[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carcinosarcoma of the esophagus and the stomach are rare neoplasms characterized by the simultaneous presence of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. There is no report in the literature of carcinosarcoma of the esophagogastric junction. We present a case of carcinosarcoma of the esophagogastric junction whose unique clinical presentation, surgical issues, morphological and immunohistochemical features makes it quite distinctive from similar cases observed in the esophagus or in the stomach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case report of a 41-year-old man who had a delayed pharyngo-esophageal perforation without instrumentation failure 7 years after anterior cervical spine plating is presented and the literature on this issue is reviewed. This injury resulted from repetitive friction/traction between the retropharyngo-esophageal wall and the cervical plate construct leading to a pseudodiverticulum and perforation. Successful treatment of the perforation was obtained after surgical repair using a sternocleidomastoid muscle flap. This case stresses the necessity of careful long-term follow-up in patients with anterior cervical spine plating for early detection of possible perforation and the use of muscle flap as the treatment of choice during surgical repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the potent neovascularization marker endoglin (CD105), by differentially highlighting a subset of microvessels (MV) in esophageal cancer (EC), could provide better prognostic/therapeutic information than the panendothelial marker CD34, which also highlights MV.
Endoglin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in normal, malignant, and adjacent nontumorous esophagus tissue was quantified by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were analyzed immunohistochemically for CD105 and CD34. MV density was counted following a standard protocol. Circulating soluble endoglin levels were determined in patient and control sera, and compared with clinical outcome.
CD105 mRNA was upregulated by a median factor of 2.89 in ECs versus controls. In 28% of patients, CD105 mRNA was upregulated by a median factor of 2.65 in adjacent non-tumorous versus normal tissue. In tumor tissues, CD105 was stained negatively or positively only in a subset of MV. CD34 always showed positive extensive MV staining. In adjacent nontumorous esophagus, CD105 rarely showed diffuse MV staining, while CD34 stained blood-vessel endothelial cells in all non-neoplastic tissue. CD105 expression was high in residual highly dysplastic Barrett's-type mucosa associated with some adenocarcinomas. No statistically significant difference in endoglin serum levels appeared between patients and normal subjects. Correlation with clinicopathological data showed higher intra-tumor MV-CD105+ scores at more-advanced clinical stages. High-scoring MV-CD105+ patients had significantly shorter disease-free and overall survival; MV-CD34+ density was not survival related. Diffuse CD105 expression in adjacent nontumorous esophagus predicted poorer disease-free and overall survival.
Our findings could help identify EC patients who may benefit from targeted anti-angiogenic therapies.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2007; 14(11):3232-42. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For many years, poor vascularization of the short rectal stump has been considered the main cause of leakage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascularization of the rectal stump after total mesorectal excision.
We studied the iliac vascularization on 28 volunteers with healthy rectum to have an anatomic basis. Then, we studied the vascularization of the rectal stumps after total mesorectal excision by using angio computed tomography at seven and three months after operating on 22 patients; we validated this technique by studying the vascularization using angio computed tomography in 18 rectal specimens from cadavers.
Both in healthy rectums and in rectal stumps after total mesorectal excision, there is good vascularization sustained by middle and inferior rectal arteries. The former is more important and frequent as described in previous literature.
The vascularization of the short rectal stump is generally well represented even after total mesorectal excision.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 01/2007; 49(12):1897-904. · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Giant fibrovascular polyps are uncommon benign esophageal tumors almost always originating from the cervical esophagus, frequently from the upper esophageal sphincter. The case of a 74-year-old man with a long history of dysphagia and a weight loss of 9 kg is presented. Neither barium esophagogram, computed tomogram or magnetic resonance imaging correctly evidenced the lesion. Only fiberoptic endoscopy suggested the correct diagnosis because the mass fluctuated endoluminally with the spasm of vomiting. A left cervical exploratory incision with esophagotomy was performed following the experience of two previous similar cases. A giant fibrovascular polyp was observed and excised. If a malignant or benign extensive intramural tumor had been identified, a total esophagectomy would have been performed. In our opinion the possibility of the presence of a fibrovascular polyp should always be considered in the presence of an undetermined esophageal mass, and in these cases a left cervical incision is the preferred surgical access. Once the correct diagnosis is established, a major esophageal resection should always be avoided.
Diseases of the Esophagus 02/2005; 18(6):410-2. · 1.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 1996 the adenocarcinoma of the esophago-gastric junction (AEG) is divided into 3 types according to Siewert's classification. For AEG type I and III the surgical treatment is codified, while for type II is still controversial. The aim of our study is to understand what is the better surgical treatment for AEG type II.
From 1990 to 2002 we have performed 111 resections for adenocarcinoma of the cardia: 25 for AEG type I (all esophago-gastric resection), 39 for type II (22 esophago-gastric resection, 17 extended total gastrectomy with esophageal resection) and 47 for type III (8 esophago-gastric resection, 39 extended total gastrectomy with esophageal resection).
The morbidity and mortality rates are 17 and 5.4%, without significant difference between the different surgical treatment (p>0.01). The 5 year survival rate is 35%. Significant prognostic factors are the staging TNM (p=0.002) and principally the presence of metastatic lymph nodes (p=0.001). For AEG type II any significant difference in survival is associated with surgical strategy, also in early stage (p>0.01).
According to the results of our study and those of the other authors, who have showed that a 10 cm distance of the neoplasm by the gastric side and the esophageal one could assure oncologic radicality and also that metastatic lymph nodes below pylorus and near greater curvature are uncommon, we can consider esophago-gastric resection for AEG II a speedy, safe and oncologically correct surgical treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No agreement has been found in the literature concerning the safest point of ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (ima) in order to avoid nerve damage during the surgery of rectal cancer.
The distance between the origin of the ima and the left paraortic trunk was measured, as was the distance between the left paraortic trunk and the origin of the left colic artery (lca). The measurements were carried out on 20 cadavers and during 22 operations for rectal cancer.
The left paraortic trunk always runs posterior to the ima: its distance from the origin of the ima is on average 1.2 cm; the distance of the left paraortic trunk from the origin of the lca is on average 0.4 cm. The point at which the ima and the left paraortic trunk cross varies greatly, but it is never near the origin of the ima.
From an anatomical point of view the safest point of ligation of the ima is at its origin. At this point, the left paraortic trunk never runs; so there isn't any risk to damage the nerve involving it during the ligation of the artery.
Digestive Surgery 02/2004; 21(2):123-6; discussion 126-7. · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophageal replacement with gastric tube is a well-established reconstruction of the alimentary tract after esophagectomy in cancer patients. The resulting molecular events in the transposed gastric tube and residual esophagus have yet to be investigated. Stem cell factor (SCF) was recently shown to be critical for signaling in gastrointestinal motility. SCF expression is here correlated with changes in mucosal morphology, acid and biliary reflux, and motility in the residual esophagus and gastric tube.
Thirteen patients surgically resected for squamous esophageal carcinoma with gastric tube replaced by esophagogastric anastomosis underwent upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, 24-hour pH monitoring, and bile reflux detection. Esophageal and gastric mucosa samples were examined for SCF expression by immunohistochemical and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis and for SCF serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
All patients showed severe residual esophagus hypoperistalsis and no gastric tube motor activity. The 24-hour pH monitoring was positive in most; 24-hour bile detection was mostly negative. SCF levels in the residual esophageal and gastric tube mucosa were dramatically decreased compared with those of normal subjects. The correlation between SCF and slow-wave activity was positive.
Hypomotility of the residual esophagus and gastric tube seems closely associated with disruption of the SCF/c-kit signaling pathway. However, the absence of notable relations between mucosal changes after chronic exposure to acid, biliary gastric content, and SCF expression indicates that this analysis cannot be considered part of endoscopic follow-up.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 09/2003; 10(7):801-9. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the cardia is increasing. The choice of surgical strategy for AEG type II of Siewert classification is the subjects of controversial discussion. The aim of our retrospective study is to analyse the surgical results in 12 years.
Since 1990 to 2002, 111 patients underwent resection for adenocarcinoma of the cardia at III Division of General Surgery, University of Turin. Twenty-five patients had AEG type I, 39 had type II and 47 type III. Transthoracic or transhiatal oesophagectomy with resection of the proximal stomach were performed in 55 cases and extended total gastrectomy with transthoracic or transhiatal oesophagectomy in 56.
The morbidity and mortality rates are 17% and 5.4%. The 5 years survival rate is poor (35%) for all Siewert type. Survival is significantly associated with stage and the presence of lymph node metastasis, but not correlated with Siewert classification and surgical approach. Also in the AEG II the survival is not modified by the surgical approach.
In patient with AEG I the therapy of choice is a radical transthoracic or transhiatal oesophagectomy with resection of the proximal stomach. For type III extended total gastrectomy with transthoracic or transhiatal oesophagectomy is the procedure of choice. The superiority of the thoracoabdominal approach is therefore evident in terms of oncologic radicality. Survival is similar in AEG type II patients for both operations. A oesophagectomy with proximal gastric resection should be adopted for these tumors as the standard procedure in the majority of cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine, in a series of patients with secondary and tertiary parathyroid hyperplasia, whether the type of parathyroidectomy (subtotal, total with autotransplantation, or total), the histologic pattern of the parathyroid tissue, or the proliferative index, as determined by Ki-67 analysis, could predispose patients to recurrent hyperparathyroidism.
Recurrent hyperparathyroidism appears in 10--70% of the patients undergoing surgery for secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The incidence could be related to the type of operation (Rothmund) but also depends on the histologic pattern of the glands removed (Niederle).
The retrospective investigation was performed on 446 patients undergoing parathyroid surgery. They were also studied in relation to the possibility of renal transplantation. In this population, two homogeneous groups were subsequently identified (23 patients with clear signs of recurrence and 27 patients apparently cured); they were studied from the histologic and immunohistochemical point of view using antibody to Ki-67 antigen.
Subtotal parathyroidectomy, total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation, and total parathyroidectomy produced similar results when considering the regression of osteodystrophy, pruritus, and ectopic calcification. As one could anticipate, total parathyroidectomy increased the incidence of hypoparathyroidism. The percentage of recurrence was 5% to 8% after subtotal parathyroidectomy, total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation, and total parathyroidectomy, and only after incomplete parathyroidectomy did this percentage climb to 34.7%. In the recurrence group, the nodular form was more common and the proliferative fraction detected by Ki-67 was 1.9%; it was 0.81% in the control group.
Because more radical procedures were not more effective, the authors favor a less radical procedure such as subtotal parathyroidectomy. Histologic patterns and proliferative fraction could be useful indices of a recurrence, and these patients should be watched closely after surgery.
Annals of Surgery 02/2001; 233(1):65-9. · 6.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Authors describe a new technique of mechanical cervical anastomosis using a new, particularly long, stapler, the ECS Ethicon. Mechanical anastomosis at neck level is difficult to perform with stapler now in use, so manual anastomosis is usually preferred. However the percentage of leakage is relatively high. The possibility of doing a mechanical anastomosis introducing the stapler through the pylorus is described. At the moment cases are too few to give a full evaluation of this new technique, but certainly it could be a valid alternative, safer and quicker, to manual anastomosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: January, 1994, through January, 1995, eighteen patients (17 men; median age: 59.9, range: 32-73) with biopsy-proved squamous cell carcinoma (n = 15), adenocarcinoma (n = 2) or undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 1) of the esophagus were treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. All patients had inoperable lesions for unresectable disease (11 patients) or concomitant illness (7 patients); median Karnofsky score was 70 (range: 60-80). According to the 1988 American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging system, one patient was graded as Stage IIA (T2N0 + oropharyngeal cancer T4N1), two Stage IIB (T2N1), twelve Stage III (8 T3N1, 1 T4N0, 3 T4N1) and three Stage IV (2 T3N0M1, 1 T4N0M1). Treatment consisted of two courses of chemotherapy by cisplatin (75 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 and 29) and 5-FU (1000 mg/m2/24 hours by continuous infusion from days 1 to 4 and from days 29 to 32) along with one course of concomitant radiotherapy at 45 Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction, one fraction per day and 5 fractions a week). After 15-30 days, the patients were treated with a boost dose of 7 Gy by high-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy. All patients are assessable for toxicity and seventeen for response. The combined treatment was generally well tolerated, with only one case of WHO grade III toxicity (thrombocytopenia). Eight of the eighteen patients had a complete response (47%); four a partial response (24%); four a minimal response (24%) and one showed stable disease (5%). Only one patient developed local progression, and four distant metastases. All the eight patients with CR are alive without local recurrence (two distant metastases) with a mean follow-up of 6 months. This treatment regimen provides good local tumor resolution with no major toxicity. The value of this study protocol will be determined by the rate of long-term survivors.
La radiologia medica 05/1996; 91(4):456-9. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors, on a basis of experience acquisted since 1984 on two groups of patients, respectively 55 and 174 subjects with angina like chest-pain, individuated in the first group 45%, and 66.1% in the second group, the presence of GER-EMD with the execution of functional stationary manometric and 24 hour pH-metrical exams, without undergoing chemical, pharmacological, mechanical stimulation. They make note that 43 patients out of the second group, underwent, after a certain time, another cardiological study (negative for heart disease when recluted) due to graveness of the symptoms and 33 risulted holders of heart disease, 24 of whom also affected with EMD. The treatment with anti-H2 and procinethycs had succes in 39 patients out of 59, with GER; 10 patients underwent, with success, Nissen-Rossetti funduplication. Medical treatment with sublingual nifedipine was successful in 17 cases out of 56, with EMD; 19 underwent esophageal miotomy surgery commisurated on manometrical dates, with excellent results; 8 patients with hypertension of LES underwent pneumatic dilation with good results; 12 patients live, tolleratig angina like chest-pain. The final considerations are the following: it is not indispensable to look for contemperaly EMD and pain to afferm that pain is of esophageal origin; EMD must be clearly defined; the exclusion primarily of heart pathology must not exclude the possibility of the insorgence of heart desease, in the presence of EMD; the medical therapy, satisfactory in GER, is scarsely efficent in EMD, the decision for surgery must be taken on the gravity of pain associated with an esophageal pathology well defined with numerous diagnostic exams.
Annali italiani di chirurgia 01/1995; 66(5):637-42. · 0.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An ELISA method for the determination of circulating specific HSV-TAA antibodies has recently become available (TAF test). The presence of TAF was tested in serum of 154 patients with primary esophageal carcinoma, collected in three institutions. The overall TAF-test positivity rate was 57.1%, being significantly lower in stage IV than in stage III patients. The concordance rate between TAF and CEA, ferritin, TPA, SCC and TATI was low, suggesting that TAF is probably independent of the other tumor markers evaluated. The clinical role of TAF-test determination in patients with esophageal carcinoma is currently under evaluation.
The International journal of biological markers 01/1991; 6(3):173-6. · 1.59 Impact Factor