Keisuke Sunakawa

Kitasato University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (257)237.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese Three Academic Societies Joint Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance Committee has conducted a nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and rates of isolation in 6 otolaryngological diseases. The surveillance program was conducted in the otorhinolaryngological departments of 29 universities, and their 26 affiliated hospitals. Patients suffering from acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, acute nasal sinusitis, chronic nasal sinusitis, acute tonsillitis, and peritonsillar abscess between January 2011 and June 2012 were investigated. The collected swab or incision samples were cultivated for microbial identification, and the drug susceptibility of detected bacteria was measured at the Kitasato University Research Center for Infections and Antimicrobials. The surveillance focused on three gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus), three gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella Catarrhalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three anaerobic bacteria (Peptostreptococcus spp., Prevotella spp., and Fusobacterium spp.). Bacterial susceptibility to 39 antimicrobial drugs was investigated. We compared bacterial isolation ratio of each disease in this surveillance from those of past 4 times surveillance which we performed formerly, and we also compared percentage of main drug resistant strains from those of past 4 times surveillance. The age composition between this time and former surveillances was not statistically significant by student -t test.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jiac.2015.03.005 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the results of surveillance in the pediatric field conducted in 2007, 2010, and 2012, we examined the frequency of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) strains, the susceptibility for Hib strains to various types of antimicrobial agent, and the relations to patients’ background factors.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12/2014; 21(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jiac.2014.12.006 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease has conducted surveillance of pediatric patients with respiratory tract infections, meningitis, and sepsis five times (in 2000-2001 [period 1], 2004 [period 2], 2007 [period 3], 2010 [period 4], and 2012 [period 5]). With respect to the clinically isolated Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae), the drug susceptibility, the frequency of drug-resistant strains, and patients’ background factors in each period have already been reported. Here we evaluate trends in the development of drug resistance in H. influenzae, and the relationship between the development of drug resistance and patients’ background factors in the aforementioned five periods.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12/2014; 21(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jiac.2014.11.012 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the surveillance conducted in 2012 by the Drug-resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease, we isolated a strain of Moraxella catarrhalis that demonstrated resistance to both macrolides and quinolones from a male pediatric patient aged 1.5 years who had developed acute bronchitis. Then we evaluated the susceptibility of this strain to different types of antibacterial agents and conducted a genetic analysis.The results of the susceptibility evaluation showed that the MIC values of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and rokitamycin were >64 μg/mL, >64 μg/mL, and 4 μg/mL, respectively; clearly demonstrating resistance to macrolides. The MIC values of the quinolones levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, and garenoxacin were 4 μg/mL, 2 μg/mL, and 1 μg/mL, respectively; indicating decreased susceptibility. The genetic analysis of this strain revealed one mutation in 23s rRNA with a replacement of adenine by thymine at nucleotide position 2330 (A2330T) and another mutation in gyrB at nucleotide position 1481 by replacement of adenine with guanine (A1481G) that caused a substitution of the 494th asparagine acid by glycine, as being associated with the observed resistance to macrolides and quinolones, respectively.Similar to drug-resistant bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, the prevalence of which has recently increased, the treatment of drug-resistant M. catarrhalis infections is considered difficult due to the development of resistance to different types of antibacterial agents. It is vital to maintain an unwavering focus on the trend toward an increasing number of drug-resistant M. catarrhalis strains and ensure the proper use of each antibacterial agent.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 11/2014; 21(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jiac.2014.11.002 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Key Clinical Message We report here a very rare case of primary meningococcal arthritis of the knee joint without clinical features associated with meningococcemia, meningitis, or meningococcal complications. The patient suffered from diabetes mellitus and had experienced two episodes of joint trauma. Intravenous infusion of ampicillin/sulbactam for 18 consecutive days was successful.
    09/2014; 3(2). DOI:10.1002/ccr3.151
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted an antibiotic susceptibility survey of 830 blood-borne methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus collected from nationwide hospitals in Japan over a three-year period from January 2008 through May 2011. Antibiotic susceptibility was judged according to the criteria recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Over 99% of the MRSA showed to be susceptible to teicoplanin, linezolid, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and vancomycin, and over 97% of them were susceptible to daptomycin, arbekacin and rifampin. The majority of the MRSA strains showed resistant to minocycline, meropenem, imipenem, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, and oxacillin in the rates of 56.6, 72.9, 73.7, 78.7, 89.0, 99.5, and 99.9%, respectively. Among the MRSA strains, 72 showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, including 8 strains (0.96%) of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), 54 (6.51%) of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA), and 55 (5.63%) of β-lactam antibiotics-induced vancomycin resistant S. aureus (BIVR). Unexpectedly, among the 54 hVISA and 55 BIVR, 45 isolates (83.3% and 81.8%, respectively) showed both hVISA and BIVR phenotypes. A new trend of vancomycin resistance found in this study was that VISA strains were still prevalent among the bacteremic specimens. The high rates of the hVISA/BIVR two-phenotypic vancomycin resistance, and the prevalence of VISA in the bloodborne MRSA call attention in the MRSA epidemiology in Japan.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jiac.2014.06.012 · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Kazunobu Ouchi, Keisuke Sunakawa
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    ABSTRACT: In November 2004, "Guidelines for the Management of Respiratory Infectious Diseases in Children in Japan" was published ahead of the rest of the world, by Japanese Society of Pediatric Pulmonology/Japanese Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases, based on the data on causative organisms in the lower respiratory tract. In its 2011 version, classification of the severity of pneumonia was renewed based on the latest information. As a result, many types of pneumonia in children are now classified as mild or moderate. This means that many patients who might have conventionally required hospital treatment can now be managed on an outpatient basis. The reason for realization of the wider range of outpatient treatment is the availability of two new oral antimicrobial agents, tebipenem pivoxil and tosufloxacin tosilate hydrate, for the treatment of infections in children. Analysis of data on medical expenses shows a decreased rate of hospitalization due to pneumonia year by year after launch of these two drugs, suggesting that these drugs have contributed to wider range of outpatient treatment. This manuscript discusses the effect of tebipenem pivoxil and tosufloxacin tosilate hydrate in the treatment of pneumonia.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 06/2014; 67(3):157-66.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends in incidence and the characteristics of bacterial meningitis in Japan where Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in 2008 and 2010, respectively, which was 5-20 years after their introduction in western countries. The nationwide Japanese survey of pediatric and neonatal bacterial meningitis was performed in 2011 and 2012. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical data, and compared the information obtained in the previous nationwide survey database. We also investigated the risk factors for disease outcome. In the 2011-2012 surveys, 357 patients were evaluated. H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli were the main organisms. The number of patients hospitalized with bacterial meningitis per 1000 admissions decreased from 1.31 in 2009 to 0.43 in 2012 (p < 0.001). The incidence of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae meningitis also decreased from 0.66 to 0.08 (p < 0.001), and 0.30 to 0.06 (p < 0.001), respectively. Only 0-2 cases with Neisseria meningitidis were reported each year throughout 2001-2012. The median patient age was 10-12 months in 2001-2011, and became lower in 2012 (2 month old) (p < 0.001). The fatality rate for S. agalactiae is the highest (5.9% (11/187)) throughout 2001-2012 among the four organisms. Risk factors for death and sequelae were convulsions at onset, low CSF glucose, S. agalactiae etiology, and persistent positive CSF culture. Hib vaccine and PCV7 decreased the rate of bacterial meningitis. Earlier introduction of these vaccines may have prevented bacterial meningitis among Japanese children.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 05/2014; 20(7-8). DOI:10.1016/j.jiac.2014.04.007 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends in incidence and the characteristics of bacterial meningitis in Japan where Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in 2008 and 2010, respectively, which was 5–20 years after their introduction in western countries. The nationwide Japanese survey of pediatric and neonatal bacterial meningitis was performed in 2011 and 2012. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical data, and compared the information obtained in the previous nationwide survey database. We also investigated the risk factors for disease outcome. In the 2011–2012 surveys, 357 patients were evaluated. H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli were the main organisms. The number of patients hospitalized with bacterial meningitis per 1000 admissions decreased from 1.31 in 2009 to 0.43 in 2012 (p < 0.001). The incidence of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae meningitis also decreased from 0.66 to 0.08 (p < 0.001), and 0.30 to 0.06 (p < 0.001), respectively. Only 0–2 cases with Neisseria meningitidis were reported each year throughout 2001–2012. The median patient age was 10–12 months in 2001–2011, and became lower in 2012 (2 month old) (p < 0.001). The fatality rate for S. agalactiae is the highest (5.9% (11/187)) throughout 2001–2012 among the four organisms. Risk factors for death and sequelae were convulsions at onset, low CSF glucose, S. agalactiae etiology, and persistent positive CSF culture. Hib vaccine and PCV7 decreased the rate of bacterial meningitis. Earlier introduction of these vaccines may have prevented bacterial meningitis among Japanese children.
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary bacterial pneumonia due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a highly publicized cause of death associated with influenza. In this study, we performed the gentamicin-killing assay using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and MRSA strains to investigate whether prior infection from pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) lead to increased invasion of MDCK cells by MRSA. We found that the invasion rate of two MRSA strains (ATCC BAA-1680 [USA 300] and ATCC BAA-1699 [USA 100]) into intact MDCK cell monolayers was 0.29 ± 0.15% and 0.007 ± 0.002%, respectively (p < 0.01, n ≥ 3). In addition, the relative invasion rate of both ATCC BAA-1680 and ATCC BAA-1699 was significantly increased by prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection of MDCK monolayers from 1 ± 0.28 to 1.38 ± 0.02 and from 1 ± 0.24 to 1.73 ± 0.29, respectively (p < 0.01). These results indicate that ATCC BAA-1680 displays much stronger invasiveness of MDCK cells than ATCC BAA-1699, although invasion of both strains was increased by prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. In conclusion, this study provided the first evidence that prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection facilitates the invasion of MDCK cells by MRSA, presumably due to cellular injury caused by the virus.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jiac.2013.07.012 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The population pharmacokinetics on tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC; 1:8, 4.5 g x 3) was analyzed in Japanese patients with community-acquired pneumonia using the Nonlinear Mixed Effect Model version VI. Analysis by the one-compartment model yielded the following results for PIPC: total clearance (CL) = 8.22+(Ccr-71.4) x 0.0561 (L/hr), distribution volume (Vd) = 13.7 (L). The pharmacokinetic parameters for TAZ were: CL = 8.67 + (Ccr-71.4) x 0.0682 (L/hr), Vd = 14.4 (L). Of the pharmacokinetic parameters of PIPC, CL included Ccr as a variation factor, whereas the Vd included no variation factor. Because PIPC is excreted into the urine in the unchanged form, its pharmacokinetic factors seem to reflect the renal function status. In this study of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, the mean Vd per body weight was 0.26 L/kg, and the results suggested an increase of the Vd in patients with community-acquired pneumonia as compared with the value in healthy adults.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 08/2013; 66(4):189-203.
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    ABSTRACT: Group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends GBS screening for all pregnant women during the 35th to 37th week of gestation. Although GBS screening has been performed mainly by the culture-based method, it takes several days to obtain a reliable result. In this study, we developed a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of GBS-specific surface immunogenic protein in 15 min using an overnight enrichment culture. The ICT was prepared using two anti-Sip monoclonal antibodies. This ICT was able to detect recombinant Sip levels 0.5 ng/ml, or about 10(6) CFU/ml of GBS cells, in tests with 9 GBS strains of different serotypes. The cross reactivity test using 26 species of microorganism showed no detectable false positive result. Reactivity of the ICT with 229 GBS strains showed one false negative result that was attributable to the production of truncated Sip. Among 260 enrichment cultures of vaginal swabs, 17 produced red to orange pigments in the Granada medium and they were all GBS- and Sip-positives. Among 219 pigment-negative cultures, 12 were GBS-positive and 10 were Sip-positive. Sip-negative two cultures contained GBS cells below the limit of detection by the ICT. Among 207 GBS-negative cultures, only one was Sip-positive, which was attributable to GBS cell debris. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity of the ICT appeared 93.1% and 99.6%, respectively. The newly developed ICT is readily applicable to clinical use in the detection of GBS.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 07/2013; 20(9). DOI:10.1128/CVI.00171-13 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Worldwide, the most important concern in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections is the increase in antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains including resistance to cephalosporins, penicillins, fluoroquinolones or macrolides. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the second nationwide surveillance study. Urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 26 medical facilities from March 2012 to January 2013. Of the 151 specimens, 103 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90% of ceftriaxone increased to 0.125 μg/ml, and 11 (10.7%) strains were considered less susceptible with an MIC of 0.125 μg/ml. There were 11 strains resistant to cefixime, and the MICs of these strains were 0.5 μg/ml. The distributions of the MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin, were bimodal. Sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, showed strong activity against all strains, including strains resistant to other three fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin. The azithromycin MICs in 2 strains were 1 μg/ml. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 06/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10156-013-0637-2 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 05/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10156-013-0606-9 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously conducted nationwide surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2000-2001 (period 1) and 2004 (period 2) and reported the findings. Subsequent surveillance surveys conducted in 2007 (period 3) and 2010 (period 4) are now reported. Bacterial strains were clinically isolated from children with meningitis, sepsis, and respiratory tract infections at 27 hospitals participating in the Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease. Twenty-one drugs were investigated for 283 isolated strains in period 3, and 24 drugs were investigated for 459 strains in period 4. In period 3, 43.8 % of strains were penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP), 52.3 % were penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP), and 3.9 % were penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP). In period 4, the percentages were PSSP 23.1 %, PISP 49.9 %, and PRSP 27.0 %. The resistance rates were 56.2 % and 76.9 %, respectively. Drug sensitivity was best with panipenem, at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)90 ≤0.063 μg/ml in period 3, and with tebipenem (MIC90 ≤ 0.063 μg/ml) in period 4. Patients' background factors related to increased bacterial resistance were investigated, and significant differences were found depending on whether a child had siblings (P = 0.0056) or was a daycare center attendee (P = 0.0195) in period 3, and age category (P = 0.0256) in period 4. No factors were common to both periods 3 and 4. Pneumococcus is a major causative organism of pediatric infectious disease, and we plan to continue conducting surveillance and providing information in the future.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 04/2013; 19(3). DOI:10.1007/s10156-013-0593-x · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease conducted national surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae in 2007 (phase 3) and 2010 (phase 4), following the previous surveillance conducted from 2000 to 2001 (phase 1) and in 2004 (phase 2). We examined the antimicrobial susceptibility for H. influenzae derived from clinical specimens of pediatric patients collected nationwide from 27 institutions during phases 3 (386 strains) and 4 (484 strains). The frequency of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin (ABPC)-resistant (BLNAR) strains, which rapidly increased from 11.4 % in phase 1 to 43.4 % in phase 2, has gradually decreased from 38.3 % in phase 3 to 37.8 % in phase 4. In contrast, On the other hand, the frequency of β-lactamase-producing strains, which continuously decreased from 8.3 % in phase 1 to 4.4 % in phase 3, has increased to 8.7 % in phase 4. Prevalence of β-lactamase-producing clavulanic acid/amoxicillin-resistant (BLPACR) strains, especially, has increased from 1.6 % in phase 3 to 4.8 % in phase 4. The oral antimicrobial agents with the lowest MIC90 were levofloxacin in both phases, and tosufloxacin in phase 4 (≤0.063 μg/ml), whereas for intravenous use the corresponding agent was tazobactam/piperacillin in both phases (0.125 μg/ml). There was no increase in the MIC90 of most β-lactams between phase 3 and phase 4. In relationship to sex, age, presence of siblings, attendance at a daycare center, siblings' attendance at a daycare center, and prior administration of antimicrobial agents within 1 month, the frequency of β-lactamase-nonproducing ABPC-intermediately resistant (BLNAI) strains + BLNAR strains was high (P = 0.005) in cases with prior administration of antimicrobial agents in phase 3.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 04/2013; 19(3). DOI:10.1007/s10156-013-0591-z · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Keisuke Sunakawa, Seiji Hori
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics of arbekacin sulfate (ABK, brand name: Habekacin injection) in single and 7-day multiple administration of ABK 400 and 600 mg as potency to healthy male volunteers. In the single administration of ABK 400 and 600 mg (over 30 min, drip infusion), C(max) values were 41.0 +/- 3.6 microg/mL and 63.0 +/- 9.9 microg/mL, respectively. Serum ABK concentrations at 60 min (C(peak)) after the start of administration were 23.2 +/- 2.9 microg/mL and 38.5 +/- 3.3 microg/mL, respectively, and the mean serum ABK concentrations at 24 hr (C(trough)) after the start of administration were less than 0.4 microg/mL (LOQ: limited of quantitation). C(max), Cpeak and AUC(0-infinity) were increased with doses, and t1/2, CL(tot), CL(r) V(ss) and urinary excretion were comparable at both doses. In the multiple administration of ABK 400 and 600 mg (over 30 min, drip infusion) once a day for 7 days, C(max0, C(peak) and AUC(0-infinity) were comparable from the 1st day through to 7th day and increased with doses. After the administration, the serum ABK concentrations were decreased with time, and the means of C(trough) were 0.4 microg/mL (LOQ) -0.5 microg/mL, which showed ABK has no tendency toward accumulation. In addition, t1/2, CL(tot), CL(r) V(ss) and urinary excretion were constant throughout administration days at either dose, and CL(tot) containing CL(r) was not decreased. There were no notable changes in the functions of the kidney, auditory organs, etc. Based on the above-mentioned results, when ABK 400 or 600 mg was intravenously administered over 30 min once or once a day for 7 days to the healthy male volunteers with normal renal clearance, it is suggested there were no problems in terms of safety, and C(max) were 36.7-54.1 and 44.2-78.5 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, C(trough) was 0.5 microg/mL or lower at either doses and ABK was not accumulated in multiple administration of ABK. ABK was, therefore, expected to have good safety profile and favorable pharmacokinetics.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 04/2013; 66(2):97-109.
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    ABSTRACT: In Japan, the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been introduced on a voluntary basis since February 2010, and official financial support for children under 5 years started in November 2010. The impact of PCV7 on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children is unknown. There are 340 medical institutions that actively participated in our surveillance project throughout Japan. We collected 252 strains from patients with IPD in 2006 (pre-PCV7), 280 strains in 2010 (under 10% immunization achieved), and 128 strains in 2011 (50% to 60% immunization). Serotypes and penicillin-resistance genotypes (g) were compared between these years. Multilocus sequence typing was also carried out on these strains. Due to the official promotion, IPD significantly decreased in 2011 (p<0.001). In particular, meningitis and sepsis caused by vaccine type (VT) strains declined (p=0.033, p<0.001). In less than 2 years, among nonvaccine types (NVT), 15A and 22F increased in 2011 (p=0.015, p=0.015). Coverage by PCV7 decreased from 71.8% in 2006 to 51.6% in 2011. Sequence-type diversities accompanied by evolution to gPRSP occurred in both VT and NVT strains. Reduction of IPD caused by VT strains was accomplished, but a rapid increase of NVT raises concern about a future decrease in the efficacy of PCV7.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 03/2013; DOI:10.1089/mdr.2012.0180 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC90 of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient’s physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.
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    ABSTRACT: Arbekacin (ABK) is an aminoglycoside and widely used in Japan for treatment of patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although, ABK has concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, the peak serum concentration (C (peak)) of ABK has not yet been fully investigated as an indicator of the efficacy of ABK. The present study was conducted in patients admitted to hospitals affiliated with the ABK Dose Finding Study Group, between October 2008 and June 2011, who had pneumonia or sepsis, the cause of which was identified or suspected to be MRSA. The initial target C (peak) was set at 15-20 μg/mL and therapeutic drug monitoring was conducted. Then the relationship between serum concentration and efficacy/safety of ABK was prospectively examined to obtain sufficient clinical efficacy. In total, 89 patients from 11 clinical sites in Japan were enrolled and 29 of these patients were subjected to efficacy analysis. The mean initial dose and C (peak) were 306.9 mg/day and 16.2 μg/mL, respectively. The efficacy rate was 95 % (19/20 patients) at 5-6 mg/kg or higher, 87.5 % (7/8) for sepsis and 90.5 % (19/21) for pneumonia, and the overall efficacy rate was 89.7 % (26/29). There was no increase in the incidence of adverse events. In conclusion, we recommend the initial dose of ABK at 5-6 mg/kg or higher and the dosage regimen should be adjusted to achieve C (peak) at 10-15 μg/mL or higher in the treatment of patients with pneumonia or sepsis caused by MRSA. This strategy would surely achieve low incidence of adverse events while obtaining high clinical efficacy.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12/2012; DOI:10.1007/s10156-012-0519-z · 1.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
237.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • Kitasato University
      • • Graduate School of Infection Control Sciences
      • • Department of Infectious Diseases
      • • Medical Department
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2011
    • Kawasaki Medical University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan
  • 2009
    • Nagoya City University
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2007
    • Nho Tokyo Medical Center
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2003–2007
    • Kyorin University
      • School of Health Sciences
      Japan
  • 2004
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Health Science and Nursing
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1997–1999
    • Kobe City College of Nursing
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 1996
    • Kawasaki Municipal Hospital
      Kawasaki Si, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1995
    • St. Marianna University School of Medicine
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Kawasaki Si, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1992–1995
    • Teikyo University
      • Department of Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1994
    • Social Insurance Chukyo Hospital
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 1979
    • Keio University
      • Department of Pathology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan