K. H. Burrell

General Atomics, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (646)1022.12 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), a coherent form of the zonal flow, plays a critical role in turbulence regulation and cross-magnetic-field transport. In the DIII-D tokamak, unique information on multi-field characteristics and radial structure of eigenmode GAMs has been measured. Two simultaneous and distinct, radially overlapping eigenmode GAMs (i.e., constant frequency vs. radius) have been observed in the poloidal E×B flow in L-mode plasmas. As the plasma transitions from an L-mode to an Ohmic regime, one of these eigenmode GAMs becomes a continuum GAM (frequency responds to local parameters), while the second decays below the noise level. The eigenmode GAMs occupy a radial range of ρ = 0.6-0.8 and 0.75-0.95, respectively. In addition, oscillations at the GAM frequency are observed for the first time in multiple plasma parameters, including ne, Te, and Bθ. The magnitude of T~e/Te at the GAM frequency (the magnitude is similar to that of n~e/ne) and measured ne-Te cross-phase (~140° at the GAM frequency) together indicate that the GAM pressure perturbation is not determined solely by n~e. The magnetic GAM behavior, a feature only rarely reported, is significantly stronger (×18) on the high-field side of the tokamak, suggesting an anti-ballooning nature. Finally, the GAM is also observed to directly modify intermediate-wavenumber n~e levels (kρs ~ 1.1). The simultaneous temperature, density, flow fluctuations, density-temperature cross-phase, and magnetic behavior present a new perspective on the underlying physics of the GAM.
    Physics of Plasmas 09/2013; 20(9):2501-. DOI:10.1063/1.4819501 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Charge-exchange spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for determining ion temperatures, densities and rotational velocities in tokamak plasmas. This technique depends on detailed understanding of the atomic physics processes that affect the measured apparent velocities with respect to the true ion rotational velocities. These atomic effects are mainly due to energy dependence of the charge-exchange cross-sections, and in the case of poloidal velocities, due to gyro-motion of the ion during the finite lifetime of the excited states. Accurate lifetimes are necessary for correct interpretation of measured poloidal velocities, specially for high density plasma regimes on machines such as ITER, where l-mixing effects must be taken into account. In this work, a full nl-resolved atomic collisional radiative model coupled with a full kinetic calculation that includes the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the ion gyro-motion is presented for the first time. The model directly calculates from atomic physics first principles the excited state lifetimes that are necessary to evaluate the gyro-orbit effects. It is shown that even for low density plasmas where l-mixing effects are unimportant and coronal conditions can be assumed, the nl-resolved model is necessary for an accurate description of the gyro-motion effects to determine poloidal velocities. This solution shows good agreement when compared to three QH-mode shots on DIII-D, which contain a wide range of toroidal velocities and high ion temperatures where greater atomic corrections are needed. The velocities obtained from the model are compared to experimental velocities determined from co- and counter-injection of neutral beams on DIII-D.
    Nuclear Fusion 08/2013; 53(9):093012. DOI:10.1088/0029-5515/53/9/093012 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of carefully designed validation experiments conducted on DIII-D to rigorously test gyrofluid and gyrokinetic predictions of transport and turbulence stiffness in both the ion and electron channels have provided an improved assessment of the experimental fidelity of those models over a range of plasma parameters. The first set of experiments conducted was designed to test predictions of H-mode core transport stiffness at fixed pedestal density and temperature. In low triangularity lower single null plasmas, a factor of 3 variation in neutral beam injection (NBI) heating was obtained, with modest changes to pedestal conditions that slowly increased with applied heating. The measurements and trends with increased NBI heating at both low and high injected torque are generally well-reproduced by the quasilinear trapped gyro-Landau fluid (TGLF) transport model at the lowest heating levels, but with decreasing fidelity (particularly in the electron profiles) as the heating power is increased. Complementing these global stiffness studies, a second set of experiments was performed to quantify the relationship between the local electron energy flux Qe and electron temperature gradient by varying the deposition profile of electron cyclotron heating about a specified reference radius in low density, low current L-mode plasmas. Modelling of these experiments using both the TGLF model and the nonlinear gyrokinetic GYRO code yields systematic underpredictions of the measured fluxes and fluctuation levels.
    Nuclear Fusion 07/2013; 53(8):083027. DOI:10.1088/0029-5515/53/8/083027 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first real-time profile control experiments integrating magnetic and kinetic variables were performed on DIII-D in view of regulating and extrapolating advanced tokamak scenarios to steady-state devices and burning plasma experiments. Device-specific, control-oriented models were obtained from experimental data using a generic two-time- scale method that was validated on JET, JT-60U and DIII-D under the framework of the International Tokamak Physics Activity for Integrated Operation Scenarios (Moreau et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 063009). On DIII-D, these data-driven models were used to synthesize integrated magnetic and kinetic profile controllers. The neutral beam injection (NBI), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) systems and ohmic coil provided the heating and current drive (H& CD) sources. The first control actuator was the plasma surface loop voltage (i. e. the ohmic coil), and the available beamlines and gyrotrons were grouped to form five additional H& CD actuators: co-current on-axis NBI, co-current off-axis NBI, counter-current NBI, balanced NBI and total ECCD power from all gyrotrons (with off-axis current deposition). Successful closed-loop experiments showing the control of (a) the poloidal flux profile, Psi(x), (b) the poloidal flux profile together with the normalized pressure parameter, beta(N), and (c) the inverse of the safety factor profile, (i) over bar (x) = 1/q(x), are described.
    Nuclear Fusion 06/2013; 53(6):063020. DOI:10.1088/0029-5515/53/6/063020 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A critical gradient for long wavelength (kθρs≲0.4) electron temperature fluctuations has been observed in an experiment in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], where below a threshold value of LTe−1 = |∇Te|/Te electron temperature fluctuations are constant and above they steadily increase. Above the critical gradient, the electron heat flux inferred by power balance also increases rapidly. Critical gradients are a predicted attribute of turbulence arising from linear instabilities and are thought to be related to transport stiffness. The presented results are the first direct, systematic demonstration of critical gradient behavior in turbulence measurements in a tokamak. The experiment was performed by changing the deposition location of electron cyclotron heating shot-to-shot to locally scan LTe−1 at r/a = 0.6 in L-mode plasmas; rotation was also varied by changing the momentum input from neutral beam injection. Temperature fluctuations were measured with a correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) radiometry system. In addition to the CECE measurements, an array of turbulence measurements were acquired to characterize fluctuations in multiple fields and at multiple scales as LTe−1 and rotation were modified: long wavelength (kθρs≲0.5) density fluctuations were acquired with beam emission spectroscopy, the phase angle between electron temperature and density fluctuations was measured by coupling the CECE system and a reflectometer, intermediate scale (kθρs ∼ 0.8) density fluctuations were measured with a Doppler backscattering (DBS) system, and low frequency flows were also measured with DBS. The accumulated measurements and trends constrain identification of the instability responsible for the observed critical gradient to the ∇Te-driven trapped electron mode.
    Physics of Plasmas 05/2013; 20(5). DOI:10.1063/1.4807123 · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • B.A. Grierson · K.H. Burrell · W.M. Solomon · R.V. Budny · J. Candy ·
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    ABSTRACT: In tokamak plasmas with low levels of toroidal rotation, the radial electric field Er is a combination of pressure gradient and toroidal and poloidal rotation components, all having similar magnitudes. In order to assess the validity of neoclassical poloidal rotation theory for determining the poloidal rotation contribution to Er, Dα emission from neutral beam heated tokamak discharges in DIII-D (Luxon 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 614) has been evaluated in a sequence of low torque (electron cyclotron resonance heating and balanced diagnostic neutral beam pulse) discharges to determine the local deuterium toroidal rotation velocity. By invoking the radial force balance relation the deuterium poloidal rotation can be inferred. It is found that the deuterium poloidal flow exceeds the neoclassical value in plasmas with collisionality , being more ion diamagnetic, and with a stronger dependence on collisionality than neoclassical theory predicts. At low toroidal rotation, the poloidal rotation contribution to the radial electric field and its shear is significant. The effect of anomalous levels of poloidal rotation on the radial electric field and cross-field heat transport is investigated for ITER parameters.
    Nuclear Fusion 05/2013; 53(6):063010. DOI:10.1088/0029-5515/53/6/063010 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A critical gradient threshold has been observed for the first time in a systematic, controlled experiment for a locally measured turbulent quantity in the core of a confined high-temperature plasma. In an experiment in the DIII-D tokamak where L_{T_{e}}^{-1}=|∇T_{e}|/T_{e} and toroidal rotation were varied, long wavelength (k_{θ}ρ_{s}≲0.4) electron temperature fluctuations exhibit a threshold in L_{T_{e}}^{-1}: below, they change little; above, they steadily increase. The increase in δT_{e}/T_{e} is concurrent with increased electron heat flux and transport stiffness. Observations were insensitive to rotation. Accumulated evidence strongly enforces the identification of the experimentally observed threshold with ∇T_{e}-driven trapped electron mode turbulence.
    Physical Review Letters 01/2013; 110(4):045003. · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DIII-D is using its flexibility and diagnostics to address the critical science required to enable next step fusion devices. Operating scenarios for ITER have been adapted to low torque and are now being optimized for transport. Three ELM mitigation scenarios have been developed to near-ITER parameters. New control techniques are managing the most challenging plasma instabilities. Disruption mitigation tools show promising dissipation strategies for runaway electrons and heat load. An off axis neutral beam upgrade has enabled sustainment of high βN capable steady state regimes. Divertor research is identifying the challenge, physics and candidate solutions for handling the hot plasma exhaust with notable progress in heat flux reduction using the snowflake configuration. This work is helping optimize design choices and prepare the scientific tools for operation in ITER, and resolve key elements of the plasma configuration and divertor solution for an FNSF.
    Fusion Engineering (SOFE), 2013 IEEE 25th Symposium on; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: A database of toroidal momentum transport on five tokamaks, Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, JET, NSTX and JT-60U, has been constructed under a wide range of conditions in order to understand the characteristics of toroidal momentum transport coefficients, namely the toroidal momentum diffusivity (chi(phi)) and the pinch velocity (V-pinch). Through an inter-machine comparison, the similarities and differences in the properties of chi(phi) and V-pinch among the machines have been clarified. Parametric dependences of these momentum transport coefficients have been investigated over a wide range of plasma parameters taking advantage of the different operation regimes in machines. The approach offers insights into the parametric dependences as follows. The toroidal momentum diffusivity (chi(phi)) generally increases with increasing heat diffusivity (chi(i)). The correlation is observed over a wide range of chi(phi), covering roughly two orders of magnitude, and within each of the machines over the whole radius. Through the inter-machine comparison, it is found that chi(phi) becomes larger in the outer region of the plasma. Also observed is a general trend for V-pinch in tokamaks; the inward pinch velocity (-V-pinch) increases with increasing chi(phi). The results that are commonly observed in machines will support a toroidal rotation prediction in future devices. On the other hand, differences among machines have been observed. The toroidal momentum diffusivity, chi(phi), is larger than or equal to chi(i) in JET and JT-60U; on the other hand, chi(phi) is smaller than or equal to chi(i) in NSTX, DIII-D and Alcator C-Mod. In DIII-D, the ratio -RVpinch/chi(phi) at r/a = 0.5-0.6 is about 2, which is small compared with that in other tokamaks (-RVpinch/chi(phi) approximate to 5). Based on these different observations, parametric dependences of chi(phi)/chi(i), RVpinch/chi(phi) and chi(phi) have been investigated in H-mode plasmas. Across the dataset from all machines, the ratio chi(phi)/chi(i) tends to be larger in low nu(e)* at fixed T-e/T-i and rho(pol)*. An increase in chi(phi) is observed with decreasing n(e) and/or increasing T-e. The pinch number (-RVpinch/chi(phi)) is observed to increase with increasing R/L-ne at both q(95) = 5.5-7.2 and q(95) = 3.7-4.5. Here nu(e)*, nu(pol)*, T-e, T-i, R/L-ne and q(95) are, respectively, the normalized effective electron collision frequency, the normalized ion poloidal Larmor radius, the electron and ion temperatures, the inverse ratio of density scale length, L-ne, to the major radius, R, and the safety factor at the 95% flux surface.
    Nuclear Fusion 12/2012; 52(12):123005. DOI:10.1088/0029-5515/52/12/123005 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first real-time profile control experiments integrating magnetic and kinetic variables were performed on DIII-D in view of regulating and extrapolating advanced tokamak scenarios to steady state devices and burning plasma experiments. Device-specific, control-oriented models were obtained from experimental data and these data-driven models were used to synthesize integrated magnetic and kinetic profile controllers. Closed-loop experiments were performed for the regulation of (a) the poloidal flux profile, Ψ(x), (b) the inverse of the safety factor profile, ι(x)=1/q(x), and (c) either the Ψ(x) profile or the ι(x) profile together with the normalized pressure parameter, β N . The neutral beam injection (NBI), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) systems and ohmic coils provided the heating and current drive (H&CD) sources. The first control actuator was the plasma surface loop voltage or current (i. e. the ohmic coil), and the available beamlines and gyrotrons were grouped to form five additional H&CD actuators: co-current on-axis NBI, co-current off-axis NBI, counter-current NBI, balanced NBI and total ECCD power from all gyrotrons (with off-axis current deposition). The control method was also applied on simulated ITER discharges using a simplified transport code (METIS).
    24th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference; 10/2012
  • C. Holland · C.C. Petty · L. Schmitz · K.H. Burrell · G.R. McKee · T.L. Rhodes · J. Candy ·
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    ABSTRACT: The need for a validated predictive capability of turbulent transport in ITER is now widely recognized. However, to date most validation studies of nonlinear codes such as GYRO (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) have focused upon low power L-mode discharges, which have significant differences in key dimensionless parameters such as ρ* = ρs/a from more ITER-relevant H-mode discharges. In order to begin addressing this gap, comparisons of the turbulent transport and fluctuations predicted by nonlinear GYRO simulations for a number of DIII-D (Luxon 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 614) H-mode discharges to power balance analyses and experimental measurements are presented. The results of two H-mode studies are presented in this paper, this first of which investigates the importance of nonlocality at typical DIII-D H-mode ρ* values. Electrostatic global GYRO simulations of H-mode discharges at low and high rotation are shown to predict turbulence and transport levels lower than corresponding local simulations, and which are consistent with or slightly above experimental measurements and power balance analyses, even at 'near-edge' radii where gyrofluid and gyrokinetic models systematically underpredict turbulence and transport levels. The second study addresses the stabilizing effect of a significant density of energetic particles on turbulent transport. The results of local GYRO simulations of low-density QH-mode plasmas are presented, which model the fast beam ion population as a separate, dynamic ion species. The simulations show a significant reduction of transport with this fast ion treatment, which helps to understand previously reported results (Holland et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056113) in which GYRO simulations without this treatment significantly overpredicted (by a factor of 10 or more) power balance calculations. These results are contrasted with simulations of a high-density, low fast ion fraction QH-mode discharge, which predict transport levels consistent with power balance, regardless of the fast ion treatment.
    Nuclear Fusion 10/2012; 52(11):114007. DOI:10.1088/0029-5515/52/11/114007 · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • A. Marinoni · J. C. Rost · M. Porkolab · K. H. Burrell · J. Candy · T. C. Luce ·
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    ABSTRACT: The Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak has recently been modified to image density fluctuations near the plasma mid-radius, thus enabling the investigation of core turbulence. Results are presented on core fluctuations in experiments exploring ion profile stiffness [1], i.e. the degree of sensitivity of ion temperature profiles to heat flux variations. In these experiments, plasmas were heated by neutral beams (NBI) configured to provide both high and low input torque; the injected NBI power was varied at constant torque to evaluate profile stiffness. A preliminary analysis indicates a decreased stiffness at high rotation in the outer half of the plasma. The toroidal rotation depends primarly on torque, with little or no dependence on input power. The amplitude of fluctuations increases with decreasing rotation, and the power spectra at similar torque have quantitatively similar shapes and values with little dependence on input power. Correlation lengths depend neither on torque nor input power. PCI power spectra and correlation lengths are evaluated and compared to non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations using the GYRO code. 6pt [1] J.E. Kinsey, et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 56, 282 (2011).
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    ABSTRACT: Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs) are coherent flows induced by plasma turbulence that in turn affect the turbulence and turbulent transport. Recently, in a neutral beam and electron cyclotron heated L-mode plasma in the DIII-D tokamak, strong GAM oscillations have been observed in electron temperature fluctuations Te in addition to the often-observed GAM density fluctuations. The mode frequency is constant over a radial range (δρ˜0.2), as expected of an eigenmode, with two different frequencies observed depending upon radius. Both modes exist at the location where one frequency transits to another as detected in Te. GAM oscillations in density and ExB flow peak at far edge (at ρ˜0.9) and have similar profile shapes. In contrast, the GAM oscillations in Te peak much deeper into plasma (at ρ˜0.7). After the auxiliary heating power is turned off for t,> 100 ms, the eigenmode feature evolves into a continuum. This observation of GAM properties may provide challenges for existing theories to understand GAMs and plasma turbulence.
  • C Chrystal · K H Burrell · B A Grierson · R J Groebner · D H Kaplan ·
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    ABSTRACT: To improve poloidal rotation measurement capabilities on the DIII-D tokamak, new chords for the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic have been installed. CER is a common method for measuring impurity rotation in tokamak plasmas. These new chords make measurements on the high-field side of the plasma. They are designed so that they can measure toroidal rotation without the need for the calculation of atomic physics corrections. Asymmetry between toroidal rotation on the high- and low-field sides of the plasma is used to calculate poloidal rotation. Results for the main impurity in the plasma are shown and compared with a neoclassical calculation of poloidal rotation.
    The Review of scientific instruments 10/2012; 83(10):10D501. DOI:10.1063/1.4728097 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neutral-beam induced D(α) emission spectrum contains a wealth of information such as deuterium ion temperature, toroidal rotation, density, beam emission intensity, beam neutral density, and local magnetic field strength magnitude ∣B∣ from the Stark-split beam emission spectrum, and fast-ion D(α) emission (FIDA) proportional to the beam-injected fast ion density. A comprehensive spectral fitting routine which accounts for all photoemission processes is employed for the spectral analysis. Interpretation of the measurements to determine physically relevant plasma parameters is assisted by the use of an optimized viewing geometry and forward modeling of the emission spectra using a Monte-Carlo 3D simulation code.
    The Review of scientific instruments 10/2012; 83(10):10D529. DOI:10.1063/1.4739239 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A synthetic diagnostic has been developed that reproduces the highly structured electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum radiated from the edge region of H-mode discharges. The modeled dependence on local perturbations of the equilibrium plasma pressure allows for interpretation of ECE data for diagnosis of local quantities. Forward modeling of the diagnostic response in this region allows for improved mapping of the observed fluctuations to flux surfaces within the plasma, allowing for the poloidal mode number of coherent structures to be resolved. In addition, other spectral features that are dependent on both T(e) and n(e) contain information about pedestal structure and the electron energy distribution of localized phenomena, such as edge filaments arising during edge-localized mode (ELM) activity.
    The Review of scientific instruments 10/2012; 83(10):10E329. DOI:10.1063/1.4733742 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • J. C. Rost · M. Porkolab · J. R. Dorris · A. Marinoni · K. H. Burrell ·
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    ABSTRACT: The Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic on DIII-D provides a line-integrated measurement of density fluctuations covering wavenumbers 2 to 30 cm-1. An outer gap scan during QH-mode with stationary plasma parameters allowed the PCI to sample a large range in kr/kθ. A narrow peak in turbulence amplitude is seen near the LCFS. The ExB Doppler shift allows the location to be determined precisely, showing two distinct regions of turbulence at 0.5 and 0.2 cm inside the LCFS with kr>0 and kr<0 respectively, consistent with the expected effects of shear in the Er well. PCI measurements at 200 kHz show that kθ=0.8 cm-1 with poloidal correlation length Lθ=6 cm. Using a simple non-isotropic turbulence model, we find that kr=3 cm-1 and Lr=0.5 cm, with n/n˜25% in the pedestal for this high-kr turbulence. These fluctuations, which are outside the parameter range accessible to most turbulence diagnostics, are large enough in amplitude to play a role in setting the pedestal structure. These PCI observations are qualitatively similar to those made in ELM-free H-mode and between ELMs suggesting that similar large kr turbulence may be important.
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    ABSTRACT: In DIII-D, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is used to probe the critical gradient of, and onset of stiffness in, the electron temperature Te profile. While keeping the total injected ECH power constant, the deposition profile was varied to investigate the relationship between the Te gradient and the electron power balance heat flux. A critical temperature gradient was observed, above which both the heat diffusivity and the Te fluctuations increase sharply. To compare to modeling, efforts have been made to produce the most realistic equilibrium reconstructions by using kinetic pressure constraints and motional Stark effect measurements of the local magnetic pitch. With these reconstructions, the gyrokinetic stability codes GYRO and TGLF predict that there is a critical Te gradient, similar to the experimentally observed gradient, above which electron modes exist and whose growth rates dominate over the ion growth rates.
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    ABSTRACT: It is desirable to have an ITER H-mode regime that is quiescent to edge-localized modes (ELMs). ELMs deposit large, localized, impulsive, surface heat loads that can damage the divertor. One such quiescent regime with edge harmonic oscillations (EHO) is observed on DIII-D, JET, JT-60U, and ASDEX-U [1]. The physical mechanisms of EHO are not fully understood, but linear MHD calculations suggest EHO may be a saturated kink-peeling mode partially driven by flow-profile shear [2]. We present preliminary EHO computations using the extended-MHD NIMROD code. The model incorporates first-order FLR effects and parallel heat flows. Using reconstructed DIII-D profiles from discharges with EHO, we scan the ExB and polodial flow profiles and compute linear stability. The aim is to ascertain the role of the ExB flow shear, as motivated by experimental results [3], and to compare with theoretical predictions where the growth rate is enhanced at intermediate wavenumbers and cut-off at large wavenumbers by diamagnetic effects [4]. Initial nonlinear computations exploring the EHO saturation mechanism are presented.[4pt] [1] Phys. Plasmas, v19, p056117, 2012 (and refs. within).[0pt] [2] Nucl. Fusion, v47, p961, 2007.[0pt] [3] Nucl. Fusion, v51, p083018, 2011.[0pt] [4] Phys. Plasmas v10, p4405, 2003.
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments on DIII-D have measured the stiffness of electron heat transport using a new method that combines heat pulse (HP) propagation and power balance (PB) analysis. Using a single modulated gyrotron, in addition to 5 cw gyrotrons, the radial profiles of Te oscillations from the fundamental to the 9^th harmonic are fit to determine the diffusion (DHP), convection (VHP) and damping coefficients. The Te gradient is then systematically scanned by varying the electron cyclotron heating profile on a shot-by-shot basis using the cw gyrotrons. Numerically integrating DHP over this scan gives DPB, and the difference between the diffusive heat flux from DPB and the total power-balance heat flux determines VPB. The ratio of DHP to DPB measures the transport stiffness, defined as the fractional increase in diffusive heat flux divided by the fractional increase in the Te gradient. In L-mode plasmas, a sudden increase in electron transport stiffness is seen when the Te scale length exceeds the theoretically predicted threshold value. Similar electron transport stiffness is observed with and without additional NBI.

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,022.12 Total Impact Points


  • 1988-2015
    • General Atomics
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2011
    • California College San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1978-2011
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
      • Fusion Energy Division
      Oak Ridge, Florida, United States
  • 1998-2010
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
      • Physics Division
      Livermore, California, United States
  • 1994-2002
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Nuclear Engineering
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1991-2002
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2001
    • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
      • Center for Research In Plasma Physics
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 1994-2000
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States