Marc D Schwartz

Georgetown University, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (86)458.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Gene expression profiling (GEP) testing can help to predict the risk of cancer recurrence and guide decisions about adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer (BC). However, no prior US studies have evaluated the relation between GEP testing and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy by women treated in a general oncology practice. Eligible patients were women under the age 65 of years who were newly diagnosed with their first stage I or II, hormone receptor-positive BC between 2006 and 2011 (n = 9405). This retrospective study was conducted with a data set consisting of registry data, health claims data, and GEP testing results. The distribution of GEP test results was reported in terms of the risk of recurrence predicted, and logistic regression was used to assess the association of test results with chemotherapy use, with adjustments made for multiple patient characteristics. The proportions of tested women with low, intermediate, and high recurrence score results were 51%, 39%, and 10%, respectively. Among these women, 11%, 47%, and 88%, respectively, received adjuvant chemotherapy. There was a significant, positive linear relation of assay scores with chemotherapy use within the low and intermediate subgroups after adjustments for all other factors (adjusted odds ratios, 1.17 and 1.20, respectively). Adjuvant chemotherapy use after GEP testing is generally consistent with the recommended test interpretation for women with a high or low predicted risk of recurrence. Chemotherapy use in the intermediate-risk group increased with Recurrence Score values, and evidence from ongoing randomized trials may help to clarify whether this finding reflects optimal interpretation of GEP test results. These results demonstrate the principle that genomic testing, on the basis of research establishing its utility, can be applied appropriately in general practice in accordance with guideline recommendations. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/cncr.29621 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relatives of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are at increased risk for the disease, yet screening rates still remain low. Guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model, we examined the impact of a personalized, remote risk communication intervention on behavioral intention and colonoscopy uptake in relatives of CRC patients, assessing the original additive model and an alternative model in which each theoretical construct contributes uniquely. We collected intention-to-screen and medical record-verified colonoscopy information on 218 individuals who received the personalized intervention. Structural equation modeling showed poor main model fit (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.109; standardized root mean residual (SRMR) = 0.134; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.797; Akaike information criterion (AIC) = 11,601; Bayesian information criterion (BIC) = 11,884). However, the alternative model (RMSEA = 0.070; SRMR = 0.105; CFI = 0.918; AIC = 11,186; BIC = 11,498) showed good fit. Cancer susceptibility (B = 0.319, p < 0.001) and colonoscopy self-efficacy (B = 0.364, p < 0.001) perceptions predicted intention to screen, which was significantly associated with colonoscopy uptake (B = 0.539, p < 0.001). Our findings provide support of the utility of Extended Parallel Process Model for designing effective interventions to motivate CRC screening in persons at increased risk when individual elements of the model are considered. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/pon.3899 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the efficacy of a remote tailored intervention (TeleCARE) compared to a mailed educational brochure for improving colonoscopy uptake among at-risk relatives of colorectal cancer patients and examined subgroup differences based on participant reported cost barriers. Family members of colorectal cancer patients who were not up-to-date with colonoscopy were randomly assigned as family units to TeleCARE (N=232) or an educational brochure (N=249). At the 9-month follow-up, a cost resource letter listing resources for free or reduced-cost colonoscopy was mailed to participants who had reported cost barriers and remained non-adherent. Rates of medically-verified colonoscopy at the 15-month follow-up were compared based on group assignment and within group stratification by cost barriers. In intent-to-treat analysis, 42.7% of participants in TeleCARE and 24.1% of participants in the educational brochure group had a medically-verified colonoscopy [OR = 2.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59 to 3.52]. Cost was identified as a barrier in both groups (TeleCARE = 62.5%; educational brochure = 57.0%). When cost was not a barrier, the TeleCARE group was almost four times as likely as the comparison to have a colonoscopy (OR = 3.66; 95% CI= 1.85 to 7.24). The intervention was efficacious among those who reported cost barriers; the TeleCARE group was nearly twice as likely to have a colonoscopy (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.12 to 3.52). TeleCARE increased colonoscopy regardless of cost barriers. Remote interventions may bolster screening colonoscopy regardless of cost barriers and be more efficacious when cost barriers are absent. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 06/2015; DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0150 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of decision aids on prostate cancer screening outcomes has been inconsistent. We assessed whether pre-existing attitudes moderated the impact of decision aids on screening. Men aged 45-70 (56.2 % Caucasian, 39.9 % African-American) were randomly assigned to a print decision aid (N = 630), a web decision aid (N = 631), or usual care (N = 632). Telephone interviews assessed pro/con screening attitudes and screening behaviors at baseline, 1-month and 13-months post-randomization. Logistic regression analyses revealed significant arm by attitude interactions: Higher baseline cons scores predicted lower screening in the print (OR = 0.60 (95 % CI: 0.40, 0.92)) and web (OR = 0.61 (95 % CI: 0.40, 0.91)) arms but not in usual care (OR = 1.34 (95 % CI: 0.90, 2.00)). The decision aids amplified the impact of men's baseline attitudes about limitations of screening: Compared to the usual care arm, men in both decision aid arms were less likely to be screened when they perceived more limitations of screening.
    Annals of Behavioral Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12160-015-9692-5 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility is now part of routine clinical practice. Although rates of risk-reducing surgery following genetic testing have been increasing, little is known about attitudes toward risk-reducing surgery in women prior to genetic counseling and testing. This study examines correlates of patient intentions to undergo risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing oophorectomy (RRO). Participants were 696 women, ages 21–85, who sought breast cancer gene 1 and 2 (BRCA1/2) genetic counseling and had at least a 10% risk of carrying a mutation. The sample included women who were affected with breast or ovarian cancer and unaffected women with a known familial BRCA1/2 mutation. Participants completed a precounseling telephone questionnaire. Prior to receiving genetic counseling, 23.3% of participants were considering RRM and 42.5% were considering RRO. Variables that were independently associated with RRM intentions were cancer-specific distress (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03–1.26), perceived risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.05–1.28), education (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.03–2.99), and age (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95–0.98). Predictors of RRO intentions were perceived risk for ovarian cancer (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.14–1.37), perceived risk of carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.15–2.62), marital status (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.34–2.76), and age (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.00–1.03). Because precounseling intentions predict subsequent risk-reducing surgery decisions, this study identified patient factors associated with surgical intentions. These factors reinforce the critical role for pretest genetic counseling in communicating accurate risk estimates and management options, and addressing psychosocial concerns, to facilitate informed decision making regarding RRM and RRO. Copyright
    Psycho-Oncology 01/2015; 24(1). DOI:10.1002/pon.3560 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The growing demand for cancer genetic services underscores the need to consider approaches that enhance access and efficiency of genetic counseling. Telephone delivery of cancer genetic services may improve access to these services for individuals experiencing geographic (rural areas) and structural (travel time, transportation, childcare) barriers to access. Methods This cluster-randomized clinical trial used population-based sampling of women at risk for BRCA1/2 mutations to compare telephone and in-person counseling for: 1) equivalency of testing uptake and 2) noninferiority of changes in psychosocial measures. Women 25 to 74 years of age with personal or family histories of breast or ovarian cancer and who were able to travel to one of 14 outreach clinics were invited to participate. Randomization was by family. Assessments were conducted at baseline one week after pretest and post-test counseling and at six months. Of the 988 women randomly assigned, 901 completed a follow-up assessment. Cluster bootstrap methods were used to estimate the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference between test uptake proportions, using a 10% equivalency margin. Differences in psychosocial outcomes for determining noninferiority were estimated using linear models together with one-sided 97.5% bootstrap CIs. Results Uptake of BRCA1/2 testing was lower following telephone (21.8%) than in-person counseling (31.8%, difference = 10.2%, 95% CI = 3.9% to 16.3%; after imputation of missing data: difference = 9.2%, 95% CI = -0.1% to 24.6%). Telephone counseling fulfilled the criteria for noninferiority to in-person counseling for all measures. Conclusions BRCA1/2 telephone counseling, although leading to lower testing uptake, appears to be safe and as effective as in-person counseling with regard to minimizing adverse psychological reactions, promoting informed decision making, and delivering patient-centered communication for both rural and urban women.
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 12/2014; 106(12). DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju328 · 15.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:As genetic counseling and testing become more fully integrated into clinical care, alternative delivery models are increasingly prominent. This study examines predictors of genetic testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer among high-risk women in a randomized trial of in-person versus telephone-based genetic counseling.Methods:Methods include multivariable logistic regression and interaction analyses.Results:Of the 669 participants, 600 completed counseling and 523 received test results. As previously reported, participants randomized to telephone counseling were significantly less likely to be tested. In intention-to-treat analyses, completion of counseling and testing was associated with: race/ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-3.20), perceived stress (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81-0.98), knowledge (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.23), and randomization group (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01-2.16). Further, race/ethnicity moderated the association between randomization group and testing; minority women receiving telephone counseling were least likely to complete testing.Conclusion:Evidence for logistical and communication-based explanations for this interaction is presented. The overall increased access made possible with telephone genetic counseling should be considered in light of the possibility that this may also lead to lower rates of testing among high-risk minority women. Additional care should be taken to assess and address potential barriers when services are delivered by telephone.Genet Med advance online publication 18 September 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.125.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 09/2014; 17(6). DOI:10.1038/gim.2014.125 · 6.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research to date regarding identification and management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) in the U.S. has been confined primarily to academic center-based studies with limited patient engagement. To begin to understand and address the current gaps and disparities in delivery of services for the appropriate identification and optimal risk management of individuals with HBOC, we designed and have initiated the American BRCA Outcomes and Utilization of Testing (ABOUT) Study. ABOUT relies on a collaborative patient advocacy, academic and industry partnership to recruit and engage U.S. individuals who are at increased risk for HBOC and investigate their experiences, decisions and outcomes. It utilizes an extensive research infrastructure, including an interactive web-based data system and electronic interfaces for secure online participation and automated data exchange. We describe the novel recruitment approach that was designed for collaboration with a national commercial health plan partner to identify all individuals for whom a healthcare provider orders a BRCA test and mail to each individual an invitation to participate and study packet. The study packet contains detailed information about the study, a baseline questionnaire and informed consent for participation in the study, for release of relevant medical and health plan records and for ongoing research engagement. This approach employs patient-reported, laboratory-reported and health plan-reported outcomes and facilitates longitudinal engagement. We believe that the type of innovative methodology and collaborative framework we have developed for ABOUT is an ideal foundation for a patient-powered research network. This approach can make substantial contributions to identifying current and best practices in HBOC, leading to improved strategies for clinical care and optimal health outcomes among individuals with high inherited risk for cancer.
    Journal of Genetic Counseling 09/2014; 24(1). DOI:10.1007/s10897-014-9750-3 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines communication about limitations of genomic results interpretation for colon cancer risk during education and counseling of minority participants. As part of a larger study conducted from 2010 to 2012, participants recruited from a large primary care clinic were offered testing for a research panel of 3 genomic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs) for colorectal cancer risk. Genetic counselors conducted pre- and post-test sessions which included discussion of limitations of result interpretation due to the lack of racial/ethnic diversity in research populations from which risk data are derived. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analyzed. Many participants did not respond directly to this limitation. Among the participants that responded directly to this race-related limitation, many responses were negative. However, a few participants connected the limited minority information about SNPs with the importance of their current research participation. Genetic counselor discussions of this limitation were bio-medically focused with limited explanations for the lacking data. The communication process themes identified included: low immediacy (infrequent use of language directly involving a participant), verbal dominance (greater speaking ratio of the counselor to the patient) and wide variation in the degree of interactivity (or the amount of turn-taking during the discussion). Placed within the larger literature on patient-provider communication, these present results provide insight into the dynamics surrounding race-related educational content for genomic testing and other emerging technologies. Clinicians may be better able to engage patients in the use of new genomic technology by increasing their awareness of specific communication processes and patterns during education or counseling sessions.
    Social Science & Medicine 08/2014; 114. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.05.014 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As BRCA1/2 testing becomes more routine, questions remain about long-term satisfaction and quality of life following testing. Previously, we described long term distress and risk management outcomes among women with BRCA1/2 mutations. This study addresses positive psychological outcomes in BRCA1/2 carriers, describing decision satisfaction and quality of life in the years following testing METHODS: We evaluated satisfaction with testing and management decisions among 144 BRCA1/2 carriers. Prior to genetic testing, we assessed family history, sociodemographics and distress. At a mean of 5.3 years post-testing, we assessed management decisions, satisfaction with decisions and, among women with cancer, quality of life. Overall, satisfaction with decision making was high. Women who had risk reducing mastectomy or oophorectomy were more satisfied with management decisions. Participants who obtained a risk reducing oophorectomy were more satisfied with their genetic testing decision. Among affected carriers, high pretest anxiety was associated with poorer quality of life and having had risk reducing mastectomy prior to testing was associated with better quality of life. The negative impact of pre-test anxiety was diminished among women who had mastectomies before testing. BRCA1/2 carriers are satisfied with their testing and risk management decisions and report good quality of life years after testing. Having risk reducing surgery predicts increased satisfaction and improved quality of life.
    Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 04/2014; 12(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1897-4287-12-9 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although guidelines recommend in-person counseling before BRCA1/BRCA2 gene testing, genetic counseling is increasingly offered by telephone. As genomic testing becomes more common, evaluating alternative delivery approaches becomes increasingly salient. We tested whether telephone delivery of BRCA1/2 genetic counseling was noninferior to in-person delivery. Participants (women age 21 to 85 years who did not have newly diagnosed or metastatic cancer and lived within a study site catchment area) were randomly assigned to usual care (UC; n = 334) or telephone counseling (TC; n = 335). UC participants received in-person pre- and post-test counseling; TC participants completed all counseling by telephone. Primary outcomes were knowledge, satisfaction, decision conflict, distress, and quality of life; secondary outcomes were equivalence of BRCA1/2 test uptake and costs of delivering TC versus UC. TC was noninferior to UC on all primary outcomes. At 2 weeks after pretest counseling, knowledge (d = 0.03; lower bound of 97.5% CI, -0.61), perceived stress (d = -0.12; upper bound of 97.5% CI, 0.21), and satisfaction (d = -0.16; lower bound of 97.5% CI, -0.70) had group differences and confidence intervals that did not cross their 1-point noninferiority limits. Decision conflict (d = 1.1; upper bound of 97.5% CI, 3.3) and cancer distress (d = -1.6; upper bound of 97.5% CI, 0.27) did not cross their 4-point noninferiority limit. Results were comparable at 3 months. TC was not equivalent to UC on BRCA1/2 test uptake (UC, 90.1%; TC, 84.2%). TC yielded cost savings of $114 per patient. Genetic counseling can be effectively and efficiently delivered via telephone to increase access and decrease costs.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2014; 32(7). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2013.51.3226 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rate of adherence to regular colonoscopy screening in individuals at increased familial risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is suboptimal, especially among rural and other geographically underserved populations. Remote interventions may overcome geographic and system-level barriers. We compared the efficacy of a telehealth-based personalized risk assessment and communication intervention with a mailed educational brochure for improving colonoscopy screening among at-risk relatives of patients with CRC. Eligible individuals age 30 to 74 years who were not up-to-date with risk-appropriate screening and were not candidates for genetic testing were recruited after contacting patients with CRC or their next of kin in five states. Enrollees were randomly assigned as family units to either an active, personalized intervention that incorporated evidence-based risk communication and behavior change techniques, or a mailed educational brochure. The primary outcome was medically verified colonoscopy within 9 months of the intervention. Of the 481 eligible and randomly assigned at-risk relatives, 79.8% completed the outcome assessments within 9 months; 35.4% of those in the personalized intervention group and 15.7% of those in the comparison group obtained a colonoscopy. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the telehealth group was almost three times as likely to get screened as the low-intensity comparison group (odds ratio, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.87 to 4.28; P < .001). Persons residing in rural areas and those with lower incomes benefitted at the same level as did urban residents. Remote personalized interventions that consider family history and incorporate evidence-based risk communication and behavior change strategies may promote risk-appropriate screening in close relatives of patients with CRC.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2014; 32(7):654-62. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2013.51.6765 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is recommended that persons having familial risk of colorectal cancer begin regular colonoscopy screening at an earlier age than those in the general population. However, many individuals at increased risk do not adhere to these screening recommendations. The goal of this study was to examine cognitive, affective, social, and behavioral motivators of colonoscopy intention among individuals at increased risk of familial colorectal cancer. Relatives of colorectal cancer cases (N = 481) eligible for colonoscopy screening completed a survey assessing constructs from several theoretical frameworks including fear appeal theories. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceived colorectal cancer risk, past colonoscopy, fear of colorectal cancer, support from family and friends, and health-care provider recommendation were determinants of colonoscopy intention. Future interventions to promote colonoscopy in this increased risk population should target the factors we identified as motivators. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01274143).
    Annals of Behavioral Medicine 12/2013; 47(3). DOI:10.1007/s12160-013-9562-y · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The development and increased use of genomic profiling has led to refinement of breast cancer treatment. This study sought to examine medical and surgical oncologists' perceptions of factors related to the translation and integration of Oncotype DX® (Genomic Health, Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA) into routine clinical care. METHODS: Twenty oncologists (10 medical and 10 surgical oncologists) participated in qualitative interviews. Questions centered on the following themes: oncologists' perceptions about the clinical utility of testing, the impact of patient preferences on the decision to test and use results to inform treatment decisions, methods of communicating risk associated with test results to patients, and benefits of and barriers to incorporating testing into multidisciplinary care settings. RESULTS: Oncologists found Oncotype DX test results useful in their practice but had concerns as well. These included that some oncologists either used testing inappropriately or placed undue emphasis on the results at the expense of other clinical information. The use of intermediate test results, which have less clear clinical implications, incorporating results with patient treatment preferences, and the use of testing in multidisciplinary teams were noted as specific challenges. CONCLUSION: Oncologists noted several benefits of testing and also many challenges, despite wide dissemination and common use. Education for health providers should include specific training in how to interpret and communicate the uncertainty inherent in genomic tests while integrating patient preferences to inform treatment decision making. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 09/2013; 22(9). DOI:10.1002/pon.3264 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent trends suggest that bilateral mastectomy (BM) is on the rise among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer. Few studies have investigated the factors associated with the decision to have more aggressive surgery among young, high risk patients. METHODS: As part of a larger study, 284 women aged 50 and under completed an initial survey within 6 weeks of a breast cancer diagnosis. We assessed sociodemographics, medical and family history variables, treatment recommendations, preferences and concerns, distress, perceived risk, knowledge, and neuroticism. We used multiple regression with backward entry to assess the relationship between these variables and our outcomes of decisional conflict and intentions for BM. RESULTS: Higher decisional conflict was associated with being less educated, unmarried, more anxious and less likely to have received a surgical recommendation. Preference for BM was associated with higher neuroticism, perceived risk for contralateral breast cancer, pre-testing risk of carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation, having received either a surgical recommendation (vs. no recommendation), and lower preference for lumpectomy. CONCLUSIONS: For younger women, a surgical recommendation is associated with lower decisional conflict and stronger intention for BM. Results highlight the importance of effective risk communication and decision support between a woman and her surgeon. J. Surg. Oncol © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 06/2013; 107(7). DOI:10.1002/jso.23307 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effectiveness of health screening interventions aimed at enhancing informed choice. Studies were selected if (1) they were randomized controlled trials conducted between January 1, 2000, and March 30, 2010, (2) participants in one arm underwent a prescreening intervention aimed at improving informed choice, and (3) informed choice was the primary outcome. Eight studies that met the inclusion criteria involved screening for prostate, colorectal and breast cancer, and diabetes. Five of the 8 prescreening interventions led to greater informed choice. With researchers mindful of the limited number of studies, findings were encouraging, but conclusions regarding the most effective ways of facilitating informed choice for screening are at best tentative.
    American journal of health behavior 05/2013; 37(3):351-9. DOI:10.5993/AJHB.37.3.8 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colonoscopy is one of the most effective methods of cancer prevention and detection, particularly for individuals with familial risk. Recruitment of family members to behavioral intervention trials remains uniquely challenging, owing to the intensive process required to identify and contact them. Recruiting at-risk family members involves contacting the original cancer cases and asking them to provide information about their at-risk relatives, who must then be contacted for study enrollment. Though this recruitment strategy is common in family trials, few studies have compared influences of patient and relative participation to nonparticipation. Furthermore, although use of cancer registries to identify initial cases has increased, to our knowledge no study has examined the relationship between registries and family recruitment outcomes. This study assessed predictors of case participation and relative enrollment in a recruitment process that utilized state cancer registries. Participation characteristics were analyzed with separate multivariable logistic regressions in three stages: (1) cancer registry-contacted colorectal cancer (CRC) cases who agreed to study contact; (2) study-contacted CRC cases who provided at-risk relative information; and (3) at-risk relatives contacted for intervention participation. Cancer registry source was predictive of participation for both CRC cases and relatives, though relative associations (odds ratios) varied across registries. Cases were less likely to participate if they were Hispanic or nonwhite, and were more likely to participate if they were female or younger than 50 at cancer diagnosis. At-risk relatives were more likely to participate if they were from Utah, if another family member was also participating in the study, or if they had previously had a colonoscopy. The number of eligible cases who had to be contacted to enroll one eligible relative varied widely by registry, from 7 to 81. Family recruitment utilizing cancer registry-identified cancer cases is feasible, but highly dependent on both the strategies and protocols of those who are recruiting and on participant characteristics such as sex, race, or geography. Devising comprehensive recruitment protocols that specifically target those less likely to enroll may help future research meet recruitment goals. Trial registration Family Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Risk Education Project NCT01274143.
    Trials 04/2013; 14(1):116. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-116 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a translational genomics pilot study to evaluate the impact of genomic information related to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk on psychosocial, behavioral and communication outcomes. In 47 primary care participants, 96% opted for testing of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to CRC risk. Participants averaged 2.5 of 6 possible SNP risk alleles (10% lifetime risk). At 3-months, participants did not report significant increases in cancer worry/distress; over half reported physical activity and dietary changes. SNP risk scores were unrelated to behavior change at 3-months. Many participants (64%) shared their SNP results, including 28% who shared results with a physician. In this pilot, genomic risk education, including discussion of other risk factors, appeared to impact patients' health behaviors, regardless of the level of SNP risk. Future work can compare risk education with and without SNP results to evaluate if SNP information adds value to existing approaches.
    Genomics 04/2013; 16(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ygeno.2013.04.002 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) testing for disease susceptibility is commercially available, translational studies are necessary to understand how to communicate genomic information and potential implications for public health. We explored attitudes about and initial responses to genomic testing for colon cancer risk. Following development of the educational materials, we offered testing for three colon cancer SNPs in a pilot study with primary care patients. Participants completed pre- and post-test sessions and interviews. We analyzed interview transcripts with qualitative software using thematic analysis. All 20 participants opted for SNP testing. Qualitative analysis identified several themes: Motivations for SNP Testing, Before/After: Meaning of Results, Emotional Responses to SNP Results and Genomic Literacy/ Information Delivery. Results demonstrate that individuals will pursue SNP testing in the context of pre and post-test education. SNP results may influence health behaviors like healthy eating and exercise yet did not appear to impact colon cancer screening intentions.
    03/2013; 3(1):17-29. DOI:10.1007/s13142-012-0149-0
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial and informed decision making is recommended. Within two prostate cancer screening programs, we evaluated the impact of a print-based decision aid (DA) on decision-making outcomes. METHODS: Men (N=543) were 54.9 (SD=8.1) years old and 61% were African-American. The 2(booklet type: DA vs. usual care (UC))×2(delivery mode: Home vs. Clinic) randomized controlled trial assessed decisional and screening outcomes at baseline, 2-months, and 13-months. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat linear regression analyses using generalized estimating equations revealed that DA participants reported improved knowledge relative to UC (B=.41, p<.05). For decisional conflict, per-protocol analyses revealed a group by time interaction (B=-.69, p<.05), indicating that DA participants were less likely to report decisional conflict at 2-months compared to UC participants (OR=.49, 95% CI: .26-.91, p<.05). CONCLUSION: This is the first randomized trial to evaluate a DA in the context of free mass screening, a challenging setting in which to make an informed decision. The DA was highly utilized by participants, improved knowledge and reduced decisional conflict. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: These results are valuable in understanding ways to improve the decisions of men who seek screening and can be easily implemented within many settings.
    Patient Education and Counseling 01/2013; 91(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2012.12.013 · 2.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
458.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2015
    • Georgetown University
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Lombardi Cancer Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2012
    • Karmanos Cancer Institute
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2006
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2002
    • Northwestern University
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2001
    • Washington DC VA Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States