Tanya A Miura

University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, United States

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Publications (9)31.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) infiltrate the respiratory tract early after viral infection and can contribute to both host defense and pathology. Coronaviruses are important causes of respiratory tract infections, ranging from mild to severe depending on the viral strain. This study evaluated the role of PMN during a non-fatal pulmonary coronavirus infection in the natural host. Rat coronavirus (RCoV) causes respiratory disease in adult rats, characterized by an early PMN response, viral replication and inflammatory lesions in the lungs, mild weight loss, and effective resolution of infection. To determine their role during RCoV infection, PMN were depleted and the effects on disease progression, viral replication, inflammatory response, and lung pathology were analyzed. Compared to RCoV infection in control animals, PMN-depleted rats had worsened disease with weight loss, clinical signs, mortality, and prolonged pulmonary viral replication. PMN-depleted animals had fewer macrophages and lymphocytes in the respiratory tract, corresponding with lower chemokine levels. Combined with in vitro experiments showing that PMN express cytokines and chemokines in response to RCoV-infected alveolar epithelial cells, these findings support a role for PMN in eliciting an inflammatory response to RCoV infection. Despite their critical role in the protection from severe disease, the presence of PMN was correlated with hemorrhagic lesions, epithelial barrier permeability, and cellular inflammation in the lungs. This study demonstrated that while PMN are required for an effective antiviral response, they also contribute to lung pathology during RCoV infection.
    Journal of General Virology 12/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe respiratory viral infections are associated with spread to the alveoli of the lungs. There are multiple murine models of severe respiratory viral infections that have been used to identify viral and host factors that contribute to disease severity. Primary cultures of murine alveolar epithelial cells provide a robust in vitro model to perform mechanistic studies that can be correlated with in vivo studies to identify cell type-specific factors that contribute to pathology within the alveoli of the lung during viral infection. In this study, we established an in vitro model to compare the responses of type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) alveolar epithelial cells to infection by respiratory viruses used in murine models: mouse-adapted severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV, v2163), murine coronavirus MHV-1, and influenza A (H1N1) virus, strain PR8. Murine alveolar cells cultured to maintain an ATII cell phenotype, determined by expression of LBP180, were susceptible to infection by all three viruses. In contrast, ATII cells that were cultured to trans-differentiate into an ATI-like cell phenotype were susceptible to MHV-1 and PR8, but not mouse-adapted SARS-CoV. Epithelial cells produce cytokines in response to viral infections, thereby activating immune responses. Thus, virus-induced cytokine expression was quantified in ATI and ATII cells. Both cell types had increased expression of IL-1β mRNA upon viral infection, though at different levels. While MHV-1 and PR8 induced expression of a number of shared cytokines in ATI cells, there were several cytokines whose expression was induced uniquely by MHV-1 infection. In summary, ATI and ATII cells exhibited differential susceptibilities and cytokine responses to infection by respiratory viruses. This in vitro model will be critical for future studies to determine the roles of these specialized cell types in the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infection.
    Virus Research 04/2013; · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The alveolar epithelium is a critical target for pulmonary viruses and can produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines upon viral infection. However, the molecular interactions between virus-infected alveolar epithelial cells and inflammatory cells, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), have not been thoroughly characterized. Rat coronavirus (RCoV) is used as a model to study the immune response to viral infection in the lung of the natural host. We have developed an in vitro model to characterize the response of PMNs to RCoV-infected type I-like alveolar epithelial (AT1) cells, the primary target for RCoV infection in the alveoli. Multiple CXC chemokines that signal through CXCR2 were required for PMN chemotaxis toward medium from RCoV-infected AT1-like cells (RCoV-AT1). Furthermore, RCoV-AT1 inhibited spontaneous PMN apoptosis, including activation of effector caspase 3 and initiator caspases 8 and 9. Use of a selective inhibitor of CXCR2, SB265610, demonstrated that CXCR2 signaling was required for RCoV-AT1-mediated inhibition of PMN apoptosis. These data suggest that CXC chemokines produced by RCoV-infected AT1-like cells inhibit PMN apoptosis during infection. These studies provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms whereby alveolar epithelial cells direct the functions of PMNs during viral infection of the lung.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 02/2012; 46(6):833-41. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rat coronavirus sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) causes respiratory infection and provides a system for investigating respiratory coronaviruses in a natural host. A viral suspension in the form of a microspray aerosol was delivered by intratracheal instillation into the distal lung of 6-8-week-old Fischer 344 rats. SDAV inoculation produced a 7 % body weight loss over a 5 day period that was followed by recovery over the next 7 days. SDAV caused focal lesions in the lung, which were most severe on day 4 post-inoculation (p.i.). Immunofluorescent staining showed that four cell types supported SDAV virus replication in the lower respiratory tract, namely Clara cells, ciliated cells in the bronchial airway and alveolar type I and type II cells in the lung parenchyma. In bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) a neutrophil influx increased the population of neutrophils to 45 % compared with 6 % of the cells in control samples on day 2 after mock inoculation. Virus infection induced an increase in surfactant protein SP-D levels in BALF of infected rats on days 4 and 8 p.i. that subsided by day 12. The concentrations of chemokines MCP-1, LIX and CINC-1 in BALF increased on day 4 p.i., but returned to control levels by day 8. Intratracheal instillation of rats with SDAV coronavirus caused an acute, self-limited infection that is a useful model for studying the early events of the innate immune response to respiratory coronavirus infections in lungs of the natural virus host.
    Journal of General Virology 10/2009; 90(Pt 12):2956-64. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    Tanya A Miura, Kathryn V Holmes
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    ABSTRACT: Viruses that infect the lung are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in animals and humans worldwide. Coronaviruses are being associated increasingly with severe diseases in the lower respiratory tract. Alveolar epithelial cells are an important target for coronavirus infection in the lung, and infected cells can initiate innate immune responses to viral infection. In this overview, we describe in vitro models of highly differentiated alveolar epithelial cells that are currently being used to study the innate immune response to coronavirus infection. We have shown that rat coronavirus infection of rat alveolar type I epithelial cells in vitro induces expression of CXC chemokines, which may recruit and activate neutrophils. Although neutrophils are recruited early in infection in several coronavirus models including rat coronavirus. However, their role in viral clearance and/or immune-mediated tissue damage is not understood. Primary cultures of differentiated alveolar epithelial cells will be useful for identifying the interactions between coronaviruses and alveolar epithelial cells that influence the innate immune responses to infection in the lung. Understanding the molecular details of these interactions will be critical for the design of effective strategies to prevent and treat coronavirus infections in the lung.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 08/2009; 86(5):1145-51. · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a disease characterized by diffuse alveolar damage. We isolated human alveolar type II cells and maintained them in a highly differentiated state. Type II cell cultures supported SARS-CoV replication as evidenced by RT-PCR detection of viral subgenomic RNA and an increase in virus titer. Virus titers were maximal by 24 h and peaked at approximately 10(5) pfu/mL. Two cell types within the cultures were infected. One cell type was type II cells, which were positive for SP-A, SP-C, cytokeratin, a type II cell-specific monoclonal antibody, and Ep-CAM. The other cell type was composed of spindle-shaped cells that were positive for vimentin and collagen III and likely fibroblasts. Viral replication was not detected in type I-like cells or macrophages. Hence, differentiated adult human alveolar type II cells were infectible but alveolar type I-like cells and alveolar macrophages did not support productive infection.
    Virology 04/2008; 372(1):127-35. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the ability of two rat coronavirus (RCoV) strains, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker's RCoV (RCoV-P), to infect rat alveolar type I cells and induce chemokine expression. Primary rat alveolar type II cells were transdifferentiated into the type I cell phenotype. Type I cells were productively infected with SDAV and RCoV-P, and both live virus and UV-inactivated virus induced mRNA and protein expression of three CXC chemokines: CINC-2, CINC-3, and LIX, which are neutrophil chemoattractants. Dual immunolabeling of type I cells for viral antigen and CXC chemokines showed that chemokines were expressed primarily by uninfected cells. Virus-induced chemokine expression was reduced by the IL-1 receptor antagonist, suggesting that IL-1 produced by infected cells induces uninfected cells to express chemokines. Primary cultures of alveolar epithelial cells are an important model for the early events in viral infection that lead to pulmonary inflammation.
    Virology 01/2008; 369(2):288-98. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MHV-JHM strain of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus is much more neurovirulent than the MHV-A59 strain, although both strains use murine CEACAM1a (mCEACAM1a) as the receptor to infect murine cells. We previously showed that Ceacam1a(-/-) mice are completely resistant to MHV-A59 infection (E. Hemmila et al., J. Virol. 78:10156-10165, 2004). In vitro, MHV-JHM, but not MHV-A59, can spread from infected murine cells to cells that lack mCEACAM1a, a phenomenon called receptor-independent spread. To determine whether MHV-JHM could infect and spread in the brain independent of mCEACAM1a, we inoculated Ceacam1a(-/-) mice. Although Ceacam1a(-/-) mice were completely resistant to i.c. inoculation with 10(6) PFU of recombinant wild-type MHV-A59 (RA59) virus, these mice were killed by recombinant MHV-JHM (RJHM) and a chimeric virus containing the spike of MHV-JHM in the MHV-A59 genome (SJHM/RA59). Immunohistochemistry showed that RJHM and SJHM/RA59 infected all neural cell types and induced severe microgliosis in both Ceacam1a(-/-) and wild-type mice. For RJHM, the 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) is <10(1.3) in wild-type mice and 10(3.1) in Ceacam1a(-/-) mice. For SJHM/RA59, the LD(50) is <10(1.3) in wild-type mice and 10(3.6) in Ceacam1a(-/-) mice. This study shows that infection and spread of MHV-JHM in the brain are dependent upon the viral spike glycoprotein. RJHM can initiate infection in the brains of Ceacam1a(-/-) mice, but expression of mCEACAM1a increases susceptibility to infection. The spread of infection in the brain is mCEACAM1a independent. Thus, the ability of the MHV-JHM spike to mediate mCEACAM1a-independent spread in the brain is likely an important factor in the severe neurovirulence of MHV-JHM in wild-type mice.
    Journal of Virology 01/2008; 82(2):755-63. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/2006; 581:351-6. · 1.83 Impact Factor