Huaxi Xu

Xiamen University, Amoy, Fujian, China

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Publications (100)539.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Intracellular protein trafficking plays an important role in neuronal function and survival. Protein misfolding is a common theme found in many neurodegenerative diseases, and intracellular trafficking machinery contributes to the pathological accumulation and clearance of misfolded proteins. Although neurodegenerative diseases exhibit distinct pathological features, abnormal endocytic trafficking is apparent in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Down syndrome (DS) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we will focus on protein sorting defects in three major neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, DS and PD. An important pathological feature of AD is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide aggregates. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that over-production/aggregation of Abeta in the brain is a primary cause of AD and attenuation of Abeta generation has become a topic of extreme interest in AD research. Abeta is generated from beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by beta-secretase and the gamma-secretase complex. Alternatively, APP can be cleaved by alpha-secretase within the Abeta domain to release soluble APPalpha which precludes Abeta generation. DS patients display a strikingly similar pathology to AD patients, including the generation of neuronal amyloid plaques. Moreover, all DS patients develop an AD-like neuropathology by their 40s. Therefore, understanding the metabolism/processing of APP and how these underlying mechanisms may be pathologically compromised is crucial for future AD and DS therapeutic strategies. Evidence accumulated thus far reveals that synaptic vesicle regulation, endocytic trafficking, and lysosome-mediated autophagy are involved in increased susceptibility to PD. Here we review current knowledge of endosomal trafficking regulation in AD, DS and PD.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 08/2014; 9(1):31. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SLC25A38 is a recently identified protein that belongs to the mitochondrial solute carrier family, SLC25. Previous studies have shown that it is a pro-apoptotic protein, which regulates intrinsic caspase-dependent apoptosis. In order to clarify the effect of SLC25A38 protein expression on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells, we detected the expression of SLC25A38 in various cell lines (RPMI 8226, U266, Molt-4 and Jurkat) by western blot analysis. The results indicate that SLC25A38 is highly expressed in the four cell lines. Among 55 leukemia patients (adult, n=32 and infant, n=23), a high expression of SLC25A38 protein was observed in seven infant (7/23, 30.4%) and 15 adult (15/32, 46.9%) ALL patients. Two adult ALL patients that were positive for SLC25A38 were analyzed and the level of SLC25A38 significantly reduced or disappeared following combined chemotherapy, however, reappeared upon ALL recurrence. The expression level was identified to be associated with the proportion of blast cells in the bone marrow. Additionally, SLC25A38 and Notch1 were co-expressed in the four cell lines and the ALL patient samples. The present results show that expression of SLC25A38 is a common feature of ALL cells and may be a novel biomarker for diagnosis, as well as a potential therapeutic target for ALL.
    Oncology letters 05/2014; 7(5):1422-1426. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The degeneration of cholinergic neurons and cholinergic hypofunction are pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) mediate acetylcholine-induced neurotransmission and five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) have been identified. Among them, M1 mAChR is widely expressed in the central nervous system and has been implicated in many physiological and pathological brain functions. In addition, M1 mAChR is postulated to be an important therapeutic target for AD and several other neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we review recent progress in understanding the functional involvement of M1 mAChR in AD pathology and in developing M1 mAChR agonists for AD treatment.
    Neuroscience Bulletin 03/2014; · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the three human apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoforms, apoE4 increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While transporting cholesterol is a primary function, apoE also regulates amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism, aggregation, and deposition. Although earlier work suggests that different affinities of apoE isoforms to Aβ might account for their effects on Aβ clearance, recent studies indicate that apoE also competes with Aβ for cellular uptake through apoE receptors. Thus, several factors probably determine the variable effects apoE has on Aβ. In this Review, we examine biochemical, structural, and functional studies and propose testable models that address the complex mechanisms underlying apoE-Aβ interaction and how apoE4 may increase AD risk and also serve as a target pathway for therapy.
    Neuron 02/2014; 81(4):740-754. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The excessive accumulation of soluble amyloid peptides (Aβ) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in synaptic dysfunction. The role of the two major chaperone proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp90, in clearing misfolded protein aggregates has been established. Despite their abundant presence in synapses, the role of these chaperones in synapses remains elusive. Here, we report that Hsp90 inhibition by 17-AAG elicited not only a heat shock-like response but also upregulated presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, such as synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD95 in neurons. 17-AAG treatment enhanced high-frequency stimulation-evoked LTP and protected neurons from synaptic damage induced by soluble Aβ. In AD transgenic mice, the daily administration of 17-AAG over 7 d resulted in a marked increase in PSD95 expression in hippocampi. 17-AAG treatments in wild-type C57BL/6 mice challenged by soluble Aβ significantly improved contextual fear memory. Further, we demonstrate that 17-AAG activated synaptic protein expression via transcriptional mechanisms through the heat shock transcription factor HSF1. Together, our findings identify a novel function of Hsp90 inhibition in regulating synaptic plasticity, in addition to the known neuroprotective effects of the chaperones against Aβ and tau toxicity, thus further supporting the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors in treating neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2014; 34(7):2464-70. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide has been postulated to be a key determinant in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abeta is produced through sequential cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases. APP and relevant secretases are transmembrane proteins and traffic through the secretory pathway in a highly regulated fashion. Perturbation of their intracellular trafficking may affect dynamic interactions among these proteins, thus altering Abeta generation and accelerating disease pathogenesis. Herein, we review recent progress elucidating the regulation of intracellular trafficking of these essential protein components in AD.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 01/2014; 9(1):6. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β-secretase (BACE-1) is a potential target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite its potential, only few compounds targeting BACE have entered the clinical trials. Herein, we describe the identification of Gefitinib as a potential lead compound for BACE through an integrated approach of structural bioinformatics analysis, experimental assessment and computational analysis. In particular, we performed ELISA and western analysis to assess the effect of Gefitinib using N2a human APP695 cells. In addition, we investigated the binding mechanism of Gefitinib with BACE through molecular docking coupled with molecular dynamics simulations. The computational analyses revealed that hydrophobic contact is a major contributing factor to the binding of Gefitinib with BACE. The results obtained in the study have rendered Gefitinib as a putative lead compound for BACE. Further optimization studies are warranted to improve its potency and pharmacological properties against BACE for potential AD treatment.
    Chemical Biology &amp Drug Design 01/2014; 83(1):81-8. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are inherited diseases caused by glycosylation defects. Incorrectly glycosylated proteins induce protein misfolding and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The most common form of CDG, PMM2-CDG, is caused by deficiency in the cytosolic enzyme phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2). Patients with PMM2-CDG exhibit a significantly reduced number of cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells. The molecular mechanism underlying the specific cerebellar neurodegeneration in PMM2-CDG, however, remains elusive. Herein, we report that cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) are more sensitive to tunicamycin (TM)-induced inhibition of total N-glycan synthesis than cortical neurons (CNs). When glycan synthesis was inhibited to a comparable degree, CGCs exhibited more cell death than CNs. Furthermore, downregulation of PMM2 caused more CGCs to die than CNs. Importantly, we found that upon PMM2 downregulation or TM treatment, ER-stress response proteins were elevated less significantly in CGCs than in CNs, with the GRP78/BiP level showing the most significant difference. We further demonstrate that overexpression of GRP78/BiP rescues the death of CGCs resulting from either TM-treatment or PMM2 downregulation. Our results indicate that the selective susceptibility of cerebellar neurons to N-glycosylation defects is due to these neurons' inefficient response to ER stress, providing important insight into the mechanisms of selective neurodegeneration observed in CDG patients.
    Molecular Brain 12/2013; 6(1):52. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. A key neuropathological event in AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide. The production and clearance of Abeta in the brain are regulated by a large group of genes. The expression levels of these genes must be fine-tuned in the brain to keep Abeta at a balanced amount under physiological condition. Misregulation of AD genes has been found to either increase AD risk or accelerate the disease progression. In recent years, important progress has been made in uncovering the regulatory elements and transcriptional factors that guide the expression of these genes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation for the known AD genes and the misregualtion that leads to AD susceptibility.
    Molecular Brain 10/2013; 6(1):44. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synaptic toxicity of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report that overexpressed α1-takusan, which we previously identified as a protein that enhances synaptic activity via interaction with PSD-95, mitigates oligomeric Aβ-induced synaptic loss. In contrast, takusan knockdown results in enhanced synaptic damage. α1-Takusan interacts with tau either directly or indirectly, and prevents Aβ-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and mitochondrial fragmentation. Deletion analysis identified the second domain (D2) within the takusan protein that is required for PSD-95 clustering and synaptic protection from Aβ. A 51 aa sequence linking D2 to the PDZ-binding C terminus was found to be as effective as full-length takusan in protecting synapses from Aβ-induced damage. Moreover, a sequence containing the D2 from the human protein discs large homolog 5, when linked to a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, can also increase the clustering of PSD-95 in cortical dendrites. In summary, α1-takusan protects synapses from Aβ-induced insult via interaction with PSD-95 and tau. Thus, takusan-based protein sequences from either mouse or human may be of potential therapeutic benefit in AD.
    Journal of Neuroscience 08/2013; 33(35):14170-83. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is primarily caused by overproduction/deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. Dysregulation of iron in the brain also contributes to AD. Although iron affects β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression and Aβ deposition, detailed role of iron in AD requires further elucidation. Aβ is produced by sequential proteolytic cleavages of APP by β-secretase and γ-secretase. The γ-secretase complex comprises presenilins (PS1 or PS2), Nicastrin, APH-1, and PEN-2. Herein, we find that PEN-2 can interact with ferritin light chain (FTL), an important component of the iron storage protein ferritin. In addition, we show that overexpression of FTL increases the protein levels of PEN-2 and PS1 amino-terminal fragment (NTF) and promotes γ-secretase activity for more production of Aβ and Notch intracellular domain (NICD). Furthermore, iron treatments increase the levels of FTL, PEN-2 and PS1 NTF and promote γ-secretase-mediated NICD production. Moreover, downregulation of FTL decreases the levels of PEN-2 and PS1 NTF. Together, our results suggest that iron can increase γ-secretase activity through promoting the level of FTL that interacts with and stabilizes PEN-2, providing a new molecular link between iron, PEN-2/γ-secretase and Aβ generation in AD.
    Neuroscience Letters 05/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), a brain-enriched PDZ domain protein, regulates endocytic sorting and trafficking. Here we show that Snx27(-/-) mice have severe neuronal deficits in the hippocampus and cortex. Although Snx27(+/-) mice have grossly normal neuroanatomy, we found defects in synaptic function, learning and memory and a reduction in the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA and AMPA receptors) in these mice. SNX27 interacts with these receptors through its PDZ domain, regulating their recycling to the plasma membrane. We demonstrate a concomitant reduced expression of SNX27 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in Down's syndrome brains and identify C/EBPβ as a transcription factor for SNX27. Down's syndrome causes overexpression of miR-155, a chromosome 21-encoded microRNA that negatively regulates C/EBPβ, thereby reducing SNX27 expression and resulting in synaptic dysfunction. Upregulating SNX27 in the hippocampus of Down's syndrome mice rescues synaptic and cognitive deficits. Our identification of the role of SNX27 in synaptic function establishes a new molecular mechanism of Down's syndrome pathogenesis.
    Nature medicine 03/2013; · 27.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SNX proteins comprise a large group of proteins that contain a conserved PX (or phagocyte oxidase homology) domain targeting SNX proteins to endosomes 1 . SNX27 was originally identified in rats as an alternative splicing product of the Mrt1 (methampheta-mine responsive transcript 1) gene 2 . SNX27 contains a PDZ (PSD-95, Disc-large and ZO-1) domain, making it unique among the PX domain proteins. PDZ domains are protein-protein interaction domains that are often found in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of neuronal excitatory synapses. SNX27 reportedly participates in the dynamic trafficking of recep-tors and ion channels such as 2-adrenergic receptors (2-ARs) 3,4 , G protein–activated inward rectifying potassium type 2 (GIRK2) 5 , serotonin receptor subunit 4a (5-HT4a) 6 and NMDA-type gluta-mate receptor subunit 2C (NR2C) 7 . However, the physiological role of SNX27 at synapses and whether SNX27 regulates the trafficking of other major types of glutamate receptors remains unknown. In the PSDs of excitatory synapses, different classes of glutamate receptors are responsible for transducing the presynaptic signal into both biochemical and electrical events in the postsynaptic neuron. The two major types of glutamate receptors are AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Dysregulation of AMPARs and NMDARs is involved in several neurodegenerative diseases 8,9 . Down's syndrome, or trisomy 21, is a congenital disorder that manifests as defects in multiple organs and causes developmen-tal delays and learning disabilities. People with Down's syndrome have an extra copy of chromosome 21, leading to an overdosage of the gene products and noncoding RNAs encoded by this chromo-some. Down's syndrome pathology includes neuropathology of the cortex and hippocampus in both developmental and aging processes. Substantial dendritic and synaptic abnormalities, including decreased dendritic arborization 10 and a reduction in synaptic number, have been observed in both prenatal 11,12 and postnatal Down's syndrome brains 13 . The balance between excitatory and inhibitory synapses is reportedly impaired in the brains of both humans with Down's syndrome and mouse mod-els of the disease 14,15 . Impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) has also been detected in the hippocampal CA1 region of Ts65Dn mice 16,17 , a widely used Down's syndrome mouse model. Although several chromosome 21–encoded products, such as -amyloid
    Nature Medicine 03/2013; · 22.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) is a major cholesterol carrier that supports lipid transport and injury repair in the brain. APOE polymorphic alleles are the main genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease (AD) risk: individuals carrying the ε4 allele are at increased risk of AD compared with those carrying the more common ε3 allele, whereas the ε2 allele decreases risk. Presence of the APOE ε4 allele is also associated with increased risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and age-related cognitive decline during normal ageing. Apo-E-lipoproteins bind to several cell-surface receptors to deliver lipids, and also to hydrophobic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which is thought to initiate toxic events that lead to synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in AD. Apo-E isoforms differentially regulate Aβ aggregation and clearance in the brain, and have distinct functions in regulating brain lipid transport, glucose metabolism, neuronal signalling, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial function. In this Review, we describe current knowledge on Apo-E in the CNS, with a particular emphasis on the clinical and pathological features associated with carriers of different Apo-E isoforms. We also discuss Aβ-dependent and Aβ-independent mechanisms that link Apo-E4 status with AD risk, and consider how to design effective strategies for AD therapy by targeting Apo-E.
    Nature Reviews Neurology 01/2013; · 15.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a key factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its physiological function is largely undetermined. APP has been found to regulate retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF), which plays a crucial role in mediating neuronal survival and differentiation. Herein, we reveal the mechanism underlying APP-mediated NGF trafficking, by demonstrating a direct interaction between APP and the two NGF receptors, TrkA and p75NTR. Downregulation of APP leads to reduced cell surface levels of TrkA/p75NTR and increased endocytosis of TrkA/p75NTR and NGF. In addition, APP-deficient cells manifest defects in neurite outgrowth and are more susceptible to Aβ-induced neuronal death at physiological levels of NGF. However, APP-deficient cells show better responses to NGF-stimulated differentiation and survival than control cells. This may be attributed to increased receptor endocytosis and enhanced activation of Akt and MAPK upon NGF stimulation in APP-deficient cells. Together, our results suggest that APP mediates endocytosis of NGF receptors through direct interaction, thereby regulating endocytosis of NGF and NGF-induced downstream signaling pathways for neuronal survival and differentiation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80571. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Guojun Bu, Huaxi Xu
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    ABSTRACT: CONTRIBUTING REVIEWERS: The editors of Molecular Neurodegeneration would like to thank all the reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 7 (2012).
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 01/2013; 8:11. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides leads to synaptic disruption and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A major Aβ clearance pathway in the brain is cellular uptake and degradation. However, how Aβ traffics through the endocytic pathway and how AD risk factors regulate this event is unclear. Here we show that the majority of endocytosed Aβ in neurons traffics through early and late endosomes to the lysosomes for degradation. Overexpression of Rab5 or Rab7, small GTPases that function in vesicle fusion for early and late endosomes, respectively, significantly accelerates Aβ endocytic trafficking to the lysosomes. We also found that a portion of endocytosed Aβ traffics through Rab11-positive recycling vesicles. A blockage of this Aβ recycling pathway with a constitutively active Rab11 mutant significantly accelerates cellular Aβ accumulation. Inhibition of lysosomal enzymes results in Aβ accumulation and aggregation. Importantly, apolipoprotein E (apoE) accelerates neuronal Aβ uptake, lysosomal trafficking and degradation in an isoform-dependent manner with apoE3 more efficiently facilitates Aβ trafficking and degradation than apoE4, a risk factor for AD. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Aβ endocytic trafficking to lysosomes for degradation is a major Aβ clearance pathway that is differentially regulated by apoE isoforms. A disturbance of this pathway can lead to accumulation and aggregation of cellular Aβ capable of causing neurotoxicity and seeding amyloid.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is an essential cellular process in multiple diseases and a major pathway for neuronal death in neurodegeneration. The detailed signaling events/pathways leading to apoptosis, especially in neurons, require further elucidation. Here we identify a β-amyloid precursor protein (APP)-interacting protein, designated as appoptosin, whose levels are upregulated in brain samples from Alzheimer's disease and infarct patients, and in rodent stroke models, as well as in neurons treated with β-amyloid (Aβ) and glutamate. We further demonstrate that appoptosin induces reactive oxygen species release and intrinsic caspase-dependent apoptosis. The physiological function of appoptosin is to transport/exchange glycine/5-amino-levulinic acid across the mitochondrial membrane for heme synthesis. Downregulation of appoptosin prevents cell death and caspase activation caused by glutamate or Aβ insults. APP modulates appoptosin-mediated apoptosis through interaction with appoptosin. Our study identifies appoptosin as a crucial player in apoptosis and a novel pro-apoptotic protein involved in neuronal cell death, providing a possible new therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disorders.
    Journal of Neuroscience 10/2012; 32(44):15565-15576. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β-Amyloid protein (Aβ), the major component of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is derived from proteolytic cleavages of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and the γ-secretase complex. BACE1 is the rate-limiting enzyme for Aβ production, and an increase in BACE1 level/activity contributes to the pathogenesis of sporadic AD. In addition to cleaving APP for Aβ generation, BACE1 plays multiple physiological roles including the regulation of synaptic functions. Here, we found that overexpression of BACE1 reduces cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and cAMP levels, whereas downregulation of BACE1 has the opposite effect. We showed that BACE1's effect is independent of its activity for Aβ production, which is corroborated by the observation that BACE1 transgenic mice have impaired learning/memory in the absence of neurotoxic human Aβ. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BACE1 interacts via its transmembrane domain with adenylate cyclase, resulting in reduction of cellular cAMP levels and thus PKA inactivation and reduced CREB phosphorylation. Our study suggests that in addition to its function as the β-secretase to produce Aβ, BACE1 may contribute to the memory and cognitive deficits typical of AD by regulating the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway, which is important for memory functions.
    Journal of Neuroscience 08/2012; 32(33):11390-5. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of ubiquitin E3 ligases in neurodegeneration is being increasingly recognized. The crucial role of NEDD4-1 in neural development is well appreciated; however, its role in neurodegeneration remains unexplored. Herein, we report increased NEDD4-1 expression in the degenerated tissues of several major neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, its expression is upregulated in cultured neurons in response to various neurotoxins, including zinc and hydrogen superoxide, via transcriptional activation likely mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive FOXM1B. Reduced protein levels of the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1Rβ) were observed as a consequence of upregulated NEDD4-1 via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Overexpression of a familial mutant form of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) (G93A) in neuroblastoma cells resulted in a similar reduction of IGF-1Rβ protein. This inverse correlation between NEDD4-1 and IGF-1Rβ was also observed in the cortex and spinal cords of mutant (G93A) SOD1 transgenic mice at a presymptomatic age, which was similarly induced by in vivo-administered zinc in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, histochemistry reveals markedly increased NEDD4-1 immunoreactivity in the degenerating/degenerated motor neurons in the lumbar anterior horn of the spinal cord, suggesting a direct causative role for NEDD4-1 in neurodegeneration. Indeed, downregulation of NEDD4-1 by shRNA or overexpression of a catalytically inactive form rescued neurons from zinc-induced cell death. Similarly, neurons with a NEDD4-1 haplotype are more resistant to apoptosis, largely due to expression of higher levels of IGF-1Rβ.Together, our work identifies a novel molecular mechanism for ROS-upregulated NEDD4-1 and the subsequently reduced IGF-1Rβ signaling in neurodegeneration.
    Journal of Neuroscience 08/2012; 32(32):10971-81. · 6.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
539.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Xiamen University
      • • Medical College
      • • School of Life Sciences
      Amoy, Fujian, China
  • 2012–2013
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Neuroscience
      Rochester, MI, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
      • Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research Center
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • The University of Tennessee Health Science Center
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Memphis, TN, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Fundación Instituto Leloir
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
  • 2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (CMM)
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology
      Wuhan, Hubei, China
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Neurobiology
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 1999–2006
    • The Rockefeller University
      • Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2002–2004
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • Nicox Research Institute
      Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1997
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Neurology and Neuroscience
      Ithaca, NY, United States