[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends GBS screening for all pregnant women during the 35th to 37th week of gestation. Although GBS screening has been performed mainly by the culture-based method, it takes several days to obtain a reliable result. In this study, we developed a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of GBS-specific surface immunogenic protein in 15 min using an overnight enrichment culture. The ICT was prepared using two anti-Sip monoclonal antibodies. This ICT was able to detect recombinant Sip levels 0.5 ng/ml, or about 10(6) CFU/ml of GBS cells, in tests with 9 GBS strains of different serotypes. The cross reactivity test using 26 species of microorganism showed no detectable false positive result. Reactivity of the ICT with 229 GBS strains showed one false negative result that was attributable to the production of truncated Sip. Among 260 enrichment cultures of vaginal swabs, 17 produced red to orange pigments in the Granada medium and they were all GBS- and Sip-positives. Among 219 pigment-negative cultures, 12 were GBS-positive and 10 were Sip-positive. Sip-negative two cultures contained GBS cells below the limit of detection by the ICT. Among 207 GBS-negative cultures, only one was Sip-positive, which was attributable to GBS cell debris. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity of the ICT appeared 93.1% and 99.6%, respectively. The newly developed ICT is readily applicable to clinical use in the detection of GBS.
Clinical and vaccine immunology: CVI 07/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most important pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection, and strains that are resistant to several antimicrobials are increasing. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance. The urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 51 medical facilities from April 2009 to October 2010. Of the 156 specimens, 83 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of β-lactamase-producing strains and chromosomally mediated resistant strains were 7.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftriaxone for 7 strains (8.4 %) was 0.125 μg/ml. One strain was resistant to cefixime (MIC 0.5 μg/ml). The MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tosufloxacin, showed a bimodal distribution. The MIC of sitafloxacin was lower than those of the three fluoroquinolones listed here, and it was found that the antimicrobial activity of sitafloxacin was stronger than that of the fluoroquinolones. The MIC of azithromycin in 2 strains was 2 μg/ml, but no high-level resistance to macrolides was detected.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 06/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 05/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously conducted nationwide surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2000-2001 (period 1) and 2004 (period 2) and reported the findings. Subsequent surveillance surveys conducted in 2007 (period 3) and 2010 (period 4) are now reported. Bacterial strains were clinically isolated from children with meningitis, sepsis, and respiratory tract infections at 27 hospitals participating in the Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease. Twenty-one drugs were investigated for 283 isolated strains in period 3, and 24 drugs were investigated for 459 strains in period 4. In period 3, 43.8 % of strains were penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP), 52.3 % were penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP), and 3.9 % were penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP). In period 4, the percentages were PSSP 23.1 %, PISP 49.9 %, and PRSP 27.0 %. The resistance rates were 56.2 % and 76.9 %, respectively. Drug sensitivity was best with panipenem, at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)90 ≤0.063 μg/ml in period 3, and with tebipenem (MIC90 ≤ 0.063 μg/ml) in period 4. Patients' background factors related to increased bacterial resistance were investigated, and significant differences were found depending on whether a child had siblings (P = 0.0056) or was a daycare center attendee (P = 0.0195) in period 3, and age category (P = 0.0256) in period 4. No factors were common to both periods 3 and 4. Pneumococcus is a major causative organism of pediatric infectious disease, and we plan to continue conducting surveillance and providing information in the future.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 04/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease conducted national surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae in 2007 (phase 3) and 2010 (phase 4), following the previous surveillance conducted from 2000 to 2001 (phase 1) and in 2004 (phase 2). We examined the antimicrobial susceptibility for H. influenzae derived from clinical specimens of pediatric patients collected nationwide from 27 institutions during phases 3 (386 strains) and 4 (484 strains). The frequency of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin (ABPC)-resistant (BLNAR) strains, which rapidly increased from 11.4 % in phase 1 to 43.4 % in phase 2, has gradually decreased from 38.3 % in phase 3 to 37.8 % in phase 4. In contrast, On the other hand, the frequency of β-lactamase-producing strains, which continuously decreased from 8.3 % in phase 1 to 4.4 % in phase 3, has increased to 8.7 % in phase 4. Prevalence of β-lactamase-producing clavulanic acid/amoxicillin-resistant (BLPACR) strains, especially, has increased from 1.6 % in phase 3 to 4.8 % in phase 4. The oral antimicrobial agents with the lowest MIC90 were levofloxacin in both phases, and tosufloxacin in phase 4 (≤0.063 μg/ml), whereas for intravenous use the corresponding agent was tazobactam/piperacillin in both phases (0.125 μg/ml). There was no increase in the MIC90 of most β-lactams between phase 3 and phase 4. In relationship to sex, age, presence of siblings, attendance at a daycare center, siblings' attendance at a daycare center, and prior administration of antimicrobial agents within 1 month, the frequency of β-lactamase-nonproducing ABPC-intermediately resistant (BLNAI) strains + BLNAR strains was high (P = 0.005) in cases with prior administration of antimicrobial agents in phase 3.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 04/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics of arbekacin sulfate (ABK, brand name: Habekacin injection) in single and 7-day multiple administration of ABK 400 and 600 mg as potency to healthy male volunteers. In the single administration of ABK 400 and 600 mg (over 30 min, drip infusion), C(max) values were 41.0 +/- 3.6 microg/mL and 63.0 +/- 9.9 microg/mL, respectively. Serum ABK concentrations at 60 min (C(peak)) after the start of administration were 23.2 +/- 2.9 microg/mL and 38.5 +/- 3.3 microg/mL, respectively, and the mean serum ABK concentrations at 24 hr (C(trough)) after the start of administration were less than 0.4 microg/mL (LOQ: limited of quantitation). C(max), Cpeak and AUC(0-infinity) were increased with doses, and t1/2, CL(tot), CL(r) V(ss) and urinary excretion were comparable at both doses. In the multiple administration of ABK 400 and 600 mg (over 30 min, drip infusion) once a day for 7 days, C(max0, C(peak) and AUC(0-infinity) were comparable from the 1st day through to 7th day and increased with doses. After the administration, the serum ABK concentrations were decreased with time, and the means of C(trough) were 0.4 microg/mL (LOQ) -0.5 microg/mL, which showed ABK has no tendency toward accumulation. In addition, t1/2, CL(tot), CL(r) V(ss) and urinary excretion were constant throughout administration days at either dose, and CL(tot) containing CL(r) was not decreased. There were no notable changes in the functions of the kidney, auditory organs, etc. Based on the above-mentioned results, when ABK 400 or 600 mg was intravenously administered over 30 min once or once a day for 7 days to the healthy male volunteers with normal renal clearance, it is suggested there were no problems in terms of safety, and C(max) were 36.7-54.1 and 44.2-78.5 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, C(trough) was 0.5 microg/mL or lower at either doses and ABK was not accumulated in multiple administration of ABK. ABK was, therefore, expected to have good safety profile and favorable pharmacokinetics.
The Japanese journal of antibiotics 04/2013; 66(2):97-109.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Japan, the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been introduced on a voluntary basis since February 2010, and official financial support for children under 5 years started in November 2010. The impact of PCV7 on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children is unknown. There are 340 medical institutions that actively participated in our surveillance project throughout Japan. We collected 252 strains from patients with IPD in 2006 (pre-PCV7), 280 strains in 2010 (under 10% immunization achieved), and 128 strains in 2011 (50% to 60% immunization). Serotypes and penicillin-resistance genotypes (g) were compared between these years. Multilocus sequence typing was also carried out on these strains. Due to the official promotion, IPD significantly decreased in 2011 (p<0.001). In particular, meningitis and sepsis caused by vaccine type (VT) strains declined (p=0.033, p<0.001). In less than 2 years, among nonvaccine types (NVT), 15A and 22F increased in 2011 (p=0.015, p=0.015). Coverage by PCV7 decreased from 71.8% in 2006 to 51.6% in 2011. Sequence-type diversities accompanied by evolution to gPRSP occurred in both VT and NVT strains. Reduction of IPD caused by VT strains was accomplished, but a rapid increase of NVT raises concern about a future decrease in the efficacy of PCV7.
Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 03/2013; · 1.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC90 of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient’s physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arbekacin (ABK) is an aminoglycoside and widely used in Japan for treatment of patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although, ABK has concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, the peak serum concentration (C (peak)) of ABK has not yet been fully investigated as an indicator of the efficacy of ABK. The present study was conducted in patients admitted to hospitals affiliated with the ABK Dose Finding Study Group, between October 2008 and June 2011, who had pneumonia or sepsis, the cause of which was identified or suspected to be MRSA. The initial target C (peak) was set at 15-20 μg/mL and therapeutic drug monitoring was conducted. Then the relationship between serum concentration and efficacy/safety of ABK was prospectively examined to obtain sufficient clinical efficacy. In total, 89 patients from 11 clinical sites in Japan were enrolled and 29 of these patients were subjected to efficacy analysis. The mean initial dose and C (peak) were 306.9 mg/day and 16.2 μg/mL, respectively. The efficacy rate was 95 % (19/20 patients) at 5-6 mg/kg or higher, 87.5 % (7/8) for sepsis and 90.5 % (19/21) for pneumonia, and the overall efficacy rate was 89.7 % (26/29). There was no increase in the incidence of adverse events. In conclusion, we recommend the initial dose of ABK at 5-6 mg/kg or higher and the dosage regimen should be adjusted to achieve C (peak) at 10-15 μg/mL or higher in the treatment of patients with pneumonia or sepsis caused by MRSA. This strategy would surely achieve low incidence of adverse events while obtaining high clinical efficacy.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC(90) of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient's physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 11/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report herein on the isolation of three linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains in 2011 from two pediatric inpatients at Kitasato University Hospital, Japan. Three linezolid resistant strains were isolated from two patients who shared the same room of a pediatric inpatient ward. Two linezolid resistant strains were isolated from patient A who had been treated with a total of 17,600mg of linezolid during 60 days of hospitalization (strains 1 and 2). The linezolid resistant E. faecalis persisted through the time that the patient had been discharged from the hospital. Another linezolid resistant strain was isolated from patient B who had no history of linezolid administration. The resistant strain in patient B phased out spontaneously. The minimum inhibitory concentration of linezolid in these strains ranged from 8.0 to 16.0 microg/mL. PCR amplification of the chromosomal gene encoding domain V of the 23S rRNA and subsequent nucleotide sequencing revealed that all the strains had at least one G2576T mutation. The pulse-field-gel electrophoretograms of the DNA treated with the SmaI restriction enzyme showed an identical profile suggesting that they were derived from a single resistant strain. These results suggested that the resistant strain occurred in patient A and was transmitted to patient B within the inpatient ward.
Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 09/2012; 86(5):555-62.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a pediatric survey of bacterial meningitis epidemiology from January 2009 to December 2010 in Japan, and obtained the following results for 314 cases (186 boys, 124 girls, and 4 with gender not reported). Children younger than one year old accounted for the majority of cases (51.2%, 161/314), and the incidence decreased with increasing age. Haemophilus influenzae (in children aged 1 month to 5 years old) was the most common cause of infection (53.2%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 month to 12 years, 24.2%), Streptococcus agalactiae (0-4 months, 7.6%), and Escherichia coli (0-3 months, 3.2%). Susceptibility tests showed that 50.1% (78/153) of the H. influenzae isolates and 63.0% (46/73) of the S. pneumoniae isolates were drug-resistant. Combinations of ampicillin and cephem or carbapenem and other beta-lactams were mainly used as the initial antibiotics for patients under 4 months of age (77.8%, 42/54), and a carbapenem and other beta-lactam combination was used for patients aged 4 months and older (76.4%, 198/259). The final antibiotics for H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were mainly cefotaxime (CTX) or ceftriaxone (CTRX) and carbapenem, respectively. The overall fatality rate was 2.0% (6/305). Since the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib vaccine) and the 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) are not widely used in Japan, only 5 patients in our cohort (all with meningitis not caused by H. influenzae) had been immunized with the Hib vaccine, and none had been immunized with the PCV7 vaccine. No remarkable changes in the characteristics of pediatric meningitis have been observed for several years in Japan.
Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 09/2012; 86(5):582-91.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are a limited number of reports that compare the clinical efficacy of anti-MRSA agents such as arbekacin (ABK), vancomycin (VCM), teicoplanin (TEIC) and linezolid (LZD). There is a tendency for these four agents to show variation in the inflammatory response parameters, in C-reactive protein (CRP) and in white blood cell count (WBC), depending on the administration period. There was no significant difference among the agents in analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the group of days 1-3 (p = 0.0536) but there was some significant difference in the group of days 4-7, as well as days 8-14 (p < 0.001, p < 0.01) in relative variation rate of CRP. Furthermore, we compared in more detail the groups of LZD, VCM and ABK, with a significant decrease of CRP, each of which showed more decrease in comparison with the group of TEIC in the period days 4-7 (p < 0.01). We took 1-hr serum level after days 3-4, with the ABK treatment as the peak concentration (C(peak)). Having made nonlinear logistic regression analysis of CRP and C(peak)/MIC, we concluded that the decrease rate estimable by early inflammatory effect could be decreased to some 40%, assuming that C(peak)/MIC shows the high value within 4 days after ABK treatment.
The Japanese journal of antibiotics 08/2012; 65(4):221-34.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of continuous regional arterial infusion therapy using protease inhibitors and antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis has been previously reported. Carbapenem antibiotics, which have a broad antibacterial spectrum, and nafamostat mesilate are often used for this therapeutic approach. We investigated the compatibility of various carbapenem antibiotics with nafamostat mesilate. Carbapenem antibiotics were dissolved in 30 mL of saline or 5% glucose and the appearance, pH, and stability of the solutions were determined. The changes in each carbapenem antibiotic solution after mixing with nafamostat mesilate were then investigated. Biapenem and doripenem showed a residual rate of > or = 90% at 8 hours after dissolution in saline or 5% glucose and exhibited an appropriate appearance and residual rate (> or = 90%). After mixing with nafamostat mesilate, biapenem maintained a residual rate of > or = 90% for the longest time period (8 hours) and exhibited a slight coloration, followed by doripenem (6 hours) and meropenem dissolved in saline. The other carbapenem antibiotics that were tested exhibited changes in appearance or their residual rate. Biapenem and doripenem, which exert their effects in a time-dependent manner, can be infused for prolonged periods for the treatment of not only severe acute pancreatitis, but also other severe infections.
The Japanese journal of antibiotics 08/2012; 65(4):235-49.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Japan, β-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant organisms have been evident among Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) isolates since 2000, when no appropriate vaccine had been approved. We therefore performed molecular analysis of agents causing H. influenzae meningitis nationwide over the following 10 years. Some 285 institutions have participated in surveillance since 2000. The capsular type and resistance genes of 1,353 isolates and 23 cerebrospinal fluid samples from pediatric patients with meningitis we had received from 2000 to 2011 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Blood and spinal fluid test results obtained when patients were admitted were examined for correlation with outcomes. Hib was found in 98.9 % of isolates. We received more than 100 Hib isolates per year until vaccination began in December 2008, when these isolates decreased, especially since establishment of a special fund to promote vaccination in November 2010. Decreased incidence among infants 7 months to 2 years old has been particularly notable. However, the rate of ampicillin-resistant organisms has increased to more than 60 % of all isolates since 2009. We received 587 replies to a questionnaire concerning outcomes, indicating 2 % mortality and 17.7 % serious morbidity. Age of 6 months or younger and presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation at admission were related to an unfavorable outcome (p < 0.05), but ampicillin resistance was not. Combination therapy with third-generation cephem and carbapenem agents was used initially for 72 % of patients. Routine immunization can prevent Hib meningitis in children.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 07/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC) started a survey in 2006. From 2009, JSC continued the survey in collaboration with the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology. The fourth-year survey was conducted during the period from January and April 2009 by the three societies. A total of 684 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 635 strains (130 Staphylococcus aureus, 127 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 123 Haemophilus influenzae, 70 Moraxella catarrhalis, 78 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 103 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A maximum of 45 antibacterial agents including 26 β-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with β-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), four aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 58.5 %, and that of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) was 6.3 % and 0.0 %, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 21.1 % of them were found to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 18.7 % to be β-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.7 % to be β-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5 %) of β-lactamase-producing strains has been suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2 %) extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5 %) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo-β-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9 %) suspected multi-drug resistant strains showing resistance against imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continuous national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 07/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A class of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) shows resistance to vancomycin only in the presence of ß-lactam antibiotics (BIVR). This type of vancomycin resistance is mainly attributable to the rapid depletion of free vancomycin in the presence of ß-lactam antibiotics. This means that ß-lactam antibiotics remain active or intact in BIVR culture, although most MRSA cells are assumed to produce ß-lactamase. We hypothesised that the BIVR cells either did not harbour the ß-lactamase gene, blaZ, or the gene was quiescent. We tested this hypothesis by determining ß-lactamase activity and conducting PCR amplification of blaZ.
Five randomly selected laboratory stock BIVR strains showed an undetectable level of ß-lactamase activity and were blaZ-negative. Five non-BIVR stock strains showed an average ß-lactamase activity of 2.59 ± 0.35 U. To test freshly isolated MRSA, 353 clinical isolates were collected from 11 regionally distant hospitals. Among 25 BIVR strains, only 16% and 8% were blaZ positive and ß-lactamase-positive, respectively. In contrast, 95% and 61% of 328 non-BIVR strains had the blaZ gene and produced active ß-lactamase, respectively. To know the mechanism of low ß-lactamase activity in the BIVR cells, they were transformed with the plasmid carrying the blaZ gene. The transformants still showed a low level of ß-lactamase activity that was several orders of magnitude lower than that of blaZ-positive non-BIVR cells. Presence of the ß-lactamase gene in the transformants was tested by PCR amplification of blaZ using 11 pairs of primers covering the entire blaZ sequence. Yield of the PCR products was consistently low compared with that using blaZ-positive non-BIVR cells. Nucleotide sequencing of blaZ in one of the BIVR transformants revealed 10 amino acid substitutions. Thus, it is likely that the ß-lactamase gene was modified in the BIVR cells to downregulate active ß-lactamase production.
We concluded that BIVR cells gain vancomycin resistance by the elimination or inactivation of ß-lactamase production, thereby preserving ß-lactam antibiotics in milieu, stimulating peptidoglycan metabolism, and depleting free vancomycin to a level below the minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide an overall picture of oral antibiotic use in Japan, we conducted a survey of patients who had been prescribed oral antibiotics. In addition, factors potentially associated with compliance were evaluated.
General practitioners at 155 GP practices throughout Japan participated in the survey. Questionnaires were collected from 1068 subjects visiting those GP practices (676 females; median age 38 y), with a collection rate of 82.9%.
According to this survey, the overall percentage of fully compliant subjects was 74.7%. Subgroup analyses showed that compliance tended to be higher with a shorter duration of prescription and fewer doses per day, and also with a greater ease of understanding of the explanation of treatment provided by the doctor. In multivariate analysis, age, pharyngitis, number of doses per day, duration of prescription, intention to return for follow-up, and ease of understanding the explanation of treatment given by the doctor showed a statistically significant association with compliance.
Based on our survey results, prescribing drugs taken with a minimal number of daily doses in a shorter regimen appears to be an effective strategy for improving compliance. It appears that doctors also need to raise awareness of the importance of taking antibiotics properly by clearly explaining their purpose and significance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A multicenter, uncontrolled clinical study has been conducted to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) in children. In this article, the safety and efficacy of L-AMB are discussed. Subjects were diagnosed with invasive fungal infection (definitely diagnosed cases), possible fungal infection (clinically diagnosed cases), and febrile neutropenia with suspected fungal infection (febrile neutropenia cases). Of the 39 subjects treated with L-AMB, 18 received a definite (11) or clinical (7) diagnosis of invasive fungal infection. In these subjects, excluding one unevaluable subject, L-AMB was effective in nine out of 17 subjects(52.9%). Of 12 febrile neutropenia cases, improvement in clinical symptoms, etc., was observed for six but these were excluded from the efficacy analysis because they concomitantly used medications that may have affected efficacy. The causative fungus was identified in four out of 39 subjects and confirmed to be eliminated by treatment with L-AMB in one subject. Adverse events possibly related to L-AMB (adverse drug reactions) were reported in 36 out of 39 subjects (92.3%). The most commonad verse drug reaction was decreased potassium in 20 out of 39 subjects (51.3%), but all these subjects recovered with appropriate treatment, for example potassium supplementation.In a Japanese Phase II clinical study of adult patients, the incidence of adverse drug reactions was 95.3%(82/86 subjects) and the efficacy was 63.6% (42/66). Taken together, these data indicate that the safety and efficacy of L-AMB are almost the same in pediatric and adult patients.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 01/2012; 18(4):456-65. · 1.55 Impact Factor