Pieter van Paassen

Maastricht Universitair Medisch Centrum, Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands

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Publications (41)314.27 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The value of measuring ANCA during follow-up to predict a relapse is controversial. On the basis of recently obtained pathophysiologic insights, we postulated that measuring ANCA is useful in patients with renal involvement but is less valuable in patients with nonrenal disease. One hundred sixty-six consecutive patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis, positive for either proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA or myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA, were included in our study, followed at regular intervals, and tested for PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA. In this cohort, 104 patients had renal involvement (72 with PR3-ANCA, 32 with MPO-ANCA) and 62 patients had nonrenal disease (36 with PR3-ANCA, 26 with MPO-ANCA). During an average (±SD) follow-up of 49±33 months and 18±14 ANCA measurements, 89 ANCA rises and 74 relapses were recorded. ANCA rises correlated with relapses in patients who presented with renal involvement (hazard ratio [HR], 11.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.01 to 24.55), but in comparison, associated only weakly with relapses in patients who presented with nonrenal disease (HR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.30 to 5.98). In conclusion, longitudinal ANCA measurements may be useful in patients with renal involvement but is less valuable in patients with nonrenal disease.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (anti-PLA2R1) have been demonstrated to be very specific for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN). We studied a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared results with results obtained using an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and a Western blotting test (WB).
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 01/2014; 142(1):29-34. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    International journal of cardiology 11/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective of this study was to research the functionality of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by assessing the effects of IgG from AECA-positive PAH patients on the induction of adhesion molecules on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by HUVECs. To achieve this purified IgG from 28 PAH patients were included. IgG from systemic sclerosis (SSc) (n = 58) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n = 16) patients without PAH were included as disease controls. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin expression on HUVECs, incubated with patient IgG, were quantified by flow cytometry. Production of interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, -8, and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) by HUVECs, incubated with patient IgG, were quantified by multiplex flow cytometry. Our results showed that IgG from AECA-positive PAH, SSc and SLE patients induced significantly higher expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin and production of IL-6, -8, and CCL2 compared to IgG from AECA-negative patients and IgG from healthy controls. Like in SLE and SSc, IgG from AECA-positive PAH patients can activate endothelial cells to a pro-adhesive and pro-inflammatory state. Therefore, IgG AECA could play a pathogenic role by inducing inflammatory injury of vascular endothelium which is considered a key player in the initiation and progression of PAH.
    Autoimmunity 11/2013; 46(7):463-470. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traditionally, for DNA analyses, DNA is recovered from buffy coats. Since DNA in urine has been reported to deteriorate quickly, this option is often not considered. To complete our DNA database in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis, we aimed to extract DNA from stored urine. Urine was stored at the time of kidney biopsy from patients included in our regional kidney biopsy database, who had given informed consent for further study. Urine was subsequently filtered, dialyzed, concentrated and freeze dried and finallyresolubilized and centrifuged. DNA was extracted using the high pure PCR template preparation kit (Roche Diagnostics). Next, concentration and purity were determined by Nanodrop analysis and by Quant-iT analysis. One hundred and eighty-one patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis were included. Of 114 patients (63%), DNA was available. From 53 of the remaining 67 patients, stored urine was available. Of the 53 samples that were processed, 46 (86.8%) yielded DNA with a mean concentration of 258.7 ng/muL (range 33.2-529) with a mean purity ratio of 1.81 (lamda 260/280). DNA extraction from fresh urine has been described before, yielding DNA usable for PCR analysis in healthy subjects. Storage of fresh urine at 4[degree sign]C or lower temperatures results in significant degradation of the DNA, making recovery of DNA more difficult with longer periods of storage. In the current study, we demonstrated that DNA could be retrieved from subsequently filtered, dialyzed, concentrated and freeze dried urine that was stored at room temperature. In addition, we demonstrated tthat this DNA could be used for PCR analysis. This method is useful when no other material from these patients is available.
    BMC Nephrology 10/2013; 14(1):238. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite advances in preventive therapy, prognosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still grim. Clinical cohorts of CKD patients provide a strategic resource to identify factors that drive progression in the context of clinical care and to provide a basis for improvement of outcome. The combination with biobanking, moreover, provides a resource for fundamental and translational studies. In 2007, the Dutch government initiated and funded the String of Pearls Initiative (PSI), a strategic effort to establish infrastructure for disease-based
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 10/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Kidney Diseases 09/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis seems to play an important role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We aimed to test the hypothesis that circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) of PAH patients induce EC apoptosis. IgG was purified from sera of PAH patients (n=26), patients with SLE nephritis without PAH (n=16), patient with systemic sclerosis (SSc) without PAH (n=58), and healthy controls (n=14). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with patient or healthy control IgG for 24 hrs. Thereafter, apoptosis was quantified by annexin A5 binding and hypoploid cell enumeration by flow cytometry. Furthermore, real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES™) technology was used to monitor the effects of purified IgG from patient and healthy control IgG on HUVECs. As demonstrated previously, IgG of AECA-positive SLE nephritis patients (n=7) induced a higher percentage of apoptosis of HUVECs as compared to IgG of AECA-negative SLE nephritis patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, IgG of AECA-positive SLE nephritis patients induced a marked decrease in cell index as assessed by RT-CES™ technology. IgG of AECA-positive PAH patients (n=12) and SSc patients (n=13) did not alter the percentage of HUVEC apoptosis or cell index as compared to IgG of AECA-negative PAH and SSc patients and healthy controls. AECA-positive PAH patients, in contrast to SLE nephritis patients, do not have circulating IgG AECA that enhances apoptosis of HUVECs in vitro. Further studies should focus on other mechanisms by which AECA may enhance EC apoptosis in PAH, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 07/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A histopathological classification system for ANCA-associated vasculitis was recently published, but whether this system predicts renal outcome requires validation. Here, we analyzed data from 164 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven renal involvement of ANCA-associated vasculitis. The ANCA-associated GN (AGN) classification categorizes patients as having focal, mixed, crescentic, or sclerotic GN. Five-year renal survival rates by categories of the AGN classification scheme were 91% for focal, 69% for mixed, and 64% for crescentic (log-rank P<0.0001). Only one patient was classified as sclerotic. Furthermore, the percentage of normal glomeruli found on biopsy estimated renal survival with the same precision as did the AGN classification scheme. Patients classified as crescentic or mixed, however, had worse survival when the percentage of normal glomeruli was <25%. In conclusion, the AGN classification for renal biopsy specimens is a practical and informative scheme with which to categorize patients
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: B cells have immunoregulatory function acting as antigen-presenting cells. A separate subset of interleukin (IL)-10 producing B cells (Breg) regulating T cell mediated immunity has been identified. In the present study, we investigated the role of Breg in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis (AAV). METHODS: 17 healthy controls (HCs) and 41 patients with AAV were enrolled. 30 patients with AAV were in remission. Furthermore, 11 patients with AAV with active disease were studied. Breg were defined as IL-10(+)CD19(+) B cells upon culture with cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) 2006. Next to Breg, CD4(+)CD127(low)CD25(hi)CD39(neg)/CD39(+) regulatory T-cells (Treg), interferon (IFN)γ(+), IL-4(+) and Il-17A(+)T helper cell subsets were determined via flow cytometry. RESULTS: Patients with active or quiescent disease showed a diminished fraction of Breg as compared with HCs. The frequency of IFNγ(+) T helper cells was negatively associated with Breg in untreated AAV in remission but not in active vasculitis or in HCs. Interestingly, the total Treg population and the CD39(+) Treg subpopulation correlated positively with Breg in inactive patients with AAV. CONCLUSIONS: IL-10 producing B cells are diminished in AAV. Furthermore, Breg might regulate Th1 cells and are associated with Treg in quiescent AAV. Suppression of Th1 cells by Breg may be insufficient in active AAV.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 05/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis has a poor prognosis. In the current study, we assessed whether prognosis in these patients improved over the last three decades.Methods In a large inception cohort, all consecutive patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis were included between January 1979 and December 2009. Inclusion criteria were the presence of ANCA and the availability of a kidney biopsy. To assess renal and patient survival, patients were divided in three groups through time: 1979-89, 1990-2000 and 2001-09.ResultsA total of 181 patients were included. One-, 5- and 10-year survival was 77, 66 and 49%, respectively. Survival within the time groups was significantly different, yielding a hazard ratio for death of 2.9 for 1990-2000 and 3.9 for 1979-89 compared with 2001-09 (P < 0.001). Serum creatinine and active lesions as found in the kidney biopsy significantly decreased through the three decades.Conclusions Both patient and renal survival in patients with ANCA-associated renal vasculitis have improved over the last three decades. We postulate that both earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic management of patients are responsible for this effect.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 12/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Despite the fact that cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of mortality in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), the relationship between MetS and AAV has not yet been explored. Thus it is the aim of this study to investigate the prevalence of MetS within a cohort of patients with AAV and to assess whether MetS in AAV is associated with a pro-inflammatory state.Methods. Ninety-one patients with AAV were compared with 89 healthy controls (HCs) in a cross-sectional study. Both groups underwent anthropometric measures and laboratory tests to determine the prevalence of MetS in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program Adults Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP-III) definitions. Furthermore, the clinical course of AAV was related to the occurrence of MetS.Results. Within the AAV patient group, 39 (43%) fulfilled the NCEP-ATP-III criteria for MetS compared with 22 (25%) of the controls (P = 0.012). This difference in prevalence could not be explained by current or cumulative prednisone use in patients with AAV. Among patients with AAV, the presence of MetS was significantly associated with increased levels of CRP and neopterin. Finally, the relapse rate was higher in patients with MetS as compared with those without MetS.Conclusion. The prevalence of MetS is significantly increased in AAV. MetS is associated with a more pro-inflammatory state in AAV and might increase the risk of developing a relapse of AAV.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 11/2012; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: In autoimmune diseases, IL-17 producing T-cells (Th17), a pro-inflammatory subset of T-cells, are pathophysiologically involved. There is little knowledge on the role of Th17 cells in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). In the present study, we investigated Th17 cells, Tregs and subsets of circulating Th17 cells in GPA and related results to disease activity. METHODS: 42 GPA patients in remission, 18 with active disease and 14 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Th17 cells, their subsets and regulatory T-cells were determined by intracellular fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). Data is given as mean percentage +/-SD of total T-helper-cells . RESULTS: Th17 cells are expanded in active and quiescent GPA as compared to HC (1.7+/-1.4% vs. 0.7 +/-0.3%, P=0.006 and 1.9 +/-1.5% vs. 0.7 +/-0.3%, P<0.0001). Th17 expansion is stable over time and does not decline when remission is achieved. However, a negative association of Th17 cells and steroid dosage is observed (r=-0.46, P=0.002). The Th17 expansion was not balanced by Tregs as indicated by skewed Th17/Treg ratios in active and quiescent GPA. Th17 subsets co-producing IFNgamma or IL-10 are significantly increased in GPA. GPA patients in remission not receiving maintenance therapy have significantly more IL-10/IL-17A double positive T-cells than HC (0.0501 +/-0.031% vs. 0.0282 +/-0.016%, P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for a persistent, unbalanced expansion of Th17 cells and Th17 subsets which seems to be independent of disease activity. Maintenance therapy reduces -but does not normalize- Th17 expansion.
    Arthritis research & therapy 10/2012; 14(5):R227. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infections with cardiotrophic viruses and immune-mediated responses against the heart have been suggested to play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Furthermore, immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) may result in DCM. It has not previously been assessed whether DCM patients with and without an IMID have different prevalences and quantities of cardiotrophic viruses in the heart. Therefore, we compared the profiles of cardiotrophic viruses in heart tissue of DCM patients with and without an IMID. Serum and myocardial tissue samples were obtained from 159 consecutive patients with DCM and 20 controls. Patients were subdivided into three groups, the first two based on the presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 125) of an IMID and the third being a control group. The parvovirus B19 virus genome was detected in equal quantities in the non-IMID DCM patients (100/125) and the control group (15/20) but in lower quantities in the IMID patients (21/34, P = 0.02). Both the non-IMID and IMID DCM patients demonstrated increased myocardial inflammation compared to controls: 12.5 ± 1.8 and 14.0 ± 3.2 CD45-positive inflammatory cells, respectively, versus 5.1 ± 0.7 for the controls (P < 0.05 for both). Importantly, significantly higher parvovirus B19 copy numbers could be amplified in non-IMID than in IMID patients (561 ± 97 versus 191 ± 92 copies/μg DNA, P < 0.001) and control subjects (103 ± 47 copies/μg DNA, P < 0.001). The present study shows decreased parvovirus B19 prevalence and copy numbers in hearts of DCM patients with an IMID compared to those without an IMID. These findings may suggest that DCM patients with an IMID have a different pathophysiologic mechanism from that which is present in the virus-induced form of DCM.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 06/2012; 19(8):1182-7. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    The Lancet 08/2011; 378(9790):540. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult-onset Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and primary IgA (IgAN) nephropathy have been considered indistinguishable immunohistopathologically and are often considered as two extremes of one disease entity. We postulate that adult-onset Henoch-Schönlein can be distinguished histologically from primary IgAN and that both diseases differ in their immunopathological mechanisms. Twenty consecutive patients with adult-onset HSPN were studied. Serum was analysed for circulating IgA immune complexes; renal biopsies were analysed by light and electron microscopy (EM). As disease controls, 40 IgAN patients were studied. Intracapillary leukocyte margination was seen in 15 of the 20 patients and cellular crescent formation in all renal biopsies of the HSPN patients. IgAN biopsies showed a few small crescents without intracapillary leukocytes. In 16 HSPN patients, EM was performed and in 10, no dense deposits were found. In all biopsies of IgAN patients, typical 'humps' were found. In 6 of 9 analysed HSPN patients, intermediate to large circulating immune complexes were found, whereas in 4 of 28 analysed patients with primary IgAN small circulating immune complexes were found. We consider adult-onset HSPN distinguishable in histology and ultrastructure from primary IgAN. We believe adult-onset Henoch-Schönlein to be a circulating immune complex disease.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 03/2011; 26(12):3960-7. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ANCA-associated-vasculitis (AAV) comprises three different diseases entities: Churg–Strauss syndrome, microscopic polyangiitis, and Wegener's granulomatosis. AAV is an autoimmune disease with complex pathophysiology. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) with specificity for proteinase-3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) are hallmarks of AAV and have a pivotal role in disease development. In addition to ANCA, the cellular immune system contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. ANCA-mediated degranulation of neutrophils causes vasculitic damage; T cells drive granuloma formation, promote vasculitic damage by several different pathways, and enhance autoantibody production by B cells. Recently, complementary PR3 and lysosomal membrane protein-2 were suggested as novel autoantigens in AAV. New findings also indicate the importance of complement, danger-associated molecular patterns, and dendritic cells in AAV. This review highlights novel pathophysiological findings in AAV and puts them into context with the current understanding of disease mechanisms. Furthermore, implications for present and new therapeutic strategies are discussed.Keywords: ANCA; glomerulonephritis; vasculitis
    Kidney International 12/2010; 79(6):599-612. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclophosphamide induction regimens for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis are effective in 70 to 90% of patients, but they are associated with high rates of death and adverse events. Treatment with rituximab has led to remission rates of 80 to 90% among patients with refractory ANCA-associated vasculitis and may be safer than cyclophosphamide regimens. We compared rituximab with cyclophosphamide as induction therapy in ANCA-associated vasculitis. We randomly assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, 44 patients with newly diagnosed ANCA-associated vasculitis and renal involvement to a standard glucocorticoid regimen plus either rituximab at a dose of 375 mg per square meter of body-surface area per week for 4 weeks, with two intravenous cyclophosphamide pulses (33 patients, the rituximab group), or intravenous cyclophosphamide for 3 to 6 months followed by azathioprine (11 patients, the control group). Primary end points were sustained remission rates at 12 months and severe adverse events. The median age was 68 years, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 18 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area. A total of 25 patients in the rituximab group (76%) and 9 patients in the control group (82%) had a sustained remission (P=0.68). Severe adverse events occurred in 14 patients in the rituximab group (42%) and 4 patients in the control group (36%) (P=0.77). Six of the 33 patients in the rituximab group (18%) and 2 of the 11 patients in the control group (18%) died (P=1.00). The median increase in the GFR between 0 and 12 months was 19 ml per minute in the rituximab group and 15 ml per minute in the control group (P=0.14). A rituximab-based regimen was not superior to standard intravenous cyclophosphamide for severe ANCA-associated vasculitis. Sustained-remission rates were high in both groups, and the rituximab-based regimen was not associated with reductions in early severe adverse events. (Funded by Cambridge University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust and F. Hoffmann-La Roche; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN28528813.)
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/2010; 363(3):211-20. · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • European Respiratory Journal 04/2010; 35(4):923-5. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare form of systemic vasculitis. Previous studies showing cardiac involvement in CSS patients were limited in the number of patients and were often based solely on clinical manifestations. The aim of the present study was to determine in detail the incidence of cardiac involvement in a large population of ambulatory CSS patients. Thirty-two consecutive patients with CSS in remission (mean +/- SD duration of disease between diagnosis and enrollment 6.1 +/- 5.8 years, mean +/- SD age 61 +/- 10 years) who were previously unaware of cardiac involvement were compared with 32 randomly selected age- and sex-matched control subjects, using clinical evaluation, electrocardiography (EKG), echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Detailed cardiac evaluation revealed a 62% prevalence of cardiac involvement in CSS patients compared with 3% in controls (P < 0.001), with clinical symptoms in 26% and 3%, respectively (P = 0.009), EKG abnormalities in 66% and 3%, respectively (P < 0.001), and echocardiographic defects in 50% and 3%, respectively (P < 0.001). Cardiac MRI detected cardiac manifestations in 62% of CSS patients. In the presence of cardiac MRI abnormalities, echocardiography could detect cardiac involvement with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 80%. The absence of symptoms or EKG abnormalities did not exclude cardiac involvement, because abnormalities could still be detected in 38% of these patients at the time of echocardiography or cardiac MRI. These results demonstrate a high incidence of cardiac involvement in CSS patients. Systematic cardiac evaluation including detailed imaging is required to properly identify CSS patients with cardiac involvement.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 02/2010; 62(2):627-34. · 7.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

669 Citations
314.27 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Maastricht Universitair Medisch Centrum
      • Central Diagnostic Laboratory
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 2003–2013
    • Maastricht University
      • • Cardiologie
      • • Interne Geneeskunde
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands