse, but are occasionally reported as injuries sustained during consensual coitus. In the absence of reported sexual assault, a severe vaginal fornix laceration is consistent with the diagnosis of coital injury from consensual intercourse. Diagnosis and treatment of this injury can be delayed due to the sensitive nature of these injuries. Bleeding can be profuse, leading to hemorrhagic shock, and these injuries may require transfusion of blood products and surgical repair in some cases. Complications may include hemoperitoneum, pneumoperitoneum, or retroperitoneal hematoma, even in the absence of complete vaginal perforation. Knowledge of the consensual sexual injuries that may occur in adolescent patients can guide diagnosis, treatment, and counseling for the patient and her family, preventing long-term medical complications and legal consequences.
    Child abuse & neglect 01/2011; 35(1):69-73. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine, following statewide dissemination, the influence of an evidence-based home visitation program for first-time mothers on reductions of subsequent pregnancies across time and different locations. Retrospective cohort study. Replication sites for the Nurse-Family Partnership (17 urban sites and 6 rural sites) across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007. A total of 3844 Nurse-Family Partnership clients matched by propensity score to 10 938 local-area controls. Program enrollment. Time to second pregnancy resulting in a live birth within 2 years of the first infant's birth. There were no program effects on time to first pregnancy in the early years of the program (2000-2003), but clients whose first infants were born after 2003 had fewer second pregnancies compared with controls (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.96). This benefit occurred principally among mothers who were aged 18 years or younger (hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.89) and was twice as strong among mothers aged 18 years or younger from rural locations (hazard ratio = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.73) compared with those from urban locations (hazard ratio = 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.95). Program effects on pregnancy planning emerged after an implementation period of 3 years in both urban and rural locations, but they were particularly strong in rural locations and among younger mothers.
    JAMA Pediatrics 11/2010; 165(3):198-204. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    Alex V Levin, Cindy W Christian
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    ABSTRACT: Retinal hemorrhage is an important indicator of possible abusive head trauma, but it is also found in a number of other conditions. Distinguishing the type, number, and pattern of retinal hemorrhages may be helpful in establishing a differential diagnosis. Identification of ocular abnormalities requires a full retinal examination by an ophthalmologist using indirect ophthalmoscopy through a pupil that has been pharmacologically dilated. At autopsy, removal of the eyes and orbital tissues may also reveal abnormalities not discovered before death. In previously well young children who experience unexpected apparent life-threatening events with no obvious cause, children with head trauma that results in significant intracranial hemorrhage and brain injury, victims of abusive head trauma, and children with unexplained death, premortem clinical eye examination and postmortem examination of the eyes and orbits may be helpful in detecting abnormalities that can help establish the underlying etiology.
    PEDIATRICS 08/2010; 126(2):376-80. · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Elif E Ince, David Rubin, Cindy W Christian
    Child abuse & neglect 06/2010; 34(6):403-6. · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 02/2010; 14(1). · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Child abuse is a serious threat to the physical and psychosocial well-being of the pediatric population. Musculoskeletal injuries are common manifestations of child abuse. There have been multiple studies that have attempted to identify the factors associated with, and the specific injury patterns seen with musculoskeletal trauma from child abuse, yet there have been no large studies that have used prospectively collected data and controlled comparisons. The purpose of our study was to describe the patterns of orthopaedic injury for child abuse cases detected in the large urban area that our institution serves, and to compare the injury profiles of these victims of child abuse to that of general (accidental) trauma patients seen in the emergency room and/or hospitalized during the same time period. This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected information from an urban level I pediatric trauma center. Five hundred cases of child abuse (age birth to 48 mo) were identified by membership in our institution's Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect database collected between 1998 and 2007. These cases were compared against 985 general trauma (accidental) control patients of the same age group from 2000 to 2003. Age, sex, and injury type were compared. Victims of child abuse were on average younger than accidental trauma patients in the cohort of patients under 48 months of age. There was no difference in sex distribution between child abuse and accidental trauma patients. When the entire cohort of patients under 48 months were examined after adjusting for age and sex, the odds of rib (14.4 times), tibia/fibula (6.3 times), radius/ulna (5.8 times), and clavicle fractures (4.4 times) were significantly higher in child abuse versus accidental trauma patients. When regrouping the data based on age, in patients younger than 18 months of age, the odds of rib (23.7 times), tibia/fibula (12.8 times), humerus (2.3 times), and femur fractures (1.8 times) were found to be significantly higher in the child abuse group. Yet, in the more than 18 months age group, the risk of humerus (3.4 times) and femur fractures (3.3 times) was actually higher in the accidental trauma group than in the child abuse group. Patients who present to an urban level I pediatric trauma center and are victims of abuse are generally younger, and have an equal propensity to be male or female. It is important for the clinician to recognize that the age of the patient (younger or older than 18 mo and/or walking age) is an important determinant in identifying injury patterns suspicious for abuse. Patients below the age of 18 months who present with rib, tibia/fibula, humerus, or femur fractures are more likely to be victims of abuse than accidental trauma patients. Yet, when patients advance in age beyond 18 months, their presentation with long bone fractures (ie, femur and humerus) is more likely to be related to accidental trauma than child abuse. level III, prognostic study.
    Journal of pediatric orthopedics 10/2009; 29(6):618-25. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    Journal of AAPOS: the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 09/2009; 13(4):332. · 1.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

648 Citations
137.13 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • • Division of General Pediatrics
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Bioengineering
      • • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Florida
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States