K Sunakawa

Kitasato University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (241)219.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We conducted an antibiotic susceptibility survey of 830 blood-borne methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus collected from nationwide hospitals in Japan over a three-year period from January 2008 through May 2011. Antibiotic susceptibility was judged according to the criteria recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Over 99% of the MRSA showed to be susceptible to teicoplanin, linezolid, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and vancomycin, and over 97% of them were susceptible to daptomycin, arbekacin and rifampin. The majority of the MRSA strains showed resistant to minocycline, meropenem, imipenem, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, and oxacillin in the rates of 56.6, 72.9, 73.7, 78.7, 89.0, 99.5, and 99.9%, respectively. Among the MRSA strains, 72 showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, including 8 strains (0.96%) of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), 54 (6.51%) of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA), and 55 (5.63%) of β-lactam antibiotics-induced vancomycin resistant S. aureus (BIVR). Unexpectedly, among the 54 hVISA and 55 BIVR, 45 isolates (83.3% and 81.8%, respectively) showed both hVISA and BIVR phenotypes. A new trend of vancomycin resistance found in this study was that VISA strains were still prevalent among the bacteremic specimens. The high rates of the hVISA/BIVR two-phenotypic vancomycin resistance, and the prevalence of VISA in the bloodborne MRSA call attention in the MRSA epidemiology in Japan.
    Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends in incidence and the characteristics of bacterial meningitis in Japan where Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in 2008 and 2010, respectively, which was 5-20 years after their introduction in western countries. The nationwide Japanese survey of pediatric and neonatal bacterial meningitis was performed in 2011 and 2012. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical data, and compared the information obtained in the previous nationwide survey database. We also investigated the risk factors for disease outcome. In the 2011-2012 surveys, 357 patients were evaluated. H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli were the main organisms. The number of patients hospitalized with bacterial meningitis per 1000 admissions decreased from 1.31 in 2009 to 0.43 in 2012 (p < 0.001). The incidence of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae meningitis also decreased from 0.66 to 0.08 (p < 0.001), and 0.30 to 0.06 (p < 0.001), respectively. Only 0-2 cases with Neisseria meningitidis were reported each year throughout 2001-2012. The median patient age was 10-12 months in 2001-2011, and became lower in 2012 (2 month old) (p < 0.001). The fatality rate for S. agalactiae is the highest (5.9% (11/187)) throughout 2001-2012 among the four organisms. Risk factors for death and sequelae were convulsions at onset, low CSF glucose, S. agalactiae etiology, and persistent positive CSF culture. Hib vaccine and PCV7 decreased the rate of bacterial meningitis. Earlier introduction of these vaccines may have prevented bacterial meningitis among Japanese children.
    Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends in incidence and the characteristics of bacterial meningitis in Japan where Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in 2008 and 2010, respectively, which was 5–20 years after their introduction in western countries. The nationwide Japanese survey of pediatric and neonatal bacterial meningitis was performed in 2011 and 2012. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical data, and compared the information obtained in the previous nationwide survey database. We also investigated the risk factors for disease outcome. In the 2011–2012 surveys, 357 patients were evaluated. H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli were the main organisms. The number of patients hospitalized with bacterial meningitis per 1000 admissions decreased from 1.31 in 2009 to 0.43 in 2012 (p < 0.001). The incidence of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae meningitis also decreased from 0.66 to 0.08 (p < 0.001), and 0.30 to 0.06 (p < 0.001), respectively. Only 0–2 cases with Neisseria meningitidis were reported each year throughout 2001–2012. The median patient age was 10–12 months in 2001–2011, and became lower in 2012 (2 month old) (p < 0.001). The fatality rate for S. agalactiae is the highest (5.9% (11/187)) throughout 2001–2012 among the four organisms. Risk factors for death and sequelae were convulsions at onset, low CSF glucose, S. agalactiae etiology, and persistent positive CSF culture. Hib vaccine and PCV7 decreased the rate of bacterial meningitis. Earlier introduction of these vaccines may have prevented bacterial meningitis among Japanese children.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary bacterial pneumonia due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a highly publicized cause of death associated with influenza. In this study, we performed the gentamicin-killing assay using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and MRSA strains to investigate whether prior infection from pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) lead to increased invasion of MDCK cells by MRSA. We found that the invasion rate of two MRSA strains (ATCC BAA-1680 [USA 300] and ATCC BAA-1699 [USA 100]) into intact MDCK cell monolayers was 0.29 ± 0.15% and 0.007 ± 0.002%, respectively (p < 0.01, n ≥ 3). In addition, the relative invasion rate of both ATCC BAA-1680 and ATCC BAA-1699 was significantly increased by prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection of MDCK monolayers from 1 ± 0.28 to 1.38 ± 0.02 and from 1 ± 0.24 to 1.73 ± 0.29, respectively (p < 0.01). These results indicate that ATCC BAA-1680 displays much stronger invasiveness of MDCK cells than ATCC BAA-1699, although invasion of both strains was increased by prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. In conclusion, this study provided the first evidence that prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection facilitates the invasion of MDCK cells by MRSA, presumably due to cellular injury caused by the virus.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The population pharmacokinetics on tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC; 1:8, 4.5 g x 3) was analyzed in Japanese patients with community-acquired pneumonia using the Nonlinear Mixed Effect Model version VI. Analysis by the one-compartment model yielded the following results for PIPC: total clearance (CL) = 8.22+(Ccr-71.4) x 0.0561 (L/hr), distribution volume (Vd) = 13.7 (L). The pharmacokinetic parameters for TAZ were: CL = 8.67 + (Ccr-71.4) x 0.0682 (L/hr), Vd = 14.4 (L). Of the pharmacokinetic parameters of PIPC, CL included Ccr as a variation factor, whereas the Vd included no variation factor. Because PIPC is excreted into the urine in the unchanged form, its pharmacokinetic factors seem to reflect the renal function status. In this study of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, the mean Vd per body weight was 0.26 L/kg, and the results suggested an increase of the Vd in patients with community-acquired pneumonia as compared with the value in healthy adults.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 08/2013; 66(4):189-203.
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    ABSTRACT: Group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends GBS screening for all pregnant women during the 35th to 37th week of gestation. Although GBS screening has been performed mainly by the culture-based method, it takes several days to obtain a reliable result. In this study, we developed a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of GBS-specific surface immunogenic protein in 15 min using an overnight enrichment culture. The ICT was prepared using two anti-Sip monoclonal antibodies. This ICT was able to detect recombinant Sip levels 0.5 ng/ml, or about 10(6) CFU/ml of GBS cells, in tests with 9 GBS strains of different serotypes. The cross reactivity test using 26 species of microorganism showed no detectable false positive result. Reactivity of the ICT with 229 GBS strains showed one false negative result that was attributable to the production of truncated Sip. Among 260 enrichment cultures of vaginal swabs, 17 produced red to orange pigments in the Granada medium and they were all GBS- and Sip-positives. Among 219 pigment-negative cultures, 12 were GBS-positive and 10 were Sip-positive. Sip-negative two cultures contained GBS cells below the limit of detection by the ICT. Among 207 GBS-negative cultures, only one was Sip-positive, which was attributable to GBS cell debris. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity of the ICT appeared 93.1% and 99.6%, respectively. The newly developed ICT is readily applicable to clinical use in the detection of GBS.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 07/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most important pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection, and strains that are resistant to several antimicrobials are increasing. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance. The urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 51 medical facilities from April 2009 to October 2010. Of the 156 specimens, 83 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of β-lactamase-producing strains and chromosomally mediated resistant strains were 7.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftriaxone for 7 strains (8.4 %) was 0.125 μg/ml. One strain was resistant to cefixime (MIC 0.5 μg/ml). The MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tosufloxacin, showed a bimodal distribution. The MIC of sitafloxacin was lower than those of the three fluoroquinolones listed here, and it was found that the antimicrobial activity of sitafloxacin was stronger than that of the fluoroquinolones. The MIC of azithromycin in 2 strains was 2 μg/ml, but no high-level resistance to macrolides was detected.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 06/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 05/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously conducted nationwide surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2000-2001 (period 1) and 2004 (period 2) and reported the findings. Subsequent surveillance surveys conducted in 2007 (period 3) and 2010 (period 4) are now reported. Bacterial strains were clinically isolated from children with meningitis, sepsis, and respiratory tract infections at 27 hospitals participating in the Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease. Twenty-one drugs were investigated for 283 isolated strains in period 3, and 24 drugs were investigated for 459 strains in period 4. In period 3, 43.8 % of strains were penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP), 52.3 % were penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP), and 3.9 % were penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP). In period 4, the percentages were PSSP 23.1 %, PISP 49.9 %, and PRSP 27.0 %. The resistance rates were 56.2 % and 76.9 %, respectively. Drug sensitivity was best with panipenem, at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)90 ≤0.063 μg/ml in period 3, and with tebipenem (MIC90 ≤ 0.063 μg/ml) in period 4. Patients' background factors related to increased bacterial resistance were investigated, and significant differences were found depending on whether a child had siblings (P = 0.0056) or was a daycare center attendee (P = 0.0195) in period 3, and age category (P = 0.0256) in period 4. No factors were common to both periods 3 and 4. Pneumococcus is a major causative organism of pediatric infectious disease, and we plan to continue conducting surveillance and providing information in the future.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 04/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease conducted national surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae in 2007 (phase 3) and 2010 (phase 4), following the previous surveillance conducted from 2000 to 2001 (phase 1) and in 2004 (phase 2). We examined the antimicrobial susceptibility for H. influenzae derived from clinical specimens of pediatric patients collected nationwide from 27 institutions during phases 3 (386 strains) and 4 (484 strains). The frequency of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin (ABPC)-resistant (BLNAR) strains, which rapidly increased from 11.4 % in phase 1 to 43.4 % in phase 2, has gradually decreased from 38.3 % in phase 3 to 37.8 % in phase 4. In contrast, On the other hand, the frequency of β-lactamase-producing strains, which continuously decreased from 8.3 % in phase 1 to 4.4 % in phase 3, has increased to 8.7 % in phase 4. Prevalence of β-lactamase-producing clavulanic acid/amoxicillin-resistant (BLPACR) strains, especially, has increased from 1.6 % in phase 3 to 4.8 % in phase 4. The oral antimicrobial agents with the lowest MIC90 were levofloxacin in both phases, and tosufloxacin in phase 4 (≤0.063 μg/ml), whereas for intravenous use the corresponding agent was tazobactam/piperacillin in both phases (0.125 μg/ml). There was no increase in the MIC90 of most β-lactams between phase 3 and phase 4. In relationship to sex, age, presence of siblings, attendance at a daycare center, siblings' attendance at a daycare center, and prior administration of antimicrobial agents within 1 month, the frequency of β-lactamase-nonproducing ABPC-intermediately resistant (BLNAI) strains + BLNAR strains was high (P = 0.005) in cases with prior administration of antimicrobial agents in phase 3.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 04/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Keisuke Sunakawa, Seiji Hori
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics of arbekacin sulfate (ABK, brand name: Habekacin injection) in single and 7-day multiple administration of ABK 400 and 600 mg as potency to healthy male volunteers. In the single administration of ABK 400 and 600 mg (over 30 min, drip infusion), C(max) values were 41.0 +/- 3.6 microg/mL and 63.0 +/- 9.9 microg/mL, respectively. Serum ABK concentrations at 60 min (C(peak)) after the start of administration were 23.2 +/- 2.9 microg/mL and 38.5 +/- 3.3 microg/mL, respectively, and the mean serum ABK concentrations at 24 hr (C(trough)) after the start of administration were less than 0.4 microg/mL (LOQ: limited of quantitation). C(max), Cpeak and AUC(0-infinity) were increased with doses, and t1/2, CL(tot), CL(r) V(ss) and urinary excretion were comparable at both doses. In the multiple administration of ABK 400 and 600 mg (over 30 min, drip infusion) once a day for 7 days, C(max0, C(peak) and AUC(0-infinity) were comparable from the 1st day through to 7th day and increased with doses. After the administration, the serum ABK concentrations were decreased with time, and the means of C(trough) were 0.4 microg/mL (LOQ) -0.5 microg/mL, which showed ABK has no tendency toward accumulation. In addition, t1/2, CL(tot), CL(r) V(ss) and urinary excretion were constant throughout administration days at either dose, and CL(tot) containing CL(r) was not decreased. There were no notable changes in the functions of the kidney, auditory organs, etc. Based on the above-mentioned results, when ABK 400 or 600 mg was intravenously administered over 30 min once or once a day for 7 days to the healthy male volunteers with normal renal clearance, it is suggested there were no problems in terms of safety, and C(max) were 36.7-54.1 and 44.2-78.5 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, C(trough) was 0.5 microg/mL or lower at either doses and ABK was not accumulated in multiple administration of ABK. ABK was, therefore, expected to have good safety profile and favorable pharmacokinetics.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 04/2013; 66(2):97-109.
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    ABSTRACT: In Japan, the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been introduced on a voluntary basis since February 2010, and official financial support for children under 5 years started in November 2010. The impact of PCV7 on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children is unknown. There are 340 medical institutions that actively participated in our surveillance project throughout Japan. We collected 252 strains from patients with IPD in 2006 (pre-PCV7), 280 strains in 2010 (under 10% immunization achieved), and 128 strains in 2011 (50% to 60% immunization). Serotypes and penicillin-resistance genotypes (g) were compared between these years. Multilocus sequence typing was also carried out on these strains. Due to the official promotion, IPD significantly decreased in 2011 (p<0.001). In particular, meningitis and sepsis caused by vaccine type (VT) strains declined (p=0.033, p<0.001). In less than 2 years, among nonvaccine types (NVT), 15A and 22F increased in 2011 (p=0.015, p=0.015). Coverage by PCV7 decreased from 71.8% in 2006 to 51.6% in 2011. Sequence-type diversities accompanied by evolution to gPRSP occurred in both VT and NVT strains. Reduction of IPD caused by VT strains was accomplished, but a rapid increase of NVT raises concern about a future decrease in the efficacy of PCV7.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 03/2013; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC90 of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient’s physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.
    · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arbekacin (ABK) is an aminoglycoside and widely used in Japan for treatment of patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although, ABK has concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, the peak serum concentration (C (peak)) of ABK has not yet been fully investigated as an indicator of the efficacy of ABK. The present study was conducted in patients admitted to hospitals affiliated with the ABK Dose Finding Study Group, between October 2008 and June 2011, who had pneumonia or sepsis, the cause of which was identified or suspected to be MRSA. The initial target C (peak) was set at 15-20 μg/mL and therapeutic drug monitoring was conducted. Then the relationship between serum concentration and efficacy/safety of ABK was prospectively examined to obtain sufficient clinical efficacy. In total, 89 patients from 11 clinical sites in Japan were enrolled and 29 of these patients were subjected to efficacy analysis. The mean initial dose and C (peak) were 306.9 mg/day and 16.2 μg/mL, respectively. The efficacy rate was 95 % (19/20 patients) at 5-6 mg/kg or higher, 87.5 % (7/8) for sepsis and 90.5 % (19/21) for pneumonia, and the overall efficacy rate was 89.7 % (26/29). There was no increase in the incidence of adverse events. In conclusion, we recommend the initial dose of ABK at 5-6 mg/kg or higher and the dosage regimen should be adjusted to achieve C (peak) at 10-15 μg/mL or higher in the treatment of patients with pneumonia or sepsis caused by MRSA. This strategy would surely achieve low incidence of adverse events while obtaining high clinical efficacy.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between efficacy and percentage of time above the MIC (%T>MIC) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for different dosing regimens of meropenem against an experimental lethal meningitis model in guinea pigs with type b β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (Hib BLNAR). Guinea pigs were intrathecally inoculated with 10(8) CFU/head of Hib BLNAR 8 h before the start of therapy. A single dose of 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg meropenem or multiple doses of 40 mg/kg meropenem were subcutaneously administered. Numbers of bacteria in CSF were counted 8 h after the start of therapy. Meropenem concentration in serum and CSF were determined in infected guinea pigs receiving a single dose of 40 mg/kg. In the single-dose regimen, 40 and 80 mg/kg meropenem significantly reduced the number of bacteria in CSF compared with the control, but 20 mg/kg meropenem did not. The %T>MIC for an 8-h period of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg meropenem were 41, 52, and 62, respectively. Two and four doses of 40 mg/kg meropenem, for both of which %T>MIC was calculated as 100, had similar efficacy and were significantly superior to a single-dose of 40 mg/kg. In conclusion, meropenem had high efficacy when %T>MIC in the CSF was increased because of the high dose level and shortening of the dosing interval in a guinea pig meningitis model caused by Hib BLNAR, suggesting that high and frequent doses of meropenem are useful for treatment of meningitis with Hib BLNAR.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC(90) of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient's physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 11/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report herein on the isolation of three linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains in 2011 from two pediatric inpatients at Kitasato University Hospital, Japan. Three linezolid resistant strains were isolated from two patients who shared the same room of a pediatric inpatient ward. Two linezolid resistant strains were isolated from patient A who had been treated with a total of 17,600mg of linezolid during 60 days of hospitalization (strains 1 and 2). The linezolid resistant E. faecalis persisted through the time that the patient had been discharged from the hospital. Another linezolid resistant strain was isolated from patient B who had no history of linezolid administration. The resistant strain in patient B phased out spontaneously. The minimum inhibitory concentration of linezolid in these strains ranged from 8.0 to 16.0 microg/mL. PCR amplification of the chromosomal gene encoding domain V of the 23S rRNA and subsequent nucleotide sequencing revealed that all the strains had at least one G2576T mutation. The pulse-field-gel electrophoretograms of the DNA treated with the SmaI restriction enzyme showed an identical profile suggesting that they were derived from a single resistant strain. These results suggested that the resistant strain occurred in patient A and was transmitted to patient B within the inpatient ward.
    Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 09/2012; 86(5):555-62.
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a pediatric survey of bacterial meningitis epidemiology from January 2009 to December 2010 in Japan, and obtained the following results for 314 cases (186 boys, 124 girls, and 4 with gender not reported). Children younger than one year old accounted for the majority of cases (51.2%, 161/314), and the incidence decreased with increasing age. Haemophilus influenzae (in children aged 1 month to 5 years old) was the most common cause of infection (53.2%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 month to 12 years, 24.2%), Streptococcus agalactiae (0-4 months, 7.6%), and Escherichia coli (0-3 months, 3.2%). Susceptibility tests showed that 50.1% (78/153) of the H. influenzae isolates and 63.0% (46/73) of the S. pneumoniae isolates were drug-resistant. Combinations of ampicillin and cephem or carbapenem and other beta-lactams were mainly used as the initial antibiotics for patients under 4 months of age (77.8%, 42/54), and a carbapenem and other beta-lactam combination was used for patients aged 4 months and older (76.4%, 198/259). The final antibiotics for H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were mainly cefotaxime (CTX) or ceftriaxone (CTRX) and carbapenem, respectively. The overall fatality rate was 2.0% (6/305). Since the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib vaccine) and the 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) are not widely used in Japan, only 5 patients in our cohort (all with meningitis not caused by H. influenzae) had been immunized with the Hib vaccine, and none had been immunized with the PCV7 vaccine. No remarkable changes in the characteristics of pediatric meningitis have been observed for several years in Japan.
    Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 09/2012; 86(5):582-91.
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of continuous regional arterial infusion therapy using protease inhibitors and antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis has been previously reported. Carbapenem antibiotics, which have a broad antibacterial spectrum, and nafamostat mesilate are often used for this therapeutic approach. We investigated the compatibility of various carbapenem antibiotics with nafamostat mesilate. Carbapenem antibiotics were dissolved in 30 mL of saline or 5% glucose and the appearance, pH, and stability of the solutions were determined. The changes in each carbapenem antibiotic solution after mixing with nafamostat mesilate were then investigated. Biapenem and doripenem showed a residual rate of > or = 90% at 8 hours after dissolution in saline or 5% glucose and exhibited an appropriate appearance and residual rate (> or = 90%). After mixing with nafamostat mesilate, biapenem maintained a residual rate of > or = 90% for the longest time period (8 hours) and exhibited a slight coloration, followed by doripenem (6 hours) and meropenem dissolved in saline. The other carbapenem antibiotics that were tested exhibited changes in appearance or their residual rate. Biapenem and doripenem, which exert their effects in a time-dependent manner, can be infused for prolonged periods for the treatment of not only severe acute pancreatitis, but also other severe infections.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 08/2012; 65(4):235-49.
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    ABSTRACT: There are a limited number of reports that compare the clinical efficacy of anti-MRSA agents such as arbekacin (ABK), vancomycin (VCM), teicoplanin (TEIC) and linezolid (LZD). There is a tendency for these four agents to show variation in the inflammatory response parameters, in C-reactive protein (CRP) and in white blood cell count (WBC), depending on the administration period. There was no significant difference among the agents in analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the group of days 1-3 (p = 0.0536) but there was some significant difference in the group of days 4-7, as well as days 8-14 (p < 0.001, p < 0.01) in relative variation rate of CRP. Furthermore, we compared in more detail the groups of LZD, VCM and ABK, with a significant decrease of CRP, each of which showed more decrease in comparison with the group of TEIC in the period days 4-7 (p < 0.01). We took 1-hr serum level after days 3-4, with the ABK treatment as the peak concentration (C(peak)). Having made nonlinear logistic regression analysis of CRP and C(peak)/MIC, we concluded that the decrease rate estimable by early inflammatory effect could be decreased to some 40%, assuming that C(peak)/MIC shows the high value within 4 days after ABK treatment.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 08/2012; 65(4):221-34.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
219.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • Kitasato University
      • • Graduate School of Infection Control Sciences
      • • Medical Department
      • • Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2013
    • Chiba Children's Hospital
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 2012
    • Tokyo Medical University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2009
    • Nagoya City University
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • NHO Nagasaki Medical Center
      Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan
  • 2006–2007
    • Teikyo University Hospital
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • University Hospital Medical Information Network
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Hiratsuka Kyosai Hospital
      Hiratuka, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2003–2007
    • Kyorin University
      • School of Health Sciences
      Japan
  • 2004
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Health Science and Nursing
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Joetsu General Hospital
      Jōetsu, Niigata, Japan
  • 1997–1999
    • Kobe City College of Nursing
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 1996
    • Kawasaki Municipal Hospital
      Kawasaki Si, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1992–1995
    • Teikyo University
      • Department of Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1979
    • Keio University
      • Department of Pathology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan