Publications (640)1040.84 Total impact

Article: Collisionality scaling of mainion toroidal and poloidal rotation in low torque DIIID plasmas
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ABSTRACT: In tokamak plasmas with low levels of toroidal rotation, the radial electric field Er is a combination of pressure gradient and toroidal and poloidal rotation components, all having similar magnitudes. In order to assess the validity of neoclassical poloidal rotation theory for determining the poloidal rotation contribution to Er, Dα emission from neutral beam heated tokamak discharges in DIIID (Luxon 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 614) has been evaluated in a sequence of low torque (electron cyclotron resonance heating and balanced diagnostic neutral beam pulse) discharges to determine the local deuterium toroidal rotation velocity. By invoking the radial force balance relation the deuterium poloidal rotation can be inferred. It is found that the deuterium poloidal flow exceeds the neoclassical value in plasmas with collisionality , being more ion diamagnetic, and with a stronger dependence on collisionality than neoclassical theory predicts. At low toroidal rotation, the poloidal rotation contribution to the radial electric field and its shear is significant. The effect of anomalous levels of poloidal rotation on the radial electric field and crossfield heat transport is investigated for ITER parameters.Nuclear Fusion 05/2013; 53(6):063010. DOI:10.1088/00295515/53/6/063010 · 3.24 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A critical gradient threshold has been observed for the first time in a systematic, controlled experiment for a locally measured turbulent quantity in the core of a confined hightemperature plasma. In an experiment in the DIIID tokamak where L_{T_{e}}^{1}=∇T_{e}/T_{e} and toroidal rotation were varied, long wavelength (k_{θ}ρ_{s}≲0.4) electron temperature fluctuations exhibit a threshold in L_{T_{e}}^{1}: below, they change little; above, they steadily increase. The increase in δT_{e}/T_{e} is concurrent with increased electron heat flux and transport stiffness. Observations were insensitive to rotation. Accumulated evidence strongly enforces the identification of the experimentally observed threshold with ∇T_{e}driven trapped electron mode turbulence.Physical Review Letters 01/2013; 110(4):045003. · 7.51 Impact Factor 
Conference Paper: DIIID accomplishments and plans in support of fusion next steps
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ABSTRACT: DIIID is using its flexibility and diagnostics to address the critical science required to enable next step fusion devices. Operating scenarios for ITER have been adapted to low torque and are now being optimized for transport. Three ELM mitigation scenarios have been developed to nearITER parameters. New control techniques are managing the most challenging plasma instabilities. Disruption mitigation tools show promising dissipation strategies for runaway electrons and heat load. An off axis neutral beam upgrade has enabled sustainment of high βN capable steady state regimes. Divertor research is identifying the challenge, physics and candidate solutions for handling the hot plasma exhaust with notable progress in heat flux reduction using the snowflake configuration. This work is helping optimize design choices and prepare the scientific tools for operation in ITER, and resolve key elements of the plasma configuration and divertor solution for an FNSF.Fusion Engineering (SOFE), 2013 IEEE 25th Symposium on; 01/2013  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A database of toroidal momentum transport on five tokamaks, Alcator CMod, DIIID, JET, NSTX and JT60U, has been constructed under a wide range of conditions in order to understand the characteristics of toroidal momentum transport coefficients, namely the toroidal momentum diffusivity (chi(phi)) and the pinch velocity (Vpinch). Through an intermachine comparison, the similarities and differences in the properties of chi(phi) and Vpinch among the machines have been clarified. Parametric dependences of these momentum transport coefficients have been investigated over a wide range of plasma parameters taking advantage of the different operation regimes in machines. The approach offers insights into the parametric dependences as follows. The toroidal momentum diffusivity (chi(phi)) generally increases with increasing heat diffusivity (chi(i)). The correlation is observed over a wide range of chi(phi), covering roughly two orders of magnitude, and within each of the machines over the whole radius. Through the intermachine comparison, it is found that chi(phi) becomes larger in the outer region of the plasma. Also observed is a general trend for Vpinch in tokamaks; the inward pinch velocity (Vpinch) increases with increasing chi(phi). The results that are commonly observed in machines will support a toroidal rotation prediction in future devices. On the other hand, differences among machines have been observed. The toroidal momentum diffusivity, chi(phi), is larger than or equal to chi(i) in JET and JT60U; on the other hand, chi(phi) is smaller than or equal to chi(i) in NSTX, DIIID and Alcator CMod. In DIIID, the ratio RVpinch/chi(phi) at r/a = 0.50.6 is about 2, which is small compared with that in other tokamaks (RVpinch/chi(phi) approximate to 5). Based on these different observations, parametric dependences of chi(phi)/chi(i), RVpinch/chi(phi) and chi(phi) have been investigated in Hmode plasmas. Across the dataset from all machines, the ratio chi(phi)/chi(i) tends to be larger in low nu(e)* at fixed Te/Ti and rho(pol)*. An increase in chi(phi) is observed with decreasing n(e) and/or increasing Te. The pinch number (RVpinch/chi(phi)) is observed to increase with increasing R/Lne at both q(95) = 5.57.2 and q(95) = 3.74.5. Here nu(e)*, nu(pol)*, Te, Ti, R/Lne and q(95) are, respectively, the normalized effective electron collision frequency, the normalized ion poloidal Larmor radius, the electron and ion temperatures, the inverse ratio of density scale length, Lne, to the major radius, R, and the safety factor at the 95% flux surface.Nuclear Fusion 12/2012; 52(12):123005. DOI:10.1088/00295515/52/12/123005 · 3.24 Impact Factor 
Conference Paper: ITR/P120 Integrated Magnetic and Kinetic Control of Advanced Tokamak Scenarios Based on DataDriven Models
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ABSTRACT: The first realtime profile control experiments integrating magnetic and kinetic variables were performed on DIIID in view of regulating and extrapolating advanced tokamak scenarios to steady state devices and burning plasma experiments. Devicespecific, controloriented models were obtained from experimental data and these datadriven models were used to synthesize integrated magnetic and kinetic profile controllers. Closedloop experiments were performed for the regulation of (a) the poloidal flux profile, Ψ(x), (b) the inverse of the safety factor profile, ι(x)=1/q(x), and (c) either the Ψ(x) profile or the ι(x) profile together with the normalized pressure parameter, β N . The neutral beam injection (NBI), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) systems and ohmic coils provided the heating and current drive (H&CD) sources. The first control actuator was the plasma surface loop voltage or current (i. e. the ohmic coil), and the available beamlines and gyrotrons were grouped to form five additional H&CD actuators: cocurrent onaxis NBI, cocurrent offaxis NBI, countercurrent NBI, balanced NBI and total ECCD power from all gyrotrons (with offaxis current deposition). The control method was also applied on simulated ITER discharges using a simplified transport code (METIS).24th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference; 10/2012  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The need for a validated predictive capability of turbulent transport in ITER is now widely recognized. However, to date most validation studies of nonlinear codes such as GYRO (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) have focused upon low power Lmode discharges, which have significant differences in key dimensionless parameters such as ρ* = ρs/a from more ITERrelevant Hmode discharges. In order to begin addressing this gap, comparisons of the turbulent transport and fluctuations predicted by nonlinear GYRO simulations for a number of DIIID (Luxon 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 614) Hmode discharges to power balance analyses and experimental measurements are presented. The results of two Hmode studies are presented in this paper, this first of which investigates the importance of nonlocality at typical DIIID Hmode ρ* values. Electrostatic global GYRO simulations of Hmode discharges at low and high rotation are shown to predict turbulence and transport levels lower than corresponding local simulations, and which are consistent with or slightly above experimental measurements and power balance analyses, even at 'nearedge' radii where gyrofluid and gyrokinetic models systematically underpredict turbulence and transport levels. The second study addresses the stabilizing effect of a significant density of energetic particles on turbulent transport. The results of local GYRO simulations of lowdensity QHmode plasmas are presented, which model the fast beam ion population as a separate, dynamic ion species. The simulations show a significant reduction of transport with this fast ion treatment, which helps to understand previously reported results (Holland et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056113) in which GYRO simulations without this treatment significantly overpredicted (by a factor of 10 or more) power balance calculations. These results are contrasted with simulations of a highdensity, low fast ion fraction QHmode discharge, which predict transport levels consistent with power balance, regardless of the fast ion treatment.Nuclear Fusion 10/2012; 52(11):114007. DOI:10.1088/00295515/52/11/114007 · 3.24 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic on the DIIID tokamak has recently been modified to image density fluctuations near the plasma midradius, thus enabling the investigation of core turbulence. Results are presented on core fluctuations in experiments exploring ion profile stiffness [1], i.e. the degree of sensitivity of ion temperature profiles to heat flux variations. In these experiments, plasmas were heated by neutral beams (NBI) configured to provide both high and low input torque; the injected NBI power was varied at constant torque to evaluate profile stiffness. A preliminary analysis indicates a decreased stiffness at high rotation in the outer half of the plasma. The toroidal rotation depends primarly on torque, with little or no dependence on input power. The amplitude of fluctuations increases with decreasing rotation, and the power spectra at similar torque have quantitatively similar shapes and values with little dependence on input power. Correlation lengths depend neither on torque nor input power. PCI power spectra and correlation lengths are evaluated and compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code. 6pt [1] J.E. Kinsey, et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 56, 282 (2011).  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs) are coherent flows induced by plasma turbulence that in turn affect the turbulence and turbulent transport. Recently, in a neutral beam and electron cyclotron heated Lmode plasma in the DIIID tokamak, strong GAM oscillations have been observed in electron temperature fluctuations Te in addition to the oftenobserved GAM density fluctuations. The mode frequency is constant over a radial range (δρ˜0.2), as expected of an eigenmode, with two different frequencies observed depending upon radius. Both modes exist at the location where one frequency transits to another as detected in Te. GAM oscillations in density and ExB flow peak at far edge (at ρ˜0.9) and have similar profile shapes. In contrast, the GAM oscillations in Te peak much deeper into plasma (at ρ˜0.7). After the auxiliary heating power is turned off for t,> 100 ms, the eigenmode feature evolves into a continuum. This observation of GAM properties may provide challenges for existing theories to understand GAMs and plasma turbulence.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To improve poloidal rotation measurement capabilities on the DIIID tokamak, new chords for the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic have been installed. CER is a common method for measuring impurity rotation in tokamak plasmas. These new chords make measurements on the highfield side of the plasma. They are designed so that they can measure toroidal rotation without the need for the calculation of atomic physics corrections. Asymmetry between toroidal rotation on the high and lowfield sides of the plasma is used to calculate poloidal rotation. Results for the main impurity in the plasma are shown and compared with a neoclassical calculation of poloidal rotation.The Review of scientific instruments 10/2012; 83(10):10D501. DOI:10.1063/1.4728097 · 1.58 Impact Factor 
Article: Active spectroscopic measurements of the bulk deuterium properties in the DIIID tokamak (invited)
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ABSTRACT: The neutralbeam induced D(α) emission spectrum contains a wealth of information such as deuterium ion temperature, toroidal rotation, density, beam emission intensity, beam neutral density, and local magnetic field strength magnitude ∣B∣ from the Starksplit beam emission spectrum, and fastion D(α) emission (FIDA) proportional to the beaminjected fast ion density. A comprehensive spectral fitting routine which accounts for all photoemission processes is employed for the spectral analysis. Interpretation of the measurements to determine physically relevant plasma parameters is assisted by the use of an optimized viewing geometry and forward modeling of the emission spectra using a MonteCarlo 3D simulation code.The Review of scientific instruments 10/2012; 83(10):10D529. DOI:10.1063/1.4739239 · 1.58 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A synthetic diagnostic has been developed that reproduces the highly structured electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum radiated from the edge region of Hmode discharges. The modeled dependence on local perturbations of the equilibrium plasma pressure allows for interpretation of ECE data for diagnosis of local quantities. Forward modeling of the diagnostic response in this region allows for improved mapping of the observed fluctuations to flux surfaces within the plasma, allowing for the poloidal mode number of coherent structures to be resolved. In addition, other spectral features that are dependent on both T(e) and n(e) contain information about pedestal structure and the electron energy distribution of localized phenomena, such as edge filaments arising during edgelocalized mode (ELM) activity.The Review of scientific instruments 10/2012; 83(10):10E329. DOI:10.1063/1.4733742 · 1.58 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic on DIIID provides a lineintegrated measurement of density fluctuations covering wavenumbers 2 to 30 cm1. An outer gap scan during QHmode with stationary plasma parameters allowed the PCI to sample a large range in kr/kθ. A narrow peak in turbulence amplitude is seen near the LCFS. The ExB Doppler shift allows the location to be determined precisely, showing two distinct regions of turbulence at 0.5 and 0.2 cm inside the LCFS with kr>0 and kr<0 respectively, consistent with the expected effects of shear in the Er well. PCI measurements at 200 kHz show that kθ=0.8 cm1 with poloidal correlation length Lθ=6 cm. Using a simple nonisotropic turbulence model, we find that kr=3 cm1 and Lr=0.5 cm, with n/n˜25% in the pedestal for this highkr turbulence. These fluctuations, which are outside the parameter range accessible to most turbulence diagnostics, are large enough in amplitude to play a role in setting the pedestal structure. These PCI observations are qualitatively similar to those made in ELMfree Hmode and between ELMs suggesting that similar large kr turbulence may be important.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In DIIID, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is used to probe the critical gradient of, and onset of stiffness in, the electron temperature Te profile. While keeping the total injected ECH power constant, the deposition profile was varied to investigate the relationship between the Te gradient and the electron power balance heat flux. A critical temperature gradient was observed, above which both the heat diffusivity and the Te fluctuations increase sharply. To compare to modeling, efforts have been made to produce the most realistic equilibrium reconstructions by using kinetic pressure constraints and motional Stark effect measurements of the local magnetic pitch. With these reconstructions, the gyrokinetic stability codes GYRO and TGLF predict that there is a critical Te gradient, similar to the experimentally observed gradient, above which electron modes exist and whose growth rates dominate over the ion growth rates. 
Article: ExtendedMHD Studies of FlowProfile Effects on Edge Harmonic Oscillations in QHmode Discharges
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ABSTRACT: It is desirable to have an ITER Hmode regime that is quiescent to edgelocalized modes (ELMs). ELMs deposit large, localized, impulsive, surface heat loads that can damage the divertor. One such quiescent regime with edge harmonic oscillations (EHO) is observed on DIIID, JET, JT60U, and ASDEXU [1]. The physical mechanisms of EHO are not fully understood, but linear MHD calculations suggest EHO may be a saturated kinkpeeling mode partially driven by flowprofile shear [2]. We present preliminary EHO computations using the extendedMHD NIMROD code. The model incorporates firstorder FLR effects and parallel heat flows. Using reconstructed DIIID profiles from discharges with EHO, we scan the ExB and polodial flow profiles and compute linear stability. The aim is to ascertain the role of the ExB flow shear, as motivated by experimental results [3], and to compare with theoretical predictions where the growth rate is enhanced at intermediate wavenumbers and cutoff at large wavenumbers by diamagnetic effects [4]. Initial nonlinear computations exploring the EHO saturation mechanism are presented.[4pt] [1] Phys. Plasmas, v19, p056117, 2012 (and refs. within).[0pt] [2] Nucl. Fusion, v47, p961, 2007.[0pt] [3] Nucl. Fusion, v51, p083018, 2011.[0pt] [4] Phys. Plasmas v10, p4405, 2003.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Experiments on DIIID have measured the stiffness of electron heat transport using a new method that combines heat pulse (HP) propagation and power balance (PB) analysis. Using a single modulated gyrotron, in addition to 5 cw gyrotrons, the radial profiles of Te oscillations from the fundamental to the 9^th harmonic are fit to determine the diffusion (DHP), convection (VHP) and damping coefficients. The Te gradient is then systematically scanned by varying the electron cyclotron heating profile on a shotbyshot basis using the cw gyrotrons. Numerically integrating DHP over this scan gives DPB, and the difference between the diffusive heat flux from DPB and the total powerbalance heat flux determines VPB. The ratio of DHP to DPB measures the transport stiffness, defined as the fractional increase in diffusive heat flux divided by the fractional increase in the Te gradient. In Lmode plasmas, a sudden increase in electron transport stiffness is seen when the Te scale length exceeds the theoretically predicted threshold value. Similar electron transport stiffness is observed with and without additional NBI.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new method of inferring poloidal rotation by combining charge exchange measurements of impurity tangential rotation on the high and lowfield side of the magnetic axis has been developed on DIII D [1]. This method has the advantage of not requiring the calculation of atomic physics corrections to account for the energy dependent charge exchange cross section, and it has been used in conjunction with charge exchange measurements of impurity poloidal rotation from the vertical charge exchange views to investigate poloidal rotation in DIIID plasmas. Measurements of poloidal rotation have been made for a large range of temperature, toroidal field, and toroidal rotation. In addition, poloidal rotation has been measured during the formation of an internal transport barrier, and the dependence of poloidal rotation on normalized collisionality has been investigated. Comparisons with the neoclassical theory of poloidal rotation will be made. 6pt [1] C. Chrystal, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D501 (2012)  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Comparisons of the bulk deuterium ion toroidal rotation to neoclassical theory reveal a significant discrepancy. The source of this discrepancy lies in the prediction of the mainion poloidal rotation. In low toroidal rotation plasmas, Er is dominated by the pressure and poloidal rotation contributions; hence, an accurate determination of the poloidal flow is required in these conditions. We infer the mainion poloidal rotation from measured mainion toroidal rotation and the radial force balance relation. Inferred mainion poloidal flow is significantly larger in the ion diamagnetic direction than NCLASS predictions. By experimentally performing scans of the plasma current, toroidal field and heating mix, the dependence of mainion toroidal and poloidal rotation on these parameters can be understood. Comparisons of mainion charge exchange recombination measurements of rotation with Mach probe data and several neoclassical rotation models will be performed.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A range of experiments on DIIID have investigated the role of externally applied torque and the associated toroidal rotation on confinement and stability in plasmas with high levels of normalized fusion performance. In standard Hmode plasmas, the confinement is initially enhanced by increasing rotation, but saturates at intermediate levels of rotation. However, the same effect is observed over a wider range of rotation in advanced inductive plasmas. Both ion and electron confinement improves with high rotation. Surprisingly, experiments in quiescent Hmode (QHmode) plasmas have found the opposite trend, with improved confinement, performance and reduced turbulence levels at low rotation. The different behavior suggests that ExB shear, rather than rotation, is needed for improving confinement. In particular, for these QHmode plasmas, it is found that the ExB shear near the edge is maintained or enhanced with torque from nonresonant magnetic fields, even at low rotation. In all scenarios, no major difference is observed in confinement whether the plasma is initiated with high rotation and slowed down, or formed with low rotation from the beginning.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Application of static, nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields (NAMFs) to DIIID plasmas allows sustained quiescent Hmode (QHmode) operation under reactorrelevant conditions of beta, collisionality and torque from neutral beam injection (NBI). QHmode is an ideal plasma for next step devices, exhibiting Hmode confinement levels while operating without edge localized modes at constant density and radiated power. Peelingballooning mode stability theory suggests, and previous studies confirm, that QHmode operation requires sufficient radial shear in the toroidal rotation near the plasma edge. In past experiments, this rotation shear was predominantly produced by torque from counterdirected NBI. In recent experiments, coNBI torque was overcome by the counter torque due to neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) produced by the NAMFs. The latest experiments have demonstrated that sufficient NTV torque can be created using NAMFs produced by coils outside the toroidal field coil. These new results open a path for QHmode utilization in selfheated, burning plasmas, where toroidal momentum input from NBI will be small or absent.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Low frequency Zonal Flows (ZFs) have been observed to trigger the LH transition near the power threshold, by either an extended predatorprey limit cycle oscillation (LCO [1]) or a short (˜0.51.5 ms) ZF burst executing only part of one limit cycle. Localized turbulence suppression (kθρs˜0.5) is initiated as the ZF shearing rate approaches the turbulence decorrelation rate. Turbulenceflow correlations (via Doppler Backscattering) show that the ZF amplitude and shear initially lag the rms fluctuation level by 90^o during LCO, transitioning to 180^o as the increasing ion pressure gradient and resulting equilibrium ExB shear secure the final transition to ELMfree Hmode. In a separate experiment, localized suppression of electronscale fluctuations (kθρs˜3) by ZF shear is also observed in an internal thermal electron transport barrier. However, in contrast to the LH transition, here the density fluctuation level is always anticorrelated (180^o out of phase) with the ZF shearing rate. 4pt[1] L. Schmitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 155002 (2012).
Publication Stats
10k  Citations  
1,040.84  Total Impact Points  
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Institutions

1988–2014

General Atomics
San Diego, California, United States


2011

California College San Diego
San Diego, California, United States


1978–2011

Oak Ridge National Laboratory
 Fusion Energy Division
Oak Ridge, Florida, United States


1998–2010

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
 Physics Division
Livermore, California, United States


2005

University of Wisconsin–Madison
 Department of Engineering Physics
Madison, Wisconsin, United States


1994–2002

University of California, Berkeley
 Department of Nuclear Engineering
Berkeley, California, United States


1991–2002

University of California, Los Angeles
 Department of Electrical Engineering
Los Angeles, CA, United States


1994–2000

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
