[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recovering the neutrophil migration to the infectious focus improves survival in severe sepsis. Recently, we demonstrated that the cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE)/hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) pathway increased neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory focus during sterile inflammation.
To evaluate if H(2)S administration increases neutrophil migration to infectious focus and survival of mice.
Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Measurements and Main Results: The pretreatments of mice with H(2)S donors (NaHS or Lawesson's reagent) improved leukocyte rolling/adhesion in the mesenteric microcirculation as well as neutrophil migration. Consequently, bacteremia levels were reduced, hypotension and lung lesions were prevented, and the survival rate increased from approximately 13% to approximately 80%. Even when treatment was delayed (6 h after CLP), a highly significant reduction in mortality compared with untreated mice was observed. Moreover, H(2)S pretreatment prevented the down-regulation of CXCR2 and l-selectin and the up-regulation of CD11b and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in neutrophils during sepsis. H(2)S also prevented the reduction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the endothelium of the mesenteric microcirculation in severe sepsis. Confirming the critical role of H(2)S on sepsis outcome, pretreatment with dl-propargylglycine (a CSE inhibitor) inhibited neutrophil migration to the infectious focus, enhanced lung lesions, and induced high mortality in mice subjected to nonsevere sepsis (from 0 to approximately 80%). The beneficial effects of H(2)S were blocked by glibenclamide (a ATP-dependent K(+) channel blocker).
These results showed that H(2)S restores neutrophil migration to the infectious focus and improves survival outcome in severe sepsis by an ATP-dependent K(+) channel-dependent mechanism.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 03/2010; 182(3):360-8. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morphine is one of the most prescribed and effective drugs used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions. In addition to its central effects, morphine can also produce peripheral analgesia. However, the mechanisms underlying this peripheral action of morphine have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the peripheral antinociceptive effect of morphine is lost in neuronal nitric-oxide synthase null mice and that morphine induces the production of nitric oxide in primary nociceptive neurons. The activation of the nitric-oxide pathway by morphine was dependent on an initial stimulation of PI3Kgamma/AKT protein kinase B (AKT) and culminated in increased activation of K(ATP) channels. In the latter, this intracellular signaling pathway might cause a hyperpolarization of nociceptive neurons, and it is fundamental for the direct blockade of inflammatory pain by morphine. This understanding offers new targets for analgesic drug development.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2010; 107(9):4442-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we have addressed the role of H(2)S in modulating neutrophil migration in either innate (LPS-challenged naive mice) or adaptive (methylated BSA (mBSA)-challenged immunized mice) immune responses. Treatment of mice with H(2)S synthesis inhibitors, dl-propargylglycine (PAG) or beta-cyanoalanine, reduced neutrophil migration induced by LPS or methylated BSA (mBSA) into the peritoneal cavity and by mBSA into the femur/tibial joint of immunized mice. This effect was associated with decreased leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and P-selectin and ICAM-1 expression on endothelium. Predictably, treatment of animals with the H(2)S donors, NaHS or Lawesson's reagent, enhanced these parameters. Moreover, the NaHS enhancement of neutrophil migration was not observed in ICAM-1-deficient mice. Neither PAG nor NaHS treatment changed LPS-induced CD18 expression on neutrophils, nor did the LPS- and mBSA-induced release of neutrophil chemoattractant mediators TNF-alpha, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and LTB(4). Furthermore, in vitro MIP-2-induced neutrophil chemotaxis was inhibited by PAG and enhanced by NaHS treatments. Accordingly, MIP-2-induced CXCR2 internalization was enhanced by PAG and inhibited by NaHS treatments. Moreover, NaHS prevented MIP-2-induced CXCR2 desensitization. The PAG and NaHS effects correlated, respectively, with the enhancement and inhibition of MIP-2-induced G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expression. The effects of NaHS on neutrophil migration both in vivo and in vitro, together with CXCR2 internalization and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expression were prevented by the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)(+)) channel blocker, glybenclamide. Conversely, diazoxide, a K(ATP)(+) channel opener, increased neutrophil migration in vivo. Together, our data suggest that during the inflammatory response, H(2)S augments neutrophil adhesion and locomotion, by a mechanism dependent on K(ATP)(+) channels.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 181(6):4287-98. · 5.52 Impact Factor