Huaxi Xu

Xiamen University, Amoy, Fujian, China

Are you Huaxi Xu?

Claim your profile

Publications (105)673.77 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One major pathologic hallmark and trigger of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is overproduction and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) species in the brain. Aβ is derived from β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavages by β- and γ-secretases. Abnormal copper homeostasis also contributes to AD pathogenesis. Recently, we find that a copper-related protein, CutA divalent cation tolerance homolog of Escherichia coli (CUTA), interacts with the β-secretase β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and inhibits APP β-processing and Aβ generation. Herein, we further found that overexpression of CUTA increases intracellular copper level, whereas copper treatments promote CUTA expression. We also confirmed that copper treatments promote APP expression and Aβ secretion. In addition, copper treatments promoted the increase of Aβ secretion induced by CUTA downregulation but had no effect on CUTA-β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 interaction. On the other hand, CUTA overexpression ameliorated copper-induced Aβ secretion but had no effect on APP expression. Moreover, we found that Aβ treatments can reduce both CUTA and copper levels in mouse primary neurons. Consistently, both CUTA and copper levels were decreased in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 AD mouse brain. Together, our results reveal a reciprocal modulation of copper and CUTA and suggest that both regulate Aβ generation through different mechanisms, although Aβ mutually affects copper and CUTA levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neurobiology of Aging 12/2014; · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence indicates that certain microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in epileptogenesis. MiR-219 is a brain-specific miRNA and has been shown to negatively regulate the function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by targeting Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)γ. Herein, we found that the level of miR-219 was decreased in both the kainic acid (KA)-induced epilepsy model and in cerebrospinal fluid specimens of epilepsy patients. Importantly, silencing of miR-219 by its antagomir in vivo resulted in seizure behaviors, abnormal cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in the form of high-amplitude and high-frequency discharges, and increased levels of CaMKIIγ and an NMDA receptor component, NR1, in a pattern similar to that found in KA-treated mice. Moreover, treatments with the miR-219 agomir in vivo alleviated seizures, abnormal EEG recordings, and decreased levels of CaMKIIγ and NR1 in KA-treated mice. Furthermore, treatment with MK-801, an antagonist of NMDA receptors, significantly alleviated abnormal EEG recordings induced by miR-219 antagomir. Together, these results demonstrate that miR-219 plays a crucial role in suppressing seizure formation in experimental models of epilepsy through modulating the CaMKII/NMDA receptor pathway and that miR-219 supplement may be a potential anabolic strategy for ameliorating epilepsy.
    Molecular Neurobiology 11/2014; · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating disease characterized by synaptic and neuronal loss in the elderly. Compelling evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) oligomers induce synaptic loss in AD. Abeta-induced synaptic dysfunction is dependent on overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) resulting in aberrant activation of redox-mediated events as well as elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+, which in turn triggers downstream pathways involving phospho-tau (p-tau), caspases, Cdk5/dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), calcineurin/PP2B, PP2A, Gsk-3beta, Fyn, cofilin, and CaMKII and causes endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) as well as NMDARs. Dysfunction in these pathways leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, bioenergetic compromise and consequent synaptic dysfunction and loss, impaired long-term potentiation (LTP), and cognitive decline. Evidence also suggests that Abeta may, at least in part, mediate these events by causing an aberrant rise in extrasynaptic glutamate levels by inhibiting glutamate uptake or triggering glutamate release from glial cells. Consequent extrasynaptic NMDAR (eNMDAR) overstimulation then results in synaptic dysfunction via the aforementioned pathways. Consistent with this model of Abeta-induced synaptic loss, Abeta synaptic toxicity can be partially ameliorated by the NMDAR antagonists (such as memantine and NitroMemantine). PSD-95, an important scaffolding protein that regulates synaptic distribution and activity of both NMDA and AMPA receptors, is also functionally disrupted by Abeta. PSD-95 dysregulation is likely an important intermediate step in the pathological cascade of events caused by Abeta. In summary, Abeta-induced synaptic dysfunction is a complicated process involving multiple pathways, components and biological events, and their underlying mechanisms, albeit as yet incompletely understood, may offer hope for new therapeutic avenues.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 11/2014; 9(1):48. · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with Down syndrome (DS) invariably develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in their 40s. We have recently found that overexpression of a chromosome 21-encoded microRNA-155 results in decreased levels of the membrane trafficking component, SNX27, diminishing glutamate receptor recycling and thereby impairing synaptic functions in DS. Here, we report a function of SNX27 in regulating β-amyloid (Aβ) generation by modulating γ-secretase activity. Downregulation of SNX27 using RNAi increased Aβ production, whereas overexpression of full-length SNX27, but not SNX27ΔPDZ, reversed the RNAi-mediated Aβ elevation. Moreover, genetic deletion of Snx27 promoted Aβ production and neuronal loss, whereas overexpression of SNX27 using an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector reduced hippocampal Aβ levels in a transgenic AD mouse model. SNX27 associates with the γ-secretase complex subunit presenilin 1; this interaction dissociates the γ-secretase complex, thus decreasing its proteolytic activity. Our study establishes a molecular mechanism for Aβ-dependent pathogenesis in both DS and AD. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell reports. 11/2014; 9(3):1023-33.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurological disorder characterized by synaptic loss and dementia. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) is an essential coreceptor for Wnt signaling, and its genetic variants have been linked to AD risk. Here we report that neuronal LRP6-mediated Wnt signaling is critical for synaptic function and cognition. Conditional deletion of Lrp6 gene in mouse forebrain neurons leads to age-dependent deficits in synaptic integrity and memory. Neuronal LRP6 deficiency in an amyloid mouse model also leads to exacerbated amyloid pathology due to increased APP processing to amyloid-β. In humans, LRP6 and Wnt signaling are significantly downregulated in AD brains, likely by a mechanism that depends on amyloid-β. Our results define a critical pathway in which decreased LRP6-mediated Wnt signaling, synaptic dysfunction, and elevated Aβ synergistically accelerate AD progression and suggest that restoring LRP6-mediated Wnt signaling can be explored as a viable strategy for AD therapy.
    Neuron 09/2014; · 15.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intracellular protein trafficking plays an important role in neuronal function and survival. Protein misfolding is a common theme found in many neurodegenerative diseases, and intracellular trafficking machinery contributes to the pathological accumulation and clearance of misfolded proteins. Although neurodegenerative diseases exhibit distinct pathological features, abnormal endocytic trafficking is apparent in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Down syndrome (DS) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we will focus on protein sorting defects in three major neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, DS and PD. An important pathological feature of AD is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide aggregates. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that over-production/aggregation of Abeta in the brain is a primary cause of AD and attenuation of Abeta generation has become a topic of extreme interest in AD research. Abeta is generated from beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by beta-secretase and the gamma-secretase complex. Alternatively, APP can be cleaved by alpha-secretase within the Abeta domain to release soluble APPalpha which precludes Abeta generation. DS patients display a strikingly similar pathology to AD patients, including the generation of neuronal amyloid plaques. Moreover, all DS patients develop an AD-like neuropathology by their 40s. Therefore, understanding the metabolism/processing of APP and how these underlying mechanisms may be pathologically compromised is crucial for future AD and DS therapeutic strategies. Evidence accumulated thus far reveals that synaptic vesicle regulation, endocytic trafficking, and lysosome-mediated autophagy are involved in increased susceptibility to PD. Here we review current knowledge of endosomal trafficking regulation in AD, DS and PD.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 08/2014; 9(1):31. · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SLC25A38 is a recently identified protein that belongs to the mitochondrial solute carrier family, SLC25. Previous studies have shown that it is a pro-apoptotic protein, which regulates intrinsic caspase-dependent apoptosis. In order to clarify the effect of SLC25A38 protein expression on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells, we detected the expression of SLC25A38 in various cell lines (RPMI 8226, U266, Molt-4 and Jurkat) by western blot analysis. The results indicate that SLC25A38 is highly expressed in the four cell lines. Among 55 leukemia patients (adult, n=32 and infant, n=23), a high expression of SLC25A38 protein was observed in seven infant (7/23, 30.4%) and 15 adult (15/32, 46.9%) ALL patients. Two adult ALL patients that were positive for SLC25A38 were analyzed and the level of SLC25A38 significantly reduced or disappeared following combined chemotherapy, however, reappeared upon ALL recurrence. The expression level was identified to be associated with the proportion of blast cells in the bone marrow. Additionally, SLC25A38 and Notch1 were co-expressed in the four cell lines and the ALL patient samples. The present results show that expression of SLC25A38 is a common feature of ALL cells and may be a novel biomarker for diagnosis, as well as a potential therapeutic target for ALL.
    Oncology letters 05/2014; 7(5):1422-1426. · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The degeneration of cholinergic neurons and cholinergic hypofunction are pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) mediate acetylcholine-induced neurotransmission and five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) have been identified. Among them, M1 mAChR is widely expressed in the central nervous system and has been implicated in many physiological and pathological brain functions. In addition, M1 mAChR is postulated to be an important therapeutic target for AD and several other neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we review recent progress in understanding the functional involvement of M1 mAChR in AD pathology and in developing M1 mAChR agonists for AD treatment.
    Neuroscience Bulletin 03/2014; · 1.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among the three human apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoforms, apoE4 increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While transporting cholesterol is a primary function, apoE also regulates amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism, aggregation, and deposition. Although earlier work suggests that different affinities of apoE isoforms to Aβ might account for their effects on Aβ clearance, recent studies indicate that apoE also competes with Aβ for cellular uptake through apoE receptors. Thus, several factors probably determine the variable effects apoE has on Aβ. In this Review, we examine biochemical, structural, and functional studies and propose testable models that address the complex mechanisms underlying apoE-Aβ interaction and how apoE4 may increase AD risk and also serve as a target pathway for therapy.
    Neuron 02/2014; 81(4):740-754. · 15.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The excessive accumulation of soluble amyloid peptides (Aβ) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in synaptic dysfunction. The role of the two major chaperone proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp90, in clearing misfolded protein aggregates has been established. Despite their abundant presence in synapses, the role of these chaperones in synapses remains elusive. Here, we report that Hsp90 inhibition by 17-AAG elicited not only a heat shock-like response but also upregulated presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, such as synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD95 in neurons. 17-AAG treatment enhanced high-frequency stimulation-evoked LTP and protected neurons from synaptic damage induced by soluble Aβ. In AD transgenic mice, the daily administration of 17-AAG over 7 d resulted in a marked increase in PSD95 expression in hippocampi. 17-AAG treatments in wild-type C57BL/6 mice challenged by soluble Aβ significantly improved contextual fear memory. Further, we demonstrate that 17-AAG activated synaptic protein expression via transcriptional mechanisms through the heat shock transcription factor HSF1. Together, our findings identify a novel function of Hsp90 inhibition in regulating synaptic plasticity, in addition to the known neuroprotective effects of the chaperones against Aβ and tau toxicity, thus further supporting the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors in treating neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2014; 34(7):2464-70. · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide has been postulated to be a key determinant in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abeta is produced through sequential cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases. APP and relevant secretases are transmembrane proteins and traffic through the secretory pathway in a highly regulated fashion. Perturbation of their intracellular trafficking may affect dynamic interactions among these proteins, thus altering Abeta generation and accelerating disease pathogenesis. Herein, we review recent progress elucidating the regulation of intracellular trafficking of these essential protein components in AD.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 01/2014; 9(1):6. · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: β-secretase (BACE-1) is a potential target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite its potential, only few compounds targeting BACE have entered the clinical trials. Herein, we describe the identification of Gefitinib as a potential lead compound for BACE through an integrated approach of structural bioinformatics analysis, experimental assessment and computational analysis. In particular, we performed ELISA and western analysis to assess the effect of Gefitinib using N2a human APP695 cells. In addition, we investigated the binding mechanism of Gefitinib with BACE through molecular docking coupled with molecular dynamics simulations. The computational analyses revealed that hydrophobic contact is a major contributing factor to the binding of Gefitinib with BACE. The results obtained in the study have rendered Gefitinib as a putative lead compound for BACE. Further optimization studies are warranted to improve its potency and pharmacological properties against BACE for potential AD treatment.
    Chemical Biology &amp Drug Design 01/2014; 83(1):81-8. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One of the most critical pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides that form extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Aβ is derived from β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by β- and γ-secretases. γ-secretase is a high molecular weight complex minimally composed of four components: presenilins (PS), nicastrin, anterior pharynx defective 1 (APH-1), and presenilin enhancer 2 (PEN-2). In addition to APP, γ-secretase also cleaves many other type I transmembrane (TM) protein substrates. As a crucial enzyme for Aβ production, γ-secretase is an appealing therapeutic target for AD. Here, we summarize current knowledge on the structure and function of γ-secretase, as well as recent progress in developing γ-secretase targeting drugs for AD treatment.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:427. · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are inherited diseases caused by glycosylation defects. Incorrectly glycosylated proteins induce protein misfolding and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The most common form of CDG, PMM2-CDG, is caused by deficiency in the cytosolic enzyme phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2). Patients with PMM2-CDG exhibit a significantly reduced number of cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells. The molecular mechanism underlying the specific cerebellar neurodegeneration in PMM2-CDG, however, remains elusive. Herein, we report that cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) are more sensitive to tunicamycin (TM)-induced inhibition of total N-glycan synthesis than cortical neurons (CNs). When glycan synthesis was inhibited to a comparable degree, CGCs exhibited more cell death than CNs. Furthermore, downregulation of PMM2 caused more CGCs to die than CNs. Importantly, we found that upon PMM2 downregulation or TM treatment, ER-stress response proteins were elevated less significantly in CGCs than in CNs, with the GRP78/BiP level showing the most significant difference. We further demonstrate that overexpression of GRP78/BiP rescues the death of CGCs resulting from either TM-treatment or PMM2 downregulation. Our results indicate that the selective susceptibility of cerebellar neurons to N-glycosylation defects is due to these neurons' inefficient response to ER stress, providing important insight into the mechanisms of selective neurodegeneration observed in CDG patients.
    Molecular Brain 12/2013; 6(1):52. · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a key factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its physiological function is largely undetermined. APP has been found to regulate retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF), which plays a crucial role in mediating neuronal survival and differentiation. Herein, we reveal the mechanism underlying APP-mediated NGF trafficking, by demonstrating a direct interaction between APP and the two NGF receptors, TrkA and p75NTR. Downregulation of APP leads to reduced cell surface levels of TrkA/p75NTR and increased endocytosis of TrkA/p75NTR and NGF. In addition, APP-deficient cells manifest defects in neurite outgrowth and are more susceptible to Aβ-induced neuronal death at physiological levels of NGF. However, APP-deficient cells show better responses to NGF-stimulated differentiation and survival than control cells. This may be attributed to increased receptor endocytosis and enhanced activation of Akt and MAPK upon NGF stimulation in APP-deficient cells. Together, our results suggest that APP mediates endocytosis of NGF receptors through direct interaction, thereby regulating endocytosis of NGF and NGF-induced downstream signaling pathways for neuronal survival and differentiation.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80571. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. A key neuropathological event in AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide. The production and clearance of Abeta in the brain are regulated by a large group of genes. The expression levels of these genes must be fine-tuned in the brain to keep Abeta at a balanced amount under physiological condition. Misregulation of AD genes has been found to either increase AD risk or accelerate the disease progression. In recent years, important progress has been made in uncovering the regulatory elements and transcriptional factors that guide the expression of these genes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation for the known AD genes and the misregualtion that leads to AD susceptibility.
    Molecular Brain 10/2013; 6(1):44. · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The synaptic toxicity of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report that overexpressed α1-takusan, which we previously identified as a protein that enhances synaptic activity via interaction with PSD-95, mitigates oligomeric Aβ-induced synaptic loss. In contrast, takusan knockdown results in enhanced synaptic damage. α1-Takusan interacts with tau either directly or indirectly, and prevents Aβ-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and mitochondrial fragmentation. Deletion analysis identified the second domain (D2) within the takusan protein that is required for PSD-95 clustering and synaptic protection from Aβ. A 51 aa sequence linking D2 to the PDZ-binding C terminus was found to be as effective as full-length takusan in protecting synapses from Aβ-induced damage. Moreover, a sequence containing the D2 from the human protein discs large homolog 5, when linked to a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, can also increase the clustering of PSD-95 in cortical dendrites. In summary, α1-takusan protects synapses from Aβ-induced insult via interaction with PSD-95 and tau. Thus, takusan-based protein sequences from either mouse or human may be of potential therapeutic benefit in AD.
    Journal of Neuroscience 08/2013; 33(35):14170-83. · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is primarily caused by overproduction/deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. Dysregulation of iron in the brain also contributes to AD. Although iron affects β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression and Aβ deposition, detailed role of iron in AD requires further elucidation. Aβ is produced by sequential proteolytic cleavages of APP by β-secretase and γ-secretase. The γ-secretase complex comprises presenilins (PS1 or PS2), Nicastrin, APH-1, and PEN-2. Herein, we find that PEN-2 can interact with ferritin light chain (FTL), an important component of the iron storage protein ferritin. In addition, we show that overexpression of FTL increases the protein levels of PEN-2 and PS1 amino-terminal fragment (NTF) and promotes γ-secretase activity for more production of Aβ and Notch intracellular domain (NICD). Furthermore, iron treatments increase the levels of FTL, PEN-2 and PS1 NTF and promote γ-secretase-mediated NICD production. Moreover, downregulation of FTL decreases the levels of PEN-2 and PS1 NTF. Together, our results suggest that iron can increase γ-secretase activity through promoting the level of FTL that interacts with and stabilizes PEN-2, providing a new molecular link between iron, PEN-2/γ-secretase and Aβ generation in AD.
    Neuroscience Letters 05/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), a brain-enriched PDZ domain protein, regulates endocytic sorting and trafficking. Here we show that Snx27(-/-) mice have severe neuronal deficits in the hippocampus and cortex. Although Snx27(+/-) mice have grossly normal neuroanatomy, we found defects in synaptic function, learning and memory and a reduction in the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA and AMPA receptors) in these mice. SNX27 interacts with these receptors through its PDZ domain, regulating their recycling to the plasma membrane. We demonstrate a concomitant reduced expression of SNX27 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in Down's syndrome brains and identify C/EBPβ as a transcription factor for SNX27. Down's syndrome causes overexpression of miR-155, a chromosome 21-encoded microRNA that negatively regulates C/EBPβ, thereby reducing SNX27 expression and resulting in synaptic dysfunction. Upregulating SNX27 in the hippocampus of Down's syndrome mice rescues synaptic and cognitive deficits. Our identification of the role of SNX27 in synaptic function establishes a new molecular mechanism of Down's syndrome pathogenesis.
    Nature medicine 03/2013; · 28.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) is a major cholesterol carrier that supports lipid transport and injury repair in the brain. APOE polymorphic alleles are the main genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease (AD) risk: individuals carrying the ε4 allele are at increased risk of AD compared with those carrying the more common ε3 allele, whereas the ε2 allele decreases risk. Presence of the APOE ε4 allele is also associated with increased risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and age-related cognitive decline during normal ageing. Apo-E-lipoproteins bind to several cell-surface receptors to deliver lipids, and also to hydrophobic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which is thought to initiate toxic events that lead to synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in AD. Apo-E isoforms differentially regulate Aβ aggregation and clearance in the brain, and have distinct functions in regulating brain lipid transport, glucose metabolism, neuronal signalling, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial function. In this Review, we describe current knowledge on Apo-E in the CNS, with a particular emphasis on the clinical and pathological features associated with carriers of different Apo-E isoforms. We also discuss Aβ-dependent and Aβ-independent mechanisms that link Apo-E4 status with AD risk, and consider how to design effective strategies for AD therapy by targeting Apo-E.
    Nature Reviews Neurology 01/2013; · 15.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
673.77 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • Xiamen University
      • • Medical College
      • • School of Life Sciences
      Amoy, Fujian, China
  • 2012–2013
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Neuroscience
      Rochester, MI, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
      • Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research Center
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • The University of Tennessee Health Science Center
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Memphis, TN, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Fundación Instituto Leloir
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
  • 2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (CMM)
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology
      Wuhan, Hubei, China
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Neurobiology
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 1999–2006
    • The Rockefeller University
      • Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2002–2004
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • Nicox Research Institute
      Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1997
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Neurology and Neuroscience
      Ithaca, NY, United States