Neelam Bharti

University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States

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Publications (35)129.41 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The successful search for orally active iron chelators to treat transfusional iron-overload diseases, e.g., thalassemia, is overviewed. The critical role of iron in nature as a redox engine is first described, as well as how primitive life forms and humans manage the metal. The problems that derive when iron homeostasis in humans is disrupted and the mechanism of the ensuing damage, uncontrolled Fenton chemistry, are discussed. The solution to the problem, chelator-mediated iron removal, is clear. Design options for the assembly of ligands that sequester and decorporate iron are reviewed, along with the shortcomings of the currently available therapeutics. The rationale for choosing desferrithiocin, a natural product iron chelator (a siderophore), as a platform for structure-activity relationship studies in the search for an orally active iron chelator is thoroughly developed. The study provides an excellent example of how to systematically reengineer a pharmacophore in order to overcome toxicological problems while maintaining iron clearing efficacy and has led to three ligands being evaluated in human clinical trials.
    Journal of medicinal chemistry. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Desferrithiocin (DFT, 1) is a very efficient iron chelator when given orally. However, it is severely nephrotoxic. Structure-activity studies with 1 demonstrated that removal of the aromatic nitrogen to provide desazadesferrithiocin (DADFT, 2) and introduction of either a hydroxyl group or a polyether fragment onto the aromatic ring resulted in orally active iron chelators that were much less toxic than 1. The purpose of the current study was to determine if a comparable reduction in renal toxicity could be achieved by performing the same structural manipulations on 1 itself. Accordingly, three DFT analogues were synthesized. The iron-clearing efficiency and ferrokinetics were evaluated in rats and primates; toxicity assessments were carried out in rodents. The resulting DFT ligands demonstrated a reduction in toxicity that was equivalent to that of the DADFT analogues and presented with excellent iron-clearing properties.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2012; 55(16):7090-103. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of the Rhodococcus erythropolis siderophores heterobactins A and B, and the structurally related Nocardia heterobactin, is described. Two approaches for the assembly of these asymmetric ligand donor chelators are explored. In the first approach, a scheme predicated on the biosynthesis of the Paracoccus denitrificans siderophore, parabactin, is employed. In this approach, the central donor synthon is added last. In the second scheme, the central donor and the terminal 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl fragment are first fixed to the ligand's D-ornithine backbone. This is followed by condensation with the cyclic ornithine hydroxamate glycine segment. The schemes offer a flexible approach to other heterobactins. Job's plots suggest that heterobactin A and Nocardia heterobactin form 1:1 ligand/metal complexes, while heterobactin B forms a 3:2 ligand/metal complex.
    Tetrahedron 05/2011; 67(18):3163-3169. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current solution to iron-mediated damage in transfusional iron overload disorders is decorporation of excess unmanaged metal, chelation therapy. The clinical development of the tridentate chelator deferitrin (1, Table 1) was halted due to nephrotoxicity. It was then shown by replacing the 4'-(HO) of 1 with a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy group, the nephrotoxicity could be ameliorated. Further structure-activity relationship studies have established that the length and the position of the polyether backbone controlled: (1) the ligand's iron clearing efficiency (ICE), (2) chelator tissue distribution, (3) biliary ferrokinetics, and (4) tissue iron reduction. The current investigation compares the ICE and tissue distribution of a series of (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(polyether)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acids (Table 1, 3-5) and the (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-3-(polyether)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acids (Table 1, 8-10). The three most effective polyether analogues, in terms of performance ratio (PR), defined as mean ICE(primate)/ICE(rodent), are 3 (PR 1.1), 8, (PR 1.5), and 9, now in human trials, (PR 2.2). At the onset of the clinical trial on 9, no data were available for ligand 3 or 8. This is unfortunate, as 3 has many advantages over 9, e.g., the ICE of 3 in rats is 2.5-fold greater than that of 9 and analogue 3 achieves very high levels in the liver, pancreas, and heart, the organs most affected by iron overload. Finally, the impact of 3 on the urinary excretion of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), an early diagnostic biomarker for monitoring acute kidney toxicity, has been carried out in rats; no evidence of nephrotoxicity was found. Overall, the results suggest that 3 would be a far superior clinical candidate to 9.
    Biology of Metals 11/2010; 24(2):239-58. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extracts from the root bark of Calotropis gigantea were subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation using growth inhibitory effects against Entamoeba histolytica. The n-hexane soluble portion of the chloroform extract showed in vitro antiamoebic activity against the HK-9 strain of Entamoeba histolytica. Chromatographic separation of the chloroform extract afforded the known compound, procesterol, which showed activity against E. histolytica.
    Natural product communications 06/2010; 5(6):867-8. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (S)-2-(2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (2) was abandoned in clinical trials as an iron chelator for the treatment of iron overload disease because of its nephrotoxicity. However, subsequent investigations revealed that replacing the 4'-(HO) of 2 with a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy group, ligand 4, increased iron clearing efficiency (ICE) and ameliorated the renal toxicity of 2. This compelled a closer look at additional polyether analogues, the subject of this work. The 3,6,9,12-tetraoxatridecyloxy analogue of 4, chelator 5, an oil, had twice the ICE in rodents of 4, although its ICE in primates was reduced relative to 4. The corresponding 3,6-dioxaheptyloxy analogue of 2, 6 (a crystalline solid), had high ICEs in both the rodent and primate models. It significantly decorporated hepatic, renal, and cardiac iron, with no obvious histopathologies. These findings suggest that polyether chain length has a profound effect on ICE, tissue iron decorporation, and ligand physiochemical properties.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2010; 53(7):2843-53. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron chelators have been shown to control the growth of cancer cells in culture by sequestering exogenous iron in the media. Thus, the ligands prevent cellular access to the metal. However, because transferrin provides iron to tumor cells in animals, chelators have not been effective antitumor agents. Polyamine chelator conjugates in which the polyamine vectored ligands into cells were far more active than the free chelators themselves. However, the free ligands were not released from the vector once in the cell. The current study focuses on the synthesis and preliminary evaluation of a polyamine chelator conjugate capable of releasing the free ligand intracellularly via a nonspecific esterase.
    Synthesis 01/2010; 2010(21):3631-3636. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 33(25).
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    ChemInform 01/2010; 33(27).
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    ABSTRACT: A new target strategy in the development of bacterial vaccines, the induction of antibodies to microbial outer membrane ferrisiderophore complexes, is explored. A vibriobactin (VIB) analogue, with a thiol tether, 1-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-5,9-bis[[(4S,5R)-2-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-4-oxazolyl]carbonyl]-14-(3-mercaptopropanoyl)-1,5,9,14-tetraazatetradecane, was synthesized and linked to ovalbumin (OVA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The antigenicity of the VIB microbial iron chelator conjugates and their iron complexes was evaluated. When mice were immunized with the resulting OVA-VIB conjugate, a selective and unequivocal antigenic response to the VIB hapten was observed; IgG monoclonal antibodies specific to the vibriobactin fragment of the BSA and OVA conjugates were isolated. The results are consistent with the idea that the isolated adducts of siderophores covalently linked to their bacterial outer membrane receptors represent a credible target for vaccine development.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2009; 52(12):3801-13. · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • Chemical Reviews 05/2009; 109(5):1900-47. · 41.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2009; 40(36).
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    ABSTRACT: The syntheses of a series of 4'-O-alkylated ( S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-4-thiazole-carboxylic acid and 5'-O-alkylated ( S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid ligands are described. Their partition between octanol and water, log P(app), is determined, along with their iron-clearing efficiency (ICE) in both non-iron-overloaded, bile duct-cannulated rodents and in iron-overloaded primates. The ligand-promoted biliary ferrokinetics in rats are described for each of the chelators. Plots of log P(app) versus ICE in a rodent model for both the 4'-O-alkylated 2,4-dihydroxy and 5'-O-alkylated 2,5-dihydroxy series produced an inverse parabola plot with r(2) values of 0.97 and 0.81, respectively. The plots indicate an optimum log P(app)/ICE relationship. Because of the nature of the data spread in the 4'-O-alkylated 2,4-dihydroxy series, it will be used to help assess the origin of nephrotoxicity in desferrithiocin analogues: is toxicity simply related to lipophilicity, ICE, or a combination of these properties?
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2008; 51(19):5993-6004. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of iron-clearing efficiencies (ICEs), ferrokinetics, and toxicity studies for ( S)-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (deferitrin, 1), ( S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid ( 2), and (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-3-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid ( 3) are reported. The ICEs in rodents are shown to be dose-dependent and saturable for ligands 2 and 3 and superior to 1. Both polyether analogues in subcutaneous (sc) versus oral (po) administration in rodents and primates demonstrated excellent bioavailability. Finally, in a series of toxicity studies of ligands 1- 3, the dosing regimen was shown to have a profound effect in animals treated with ligand 1. When ligand 1 was given at doses of 237 micromol/kg/day twice a day (b.i.d.), there was serious proximal tubule damage versus 474 micromol/kg/day once daily (s.i.d.). With 2 and 3, in iron-overloaded and/or non-iron-loaded rodents, kidney histopathologies remained normal.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2008; 51(13):3913-23. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of introducing a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxyl group at various positions of the desazadesferrithiocin (DADFT) aromatic ring on iron clearance and organ distribution is described. Three DADFT polyethers are evaluated: (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-4'-(HO)-DADFT-PE, 3], (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-5-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-5'-(HO)-DADFT-PE, 6], and (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-3-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-3'-(HO)-DADFT-PE, 9]. The iron-clearing efficiency (ICE) in rodents and primates is shown to be very sensitive to which positional isomer is evaluated, as is the organ distribution in rodents. The polyethers had uniformly higher ICEs than their corresponding parent ligands in rodents, consistent with in vivo ligand-serum albumin binding studies. Ligand 9 is the most active polyether analogue in rodents and is also very effective in primates, suggesting a higher index of success in humans. In addition, this analogue is also shown to clear more iron in the urine of the primates than many of the other chelators. If this trend were also observed in patients, it would facilitate iron-balance studies in a clinical setting.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2007; 50(14):3302-13. · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • Synthesis-stuttgart. 01/2007; 2007(7):1033-1037.
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    ABSTRACT: A series of iron chelators, three (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (DADFT) and three (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (DADMDFT) analogues are synthesized and assessed for their lipophilicity (log Papp), iron-clearing efficiency (ICE) in rodents and iron-loaded primates (Cebus apella), toxicity in rodents, and organ distribution in rodents. The results lead to a number of generalizations useful in chelator design strategies. In rodents, while log Papp is a good predictor of a chelator's ICE, chelator liver concentration is a better tool. In primates, log Papp is a good predictor of ICE, but only when comparing structurally very similar chelators. There is a profound difference in toxicity between the DADMDFT and DADFT series: DADMDFTs are less toxic. Within the DADFT family of ligands, the more lipophilic ligands are generally more toxic. Lipophilicity can have a profound effect on ligand organ distribution, and ligands can thus be targeted to organs compromised in iron overload disease, for example, the heart.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2006; 49(24):7032-43. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies revealed that within a family of ligands the more lipophilic chelators have better iron-clearing efficiency. The larger the log P(app) value of the compound, the better the iron-clearing efficiency. What is also clear from the data is that although the relative effects of log P(app) changes are essentially the same through different families, there are differences in absolute value between families. However, there also exists a second, albeit somewhat more disturbing, relationship. In all sets of ligands, the most lipophilic chelator is always the most toxic. The current study focuses on designing ligands that balance the lipophilicity/toxicity problem while iron-clearing efficiency is maintained. Earlier studies with (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-4'-(CH(3)O)-DADFT, 6] indicated that this methyl ether was a ligand with excellent iron-clearing efficiency in both rodents and primates; however, it was too toxic. On the basis of this finding, a less lipophilic, more water-soluble ligand than 6 was assembled, (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-4'-(HO)-DADFT-PE, 11], a polyether analogue, along with its ethyl and isopropyl esters. The parent polyether and its isopropyl and ethyl esters were all shown to be highly efficient iron chelators in both rodents and primates. A comparison of 11 in rodents with the desferrithiocin analogue (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-4'-(HO)-DADFT, 1] revealed the polyether to be more tolerable, achieving higher concentrations in the liver and significantly lower concentrations in the kidney. The lower renal drug levels are in keeping with the profound difference in the architectural changes seen in the kidney of rodents given 1 versus those treated with 11.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2006; 49(9):2772-83. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of soft alkyl phenolic ether prodrugs in excellent yields has been reported by coupling a phenol with a hydroxymethylimide using Mitsunobu chemistry. The imides used in this study include saccharin, phthalimide, succinimide and two other compounds containing acidic imide-like N–H groups, benzotriazole, and imidazole.
    Tetrahedron Letters - TETRAHEDRON LETT. 01/2006; 47(50):8981-8982.
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    ABSTRACT: The utility of polyamines as vectors for the intracellular transport of iron chelators is further described. Consistent with earlier results with polyamine analogues, these studies underscore the importance of charge in the design of polyamine-vectored chelators. Four polyamine conjugates are synthesized, two of terephthalic acid [N(1)-(4-carboxy)benzoylspermine (7) and its methyl ester (6)] and two of (S)-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-4'-(HO)-DADFT] [(S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(12-amino-5,9-diazadodecyl-oxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (10) and its ethyl ester (9)]. These four molecules were evaluated in murine leukemia L1210 cells for their impact on cell proliferation (48- and 96-h IC(50) values), their ability to compete with spermidine for the polyamine transport apparatus (K(i)), and their intracellular accumulation. The data revealed that when neutral molecules (cargo fragments) were fixed to the polyamine vector, the conjugates competed well with spermidine for transport and were accumulated intracellularly to millimolar levels. However, this was not the case when the cargo fragments were negatively charged. Metabolic studies of the polyamine-vectored (S)-4'-(HO)-DADFTs in rodents indicated that not only did the expected deaminopropylation step occur, but also a surprisingly high level of oxidative deamination at the terminal primary nitrogens took place. Finally, the iron-clearing efficiency of the (S)-4'-(HO)-DADFT conjugates was determined in a bile-duct-cannulated rodent model. Attaching the ligand to a polyamine vector had a profound effect on increasing the iron-clearing efficiency of this chelator relative to its parent drug.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2005; 48(12):4120-37. · 5.61 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

172 Citations
129.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2011
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Medicinal Chemistry
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2010
    • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)
      Rāe Bareli, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2000–2004
    • Jamia Millia Islamia
      • Department of Chemistry
      New Delhi, NCT, India
    • Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
      • Department of Chemistry
      Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India