[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to confirm a previously defined prognostic index, combining a proliferation marker, histological grade, and estrogen receptor (ER) in different subsets of primary N0/N1 chemo-naïve breast cancer patients.
In the present study, including 1,854 patients, Ki67 was used in the index (KiGE), since it is the generally accepted proliferation marker in clinical routine. The low KiGE-group was defined as histological grade 1 patients and grade 2 patients which were ER-positive and had low Ki67 expression. All other patients made up the high KiGE-group. The KiGE-index separated patients into two groups with different prognosis. In multivariate analysis, KiGE was significantly associated with disease-free survival, when adjusted for age at diagnosis, tumor size and adjuvant endocrine treatment (hazard ratio: 3.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.6-4.7, P<0.0001).
We have confirmed a prognostic index based on a proliferation marker (Ki67), histological grade, and ER for identification of a low-risk group of patients with N0/N1 primary breast cancer. For this low-risk group constituting 57% of the patients, with a five-year distant disease-free survival of 92%, adjuvant chemotherapy will have limited effect and may be avoided.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently defined molecular subtypes of urothelial carcinomas according to whole genome gene expression. Herein we describe molecular pathologic characterization of the subtypes using 20 genes and IHC of 237 tumors. In addition to differences in expression levels, the subtypes show important differences in stratification of protein expression. The selected genes included biological features central to bladder cancer biology, eg, cell cycle activity, cellular architecture, cell-cell interactions, and key receptor tyrosine kinases. We show that the urobasal (Uro) A subtype shares features with normal urothelium such as keratin 5 (KRT5), P-cadherin (P-Cad), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression confined to basal cells, and cell cycle activity (CCNB1) restricted to the tumor-stroma interface. In contrast, the squamous cell cancer-like (SCCL) subtype uniformly expresses KRT5, P-Cad, EGFR, KRT14, and cell cycle genes throughout the tumor parenchyma. The genomically unstable subtype shows proliferation throughout the tumor parenchyma and high ERBB2 and E-Cad expression but absence of KRT5, P-Cad, and EGFR expression. UroB tumors demonstrate features shared by both UroA and SCCL subtypes. A major transition in tumor progression seems to be loss of dependency of stromal interaction for proliferation. We present a simple IHC/histology-based classifier that is easy to implement as a standard pathologic evaluation to differentiate the three major subtypes: urobasal, genomically unstable, and SCCL. These three major subtypes exhibit important prognostic differences.
American Journal Of Pathology 07/2013; · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular profiles of asynchronous breast cancer metastases are of clinical relevance to individual patients' treatment, whereas the role of profiles in synchronous lymph node metastases is not defined. The present study aimed to assess individual biomarkers and molecular subtypes according to the St Gallen classification in primary breast tumours, synchronous lymph node metastases and asynchronous relapses and relate the results to 10-year breast cancer mortality (BCM). Tissue microarrays were constructed from archived tissue blocks of primary tumours (N = 524), synchronous lymph node metastases (N = 147) and asynchronous relapses (N = 36). The samples were evaluated by two independent pathologists according to oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki67 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation. The expression of biomarkers and molecular subtypes in the primary tumour was compared with that in the synchronous lymph node metastases and relapses, and related to 10-year BCM. Discordances were found between primary tumours and relapses (ER: p = 0.006, PR: p = 0.04, Ki67: p = 0.02, HER2: p = 0.02, St Gallen subtypes: p = 0.07) but not between primary tumours and metastatic lymph node. Prognostic information was gained by the molecular subtype classification in primary tumours and nodal metastases; triple negative subtype had the highest BCM compared with the luminal A subtype (primary tumours: HR 4.0; 95 % CI 2.0-8.2, p < 0.001, lymph node metastases: HR 3.5; 95 % CI 1.3-9.7, p = 0.02). When a shift in subtype inherence between primary tumour and metastatic lymph node was identified, the prognosis seemed to follow the subtype of the lymph node. Molecular profiles are not stable throughout tumour progression in breast cancer. Prognostic information for individual patients appears to be available from the analysis of biomarker expression in synchronous metastatic lymph nodes. The study supports biomarker analysis also in asynchronous relapses.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of the bladder wash cytology finding at the primary diagnosis of Stage Ta-T1 urinary bladder cancer on recurrence and progression.
The clinical and pathologic characteristics of all patients with primary Stage Ta-T1 urinary bladder cancer were prospectively registered. The data were divided according to the bladder wash cytology results at diagnosis. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the influence of bladder wash cytology on recurrence and progression.
The analysis included 768 evaluable patients with a mean follow-up of 60 months. Recurrence was observed in 478 patients (62%) and progression in 71 (9%). High-grade malignant bladder wash cytology was predictive for recurrence and progression (P < .001 and P = .036, respectively). Other factors affecting recurrence were missing bladder wash cytology data, tumors size 16-30 mm and >30 mm, Stage T1 tumor category, and multiplicity (P = .008, P = .006, P < .001, P = .002, and P < .001, respectively). Progression was also associated with T1 tumor category, local recurrence, and primary concomitant carcinoma in situ (P < .001, P < .001, and P = .024, respectively).
High-grade malignant bladder wash cytology at the primary diagnosis was predictive for recurrence and progression. This could be taken into account in designing future follow-up schedules.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed DNA methylation and copy number status of 27,000 CpGs in 149 urothelial carcinomas and integrated the findings with gene expression and mutation data. Methylation was associated with gene expression for 1,332 CpGs, of which 26% showed positive correlation with expression, i.e., high methylation and high gene expression levels. These positively correlated CpGs were part of specific transcription factor binding sites, such as sites for MYC and CREBP1, or located in gene bodies. Furthermore, we found genes with copy number gains, low expression and high methylation levels, revealing an association between methylation and copy number levels. This phenomenon was typically observed for developmental genes, such as HOX genes, and tumor suppressor genes. In contrast, we also identified genes with copy number gains, high expression and low methylation levels. This was for instance observed for some keratin genes. Tumor cases could be grouped into four subgroups, termed epitypes, by their DNA methylation profiles. One epitype was influenced by the presence of infiltrating immune cells, two epitypes were mainly composed of non-muscle invasive tumors, and the remaining epitype of muscle invasive tumors. The polycomb complex protein EZH2 that blocks differentiation in embryonic stem cells showed increased expression both at the mRNA and protein levels in the muscle invasive epitype, together with methylation of polycomb target genes and HOX genes. Our data highlights HOX gene silencing and EZH2 expression as mechanisms to promote a more undifferentiated and aggressive state in UC.
Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 08/2012; 7(8):858-67. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Even though urothelial cancer is the fourth most common tumor type among males, progress in treatment has been scarce. A problem in day-to-day clinical practice is that precise assessment of individual tumors is still fairly uncertain; consequently efforts have been undertaken to complement tumor evaluation with molecular biomarkers. An extension of this approach would be to base tumor classification primarily on molecular features. Here, we present a molecular taxonomy for urothelial carcinoma based on integrated genomics.
We use gene expression profiles from 308 tumor cases to define five major urothelial carcinoma subtypes: urobasal A, genomically unstable, urobasal B, squamous cell carcinoma like, and an infiltrated class of tumors. Tumor subtypes were validated in three independent publically available data sets. The expression of 11 key genes was validated at the protein level by immunohistochemistry.
The subtypes show distinct clinical outcomes and differ with respect to expression of cell-cycle genes, receptor tyrosine kinases particularly FGFR3, ERBB2, and EGFR, cytokeratins, and cell adhesion genes, as well as with respect to FGFR3, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutation frequency. The molecular subtypes cut across pathologic classification, and class-defining gene signatures show coordinated expression irrespective of pathologic stage and grade, suggesting the molecular phenotypes as intrinsic properties of the tumors. Available data indicate that susceptibility to specific drugs is more likely to be associated with the molecular stratification than with pathologic classification.
We anticipate that the molecular taxonomy will be useful in future clinical investigations.
Clinical Cancer Research 05/2012; 18(12):3377-86. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Similar to other malignancies, urothelial carcinoma (UC) is characterized by specific recurrent chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. However, the interconnection between specific genomic alterations, and how patterns of chromosomal alterations adhere to different molecular subgroups of UC, is less clear. We applied tiling resolution array CGH to 146 cases of UC and identified a number of regions harboring recurrent focal genomic amplifications and deletions. Several potential oncogenes were included in the amplified regions, including known oncogenes like E2F3, CCND1, and CCNE1, as well as new candidate genes, such as SETDB1 (1q21), and BCL2L1 (20q11). We next combined genome profiling with global gene expression, gene mutation, and protein expression data and identified two major genomic circuits operating in urothelial carcinoma. The first circuit was characterized by FGFR3 alterations, overexpression of CCND1, and 9q and CDKN2A deletions. The second circuit was defined by E3F3 amplifications and RB1 deletions, as well as gains of 5p, deletions at PTEN and 2q36, 16q, 20q, and elevated CDKN2A levels. TP53/MDM2 alterations were common for advanced tumors within the two circuits. Our data also suggest a possible RAS/RAF circuit. The tumors with worst prognosis showed a gene expression profile that indicated a keratinized phenotype. Taken together, our integrative approach revealed at least two separate networks of genomic alterations linked to the molecular diversity seen in UC, and that these circuits may reflect distinct pathways of tumor development.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38863. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well known that CIS is a major risk factor for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and that this entity can be difficult to diagnose. Taking cold-cup mapping biopsies from different areas of the bladder (BMAP) is commonly used in patients at risk of harbouring CIS. The diagnostic accuracy of this approach has not been assessed until now. By using the CIS found in the cystoprostatectomy specimen as an indicator of the true occurrence of CIS and comparing that with the findings of BMAP, it is clear that the sensitivity of BMAP to detect CIS when present is low and that negative findings should be considered unreliable.
To assess the value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). CIS of the urinary bladder is a flat high-grade lesion of the mucosa associated with a significant risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease. CIS is difficult to identify on cystoscopy, and definite diagnosis requires histopathology. Traditionally, if CIS is suspected, multiple cold-cup biopsies are taken from the bladder mucosa, and resection biopsies are obtained from the prostatic urethra in males. This approach is often called bladder mapping (BMAP). The accuracy of BMAP as a diagnostic tool is not known.
Male patients with bladder cancer scheduled for cystectomy underwent cold-cup bladder biopsies (sidewalls, posterior wall, dome, trigone), and resection biopsies were taken from the prostatic urethra. After cystectomy, the surgical specimen was investigated in a standardised manner and subsequently compared with the BMAP biopsies for the presence of CIS.
The histopathology reports of 162 patients were analysed. CIS was detected in 46% of the cystoprostatectomy specimens, and multiple (≥2) CIS lesions were found in 30%. BMAP (cold-cup bladder biopsies + resection biopsies from the prostatic urethra) provided sensitivity of 51% for any CIS, and 55% for multiple CIS lesions. The cold-cup biopsies for CIS in the bladder mucosa showed sensitivity and specificity of 46% and 89%, respectively.
Traditional cold-cup biopsies are unreliable for detecting CIS in bladder mucosa and negative findings must be interpreted with caution.
BJU International 10/2011; 110(2 Pt 2):E41-5. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Being able to predict the recurrence or progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer would facilitate effective planning of treatments and follow-up. Biomarkers are needed that can supply prognostic information beyond that provided by clinical and pathological parameters. Tissue microarray (TMA)-based analysis of Ta bladder tumours was used to investigate the prognostic value of expression of several proteins involved in bladder carcinogenesis.
Tumour tissue from 52 patients with Ta bladder cancer was investigated. At least three 0.6 mm punch cores from each tumour were placed in a paraffin array block. Tumour expression of tumour protein 53 (TP53), CDH1 (E-cadherin), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was quantified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and correlated with time to recurrence. Median follow-up time was 3.1 years. Whole-section IHC analysis was performed to validate significant findings.
Of all patients, 69% (36/52) experienced recurrence. In univariate analysis, recurrence was associated with multifocality, number of earlier recurrences and a low quantity score for EGFR. In a multivariate model, a low EGFR quantity score was correlated with early recurrence (hazard ratio = 5.5, p = 0.003). However, whole-section IHC results for EGFR differed markedly from the TMA findings (κ = 0.07) and no association with time to recurrence was found (p = 0.65).
Expression of EGFR measured by TMA-IHC, but not by whole-section IHC, was associated with early recurrence. The results suggest that the proteins assessed have no predictive value for recurrences. Concerns are raised regarding the methodology and generalization of results obtained with TMA-IHC.
Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 04/2011; 45(4):270-7. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is characterized by frequent gene mutations of which activating mutations in FGFR3 are the most frequent. Several downstream targets of FGFR3 are also mutated in UC, e.g., PIK3CA, AKT1, and RAS. Most mutation studies of UCs have been focused on single or a few genes at the time or been performed on small sample series. This has limited the possibility to investigate co-occurrence of mutations.
We performed mutation analyses of 16 genes, FGFR3, PIK3CA, PIK3R1 PTEN, AKT1, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, BRAF, ARAF, RAF1, TSC1, TSC2, APC, CTNNB1, and TP53, in 145 cases of UC. We show that FGFR3 and PIK3CA mutations are positively associated. In addition, we identified PIK3R1 as a target for mutations. We demonstrate a negative association at borderline significance between FGFR3 and RAS mutations, and show that these mutations are not strictly mutually exclusive. We show that mutations in BRAF, ARAF, RAF1 rarely occurs in UC. Our data emphasize the possible importance of APC signaling as 6% of the investigated tumors either showed inactivating APC or activating CTNNB1 mutations. TSC1, as well as TSC2, that constitute the mTOR regulatory tuberous sclerosis complex were found to be mutated at a combined frequency of 15%.
Our data demonstrate a significant association between FGFR3 and PIK3CA mutations in UC. Moreover, the identification of mutations in PIK3R1 further emphasizes the importance of the PI3-kinase pathway in UC. The presence of TSC2 mutations, in addition to TSC1 mutations, underlines the involvement of mTOR signaling in UC.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e18583. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present investigation, we sought to refine the classification of urothelial carcinoma by combining information on gene expression, genomic, and gene mutation levels. For these purposes, we performed gene expression analysis of 144 carcinomas, and whole genome array-CGH analysis and mutation analyses of FGFR3, PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and TSC1 in 103 of these cases. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified two intrinsic molecular subtypes, MS1 and MS2, which were validated and defined by the same set of genes in three independent bladder cancer data sets. The two subtypes differed with respect to gene expression and mutation profiles, as well as with the level of genomic instability. The data show that genomic instability was the most distinguishing genomic feature of MS2 tumors, and that this trait was not dependent on TP53/MDM2 alterations. By combining molecular and pathologic data, it was possible to distinguish two molecular subtypes of T(a) and T(1) tumors, respectively. In addition, we define gene signatures validated in two independent data sets that classify urothelial carcinoma into low-grade (G(1)/G(2)) and high-grade (G(3)) tumors as well as non-muscle and muscle-invasive tumors with high precisions and sensitivities, suggesting molecular grading as a relevant complement to standard pathologic grading. We also present a gene expression signature with independent prognostic effect on metastasis and disease-specific survival. We conclude that the combination of molecular and histopathologic classification systems might provide a strong improvement for bladder cancer classification and produce new insights into the development of this tumor type.
Cancer Research 05/2010; 70(9):3463-72. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed 34 cases of urothelial carcinomas by miRNA, mRNA and genomic profiling. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using expression information for 300 miRNAs produced 3 major clusters of tumors corresponding to Ta, T1 and T2-T3 tumors, respectively. A subsequent SAM analysis identified 51 miRNAs that discriminated the 3 pathological subtypes. A score based on the expression levels of the 51 miRNAs, identified muscle invasive tumors with high precision and sensitivity. MiRNAs showing high expression in muscle invasive tumors included miR-222 and miR-125b and in Ta tumors miR-10a. A miRNA signature for FGFR3 mutated cases was also identified with miR-7 as an important member. MiR-31, located in 9p21, was found to be homozygously deleted in 3 cases and miR-452 and miR-452* were shown to be over expressed in node positive tumors. In addition, these latter miRNAs were shown to be excellent prognostic markers for death by disease as outcome. The presented data shows that pathological subtypes of urothelial carcinoma show distinct miRNA gene expression signatures.
International Journal of Cancer 12/2008; 124(9):2236-42. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors.
Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses.
We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles.
Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is characterized by nonrandom chromosomal aberrations, varying from one or a few changes in early-stage and low-grade tumors, to highly rearranged karyotypes in muscle-invasive lesions. Recent array-CGH analyses have shed further light on the genomic changes underlying the neoplastic development of UC, and have facilitated the molecular delineation amplified and deleted regions to the level of specific candidate genes. In the present investigation we combine detailed genomic information with expression information to identify putative target genes for genomic amplifications.
We analyzed 38 urothelial carcinomas by whole-genome tiling resolution array-CGH and high density expression profiling to identify putative target genes in common genomic amplifications. When necessary expression profiling was complemented with Q-PCR of individual genes.
Three genomic segments were frequently and exclusively amplified in high grade tumors; 1q23, 6p22 and 8q22, respectively. Detailed mapping of the 1q23 segment showed a heterogeneous amplification pattern and no obvious commonly amplified region. The 6p22 amplicon was defined by a 1.8 Mb core region present in all amplifications, flanked both distally and proximally by segments amplified to a lesser extent. By combining genomic profiles with expression profiles we could show that amplification of E2F3, CDKAL1, SOX4, and MBOAT1 as well as NUP153, AOF1, FAM8A1 and DEK in 6p22 was associated with increased gene expression. Amplification of the 8q22 segment was primarily associated with YWHAZ (14-3-3-zeta) and POLR2K over expression. The possible importance of the YWHA genes in the development of urothelial carcinomas was supported by another recurrent amplicon paralogous to 8q22, in 2p25, where increased copy numbers lead to enhanced expression of YWHAQ (14-3-3-theta). Homozygous deletions were identified at 10 different genomic locations, most frequently affecting CDKN2A/CDKN2B in 9p21 (32%). Notably, the latter occurred mutually exclusive with 6p22 amplifications.
The presented data indicates 6p22 as a composite amplicon with more than one possible target gene. The data also suggests that amplification of 6p22 and homozygous deletions of 9p21 may have complementary roles. Furthermore, the analysis of paralogous regions that showed genomic amplification indicated altered expression of YWHA (14-3-3) genes as important events in the development of UC.
BMC Medical Genomics 02/2008; 1:3. · 3.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate altered protein expression with tissue microarray methodology for 15 different markers with potential prognostic significance in invasive bladder cancer.
Invasive tumor was sampled with the tissue-arraying instrument in 133 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy, and at least 3, 0.6-mm tissue cores were obtained. With immunohistochemistry, the expressions of TP53, RB1, CDKN1A (p21), MKI67 (Ki67), PTGS2 (Cox-2), CTNNA1 (alpha-catenin), CTNNB1 (beta-catenin), AKT, PTEN, RHOA, RHOC, STAT1, VEGFC, EGFR, and ERBB2 (HER2) were quantified, and correlations were made with tumor grade, pathologic stage, lymph node status, and disease-specific survival.
Decreased immunohistochemical expression of CTNNA1 and of PTEN correlated with higher pathologic tumor stages (P = 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively), whereas increased AKT1 and ERBB2 correlated with lower pathologic tumor stages (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). Increased RHOA expression was more common in grade 3 than in grade 2 tumors (P = 0.016). There were no other correlations among the 15 factors studied and pathologic stage, lymph node status, or tumor grade. No association was found between bladder cancer death and altered marker status for any of the markers studied.
Currently, there are reasons to have a skeptical attitude toward the value of tissue microarray based immunohistochemistry as a method for evaluating prognostic markers in invasive bladder cancer. In this study, 15 antibodies were tested but were found to be of little clinical value. Whether this negative finding is related to the group of patients or factors studied, or the methodology is unclear.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed the literature on urothelial carcinoma in the prostatic urethra and prostate. We concluded that the incidence of urothelial carcinoma in the prostatic urethra and prostate is probably underestimated. This fact warrants thorough follow-up of patients with high-risk bladder cancers and also whole-mount examination of the prostate after cystectomy to recognize the true incidence and extent of such tumor involvement. Resectoscope loop biopsy is the method of choice to detect urothelial carcinoma in the prostatic urethra/prostate and such biopsies should include the area around the verumontanum to ensure optimal sensitivity. Carcinoma in situ in the prostatic urethra should be treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and a transurethral resection of the prostate prior to that treatment might increase the contact of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin with the prostatic urethra, improve staging and in itself treat the prostatic involvement. Conservative treatment of carcinoma in situ in the prostatic ducts is an option, although radical surgery is probably best for treating extensive intraductal involvement, since data on the former strategy are inconclusive. Patients with stromal invasion should undergo radical surgery. It is necessary to take the route of prostatic involvement into account when estimating prognosis in each individual patient, since contiguous growth into the prostate is associated with worse prognosis. Prospective studies using a whole-mount technique to investigate the prostate are needed to clarify both the role of different routes of prostate invasion and the prognostic significance of different degrees of prostate invasion. At cystectomy, when urothelial carcinoma is present in the prostatic urethra and/or prostate, it is necessary to balance the risk of urethral recurrence and decreased sexual function against opinion and expectations expressed by the patient during preoperative counseling regarding urinary diversion and primary urethrectomy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosomal instability (CIN) is believed to have an important role in the pathogenesis of urothelial cancer (UC). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether disturbances of mitotic segregation contribute to CIN in UC, if these processes have any effect on the course of disease, and how deregulation of these mechanisms affects tumor cell growth.
We developed molecular cytogenetic methods to classify mitotic segregation abnormalities in a panel of UC cell lines. Mitotic instabilities were then scored in biopsies from 52 UC patients and compared with the outcome of tumor disease. Finally, UC cells were exposed in vitro to a telomerase inhibitor to assess how this affects mitotic stability and cell proliferation.
Three distinct chromosome segregation abnormalities were identified: (a) telomere dysfunction, which triggers structural rearrangements and loss of chromosomes through anaphase bridging; (b) sister chromatid nondisjunction, which generates discrete chromosomal copy number variations; and (c) supernumerary centrosomes, which cause dramatic shifts in chromosome copy number through multipolar cell division. Chromosome segregation errors were already present in preinvasive tumors and a high rate mitotic instability was an independent predictor of poor survival. However, induction of even higher levels of the same segregation abnormalities in UC cells by telomerase inhibition in vitro led to reduced tumor cell proliferation and clonogenic survival.
Several distinct chromosome segregation errors contribute to CIN in UC, and the rate of such mitotic errors has a significant effect on the clinical course. Efficient tumor cell proliferation may depend on the tight endogenous control of these processes.
Clinical Cancer Research 04/2007; 13(6):1703-12. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prospective use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for histopathological diagnosis of sentinel lymph node(s) (SLN) in primary breast cancer using stage migration and non-SLN metastases as endpoints in relation to metastatic involvement.
Serial sectioning and prospective use of IHC were applied to SLN examination in addition to routine haematoxylin-eosin staining in 174 consecutive patients with unifocal T1-T2 breast cancer included in a National Sentinel Node Study. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed in all cases with macrometastases, micrometastases and isolated tumour cells (ITC).
The SLN was found in 173/174 patients and a metastatic foci was found in 50 patients including 28/50 with macrometastases, 16/50 with micrometastases and 6/50 with ITC. IHC detected 3/16 of the micrometastases and 4/6 of ITC. Stage migration from N0 to N1mi was encountered in 3/132 patients by use of IHC. Non-SLN metastases were noted in 15/28 of patients with macrometastases and in 3/16 of patients with micrometastases, whereas no patient with ITC had additional metastases (p=0.007).
The prospective use of IHC and serial sectioning for histopathological diagnosis of SLNs increased the detection rate of N1mi and ITC, but only 3/132 patients were stage-migrated by use of IHC. Patients with ITC did not have any risk of non-SLN metastases, supporting that ALND can safely be omitted in this group of patients.
European Journal of Surgical Oncology 03/2007; 33(1):33-8. · 2.61 Impact Factor